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3  1833  01067  2639 


Sacramento   County . 



The  Leading  Men  and  Women  of  the  County  Who  Have  Been  Identified 

With  Its  Growth  and  Development  From  the  Early 

Days  to  the  Present 




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What  is  termed  "history"  is  made  up  of  several  factors,  which 
sometimes  move  concurrently  and  sometimes  are  divergent.  There 
are  many  matters  of  record,  which  of  course  are  not  disputable,  but 
in  the  recital  of  which  the  narrative  is  tinctured  by  the  opinions  or 
prejudices  of  the  narrator  or  the  historian  or  of  the  source  of  his 
information.  Tradition  and  personal  recollection  play  another  large 
part  in  history,  and  things  that  are  accepted  for  decades  and  even  for 
centuries  as  facts  become  in  the  course  of  time  a  matter  of  dispute  and 
even  of  rejection.  The  path  of  the  historian  therefore  is  not  one  of 
roses.  If  he  be  wise  he  will  as  far  as  possible  submit  each  statement 
to  the  test  of  scrutiny  and  comparison  and  hold  fast  to  that  which  he 
considers  as  proven,  or  if  he  does  not  reject  it,  state  that  the  matter  is 
not  fully  authenticated. 

Had  the  writer  been  far-seeing,  when  he  came  to  California  in 
187-1-,  he  would  have  jotted  down  the  i:)ersonal  recollections  and  experi- 
ences of  a  large  number  of  the  pioneers  with  whom  he  became  ac- 
quainted and  who  were  then  in  the  prime  of  a  vigorous  life  and  with 
a  vivid  recollection  of  what  they  had  passed  through  and  of  the  condi- 
tions they  found  prevailing  here  when  they  arrived.  Some  of  these 
men  came  as  early  as  1846  before  the  discovery  of  gold,  and  he  has 
listened  for  hours  to  their  tales  of  adventure  and  experience,  but  did 
not  at  that  time  realize  that  the  lips  that  recited  them  would  one  day 
l)e  stilled  in  death  and  many  important  matters  connected  with  the 
early  history  of  the  state  would  be  buried  in  oblivion.  A  book  em- 
bodying these  recollections  would  have  been  a  most  fascinating  work, 
for  a  glamour  always  hangs  over  the  history  of  the  days  of  the  Argo- 
nauts that  seems  to  grow  in  interest  as  time  progresses.  Many  of 
these  reminiscences  were  probably  tinged  with  romance,  but  that 
hardly  lessened  their  interest. 

In  the  compilation  of  this  volume  the  writer  has  endeavored  to 
present  facts  collated  by  him,  without  bias  or  prejudice,  and  as  nearly 
authenticated  as  possible.  Perhaps  some  statements  may  provoke 
criticism  from  those  who  hold  a  different  point  of  view,  or  who  have 
received  information  conflicting  with  them;  and  it  would  be  too  much 
to  expect  that  the  book  would  be  entirely  free  from  faults  or  defects, 
but  he  can  truly  say  that  he  has  done  his  best  with  the  resources  at 
his  command  and  sifted  the  evidence  to  the  best  of  his  ability,  and  can 
only  ask  the  indulgence  of  the  public  with  regard  to  his  shortcomings. 

In  the  compilatiou  of  this  work,  the  author  has  consulted  a  number 
of  authorities,  and  had  the  valuable  assistance  of  a  number  of  persons 
in  collecting  data.  The  works  of  Dr.  Morse,  Thompson  and  West,  and 
Winfield  J.  Davis  have  been  drawn  upon  freely,  as  have  those  of 
other  authorities.  To  Hon.  W.  A.  Anderson  he  is  indebted  for  the 
valuable  chapter  on  "The  Bench  and  Bar,"  and  other  reminiscences, 
and  to  E.  B.  Willis,  N.  E.  White,  J.  A.  Woodson  and  others  for 
suggestions  and  information.  In  a  work  of  this  kind  it  is  impossible 
to  incorporate  all  incidents,  however  interesting  to  the  parties  con- 
cerned, and  where  it  has  not  been  practicable  to  secure  accurate  data, 
some  things  have  been  omitted,  rather  than  run  the  risk  of  incor- 
rect statement.  He  therefore  trusts  that  the  public  will  accept  the 
work  in  the  spirit  in  which  it  was  written. 

W.  L.  Willis. 


Introditctory  5 

Sacramento  the  Peer  of  any  County  in  California — Her  Part  in  History  of 
State  Important— A  Second  Valley  of  the  Nile— Splendid  Soil  Sprinkled 
with  Gold  Dust — Great  Crops  Shipped  Abroad — Here  Began  Real  History 
of  California — Hither  Came  Argonauts  of  1S49 — Deer  and  Antelope  Then  to 
be  Seen— Wild  Oats  Taller  Than  Man's  Head— Sparsely  Settled  Plains- 
Remarkable  Transformation  Made  by  Citizens. 


Sacramento  County 10 

Location — Tonnage  on  River — Fertility  of  Soil — Growing  of  Fruit — Soil  and 
Streams — Necessity  of  Levees — Water  Available  for  Factories — Raising 
of  Wheat  Superseded  by  Horticulture — Asparagus  and  Celery  Profitable 
on  Tule  Lands — Old  Spanish  Grants — Present  Property  Valuations — The 
Capital  City  a  Place  of  Beauty — Many  Attractions  for  Visitors — Steam  and 
Electric  Railroads  Increasing  in  Number. 


Mining  1(5 

Discovery  of  Gold — Early  Process  of  Mining  with  Shovel  and  Pick — Latest 
Methods  of  Dredging — ^Shall  Dredger  Mining  be  Regulated  by  State — 
Hydraulic  Process  Opposed  by  Orchardists — Finally  Prohibited  by  Legis- 


Climate ]7 

Snow  Never  Seen  Except  upon  Distant  Sierras — Temperature  Compared  with 
Southern  Italy  and  Los  Angeles — Cherries  Usually  Blossom  in  February 
and  Ripen  in  April — Average  Rainfall — Sunstroke  Unknown — Summer 
Evenings  Delightful — Oranges  Shipped  Earlier  than  in  Southern  California- 
Sacramento  Rainfall  Monthly,  Seasonal  and  Annual  from  1S49  to  1912 — 
Sacramento  Temperature  Average  Since  1S7S — Relative  Humidity — Per- 
centage of  Sunstroke — Extreme  Temperatures — Extremes  of  Wind. 


Gen.  John  A.  Sutter 30 

Early  Life — Travels  in  West — Agreement  with  Governor  Alvarado — Settle- 
ment on  the  American  River  in  1839 — Proximity  to  Digger  Indians — Declared 
a  Mexican  Citizen  in  1841 — Given  a  Grant  to  New  Helvetia — American  Flag 
Hoisted  in  1846 — ^Kindness  to  the  Immigrants — Heavy  Losses  by  Desertion 
of  Laborers  and  by  Thefts — Tardy  Recognition  of  His   Services  by   State. 


The  Fort  Restored _ 34 

First  Effort  at  Restoration — Public-Spirited  Work  of  General  Martlne — Enter- 
prise Promoted  by  Native  Sons — Pioneers  Also  Active  in  Work — Present 
Condition  of  Fort. 


The  Discovery  of  Gold _ 37 

Early  Explorers  Referred  to  Presence  of  Gold — Cause  of  Immigration  of 
Mormons  to  West — Settlement  on  Mormon  Island — Gold  Mined  There — 
Other  Reports  from  Explorers — Marshall's  Discovery  Accidental — His  Later 
Life — The  Results  of  the  Discovery — First  White  Child  Born  in  California. 


City  and  County  Elections , -11 

First  Election — Officers  Chosen — Hardin  Biglow  the  First  Mayor — First 
Meeting  of  Council — Success  of  Biglow  in  Preventing  Disastrous  Flood  in 
1850 — Growth  of  Business — Report  of  Assessor — Decline  of  Valuations — 
Sacramento    Incorporated    February    27,    18S0 — Boundaries    Defined— New 


Charter  Granted  1851 — Date  of  Elections — Amount  of  Salaries — Tax  for 
Support  of  Free  Schools — Consolidation  of  City  and  County  Government — 
Repeal  of  First  Act — Adoption  of  New  Charter — Horace  Smith  Second  Mayor 
— Later  Elections. 


The  Squatter  Eiot 49 

Cause  of  the  Trouble — History  of  the  Affair — Leading  Participants  in  the 


First  Things 55 

First  Mail  Received  in  Sacramento — First  Directory — First  Prison  Brig — 
First  Store  at  Sutter's  Fort — First  Census — First  Paper — First  Banquet — 
First  Ball— First  Railroad — First  Agricultural  Association — First  Frame  and 
First  Brick  Houses  in  Sacramento — First  Fire  Department — First  Street 
Cars — First   Court  House — First   Criminal   Trial. 


The  Revolution 61 

Conditions  Culminating  in  the  Revolution — The  Bear  Flag  Party — Ide's 
Proclamation — Making  of  the  First  Bear  Flag — American  Flag  Hoisted  at 

Ix  THE  Beginning     65 

Founding  of  Suttervllle — Eclipsed  by  Sacramento — Description  of   City   by 

Bayard  Taylor — Freighting  to  the  Mines — High  Cost  of  Living — Commis- 
sioners Elected — Gaming  Prevalent — Influence  of  Clergymen  Beneficial — 
Organization  of  City  Government — Burdens  of  Early  Councils — Sufferings  of 
Penniless  Newcomers — Odd  Fellows  and  Masons  Prompt  to  Relieve  Desti- 
tution— January  Flood  of  18.50 — Admission  of  California  to  the  Union — Epi- 
demic of  Cholera — Disasters  Overcome  by  People. 


Political  81 

Democratic  Convention  of  1854 — Dissention  and  Dispute — Mass  Meeting 
of  Republicans — State  Convention  of  New  Party — The  Spittoon  Convention — 
Governor  Foote  of  Mississippi  Prominent  in  Public  Life. 


County  Government  — : 87 

Organization  of  County  in  1850 — Its  Boundaries — Elections — Officers. 


City  Officers -  97 

List  of  City  Officials  from  1849 — Mayor  Wounded  in  Squatter  Riot — City  and 
County  Consolidated  from  1858  to  1862 — City  Governed  by  Board  of  Trus- 
tees (3)  from  1863  to  1894 — New  Charter  Adopted  in  1894 — Trustees  In- 
creased to  Nine. 


Floods 105 

Reclamation  of  River  Lands  Costly — Efforts  of  Aborigines  to  Provide  Safety 
from  Floods — Overflow  of  1850 — Levee  Hurriedly  Built  by  Biglow — Flood 
of  1852— Optimism  of  People — Flood  of  1853  Less  Destructive — Heavy  Mis- 
fortunes Attending  Flood  of  1861 — Another  Flood  Early  in  1862 — J  and  K 
Streets  Raised  for  Protection  Against  Floods — Last  Flood  of  Any  Conse- 
quence in  1904. 


Sacramento  County  Senators - - - 117 

Changes  in  Districts — John  Bidwell  Elected  Senator  in  1849— Republican 
Nominee  for  Governor  in  187.5 — Prohibition  Nominee  for  Governor  in  1890 
and  for  President  in  1892 — Elisha  O.  Crosby  a  Senator  in  1849 — Henry  E. 
Robinson  a  Prominent  Pioneer  Legislator — Bequeathed  Large  Sum  to  the 
Poor  of  San  Francisco — Ferguson  Senator  in  1856-58 — Other  Pioneer  Legis- 


lators — Curtis  Senator  Three  Terms  and  Assemblyman  One  Term — Creed 
Haymond  Senator  18T5-7S— Pioneer  Orchardist,  Joseph  Routier,  a  Senator  in 
1883-85— The  Popular  Judge,  Elijah  C.  Hart,  Elected  Senator  in  1893— Gillis 
Doty  Elected  in  1897— The  Pioneer  Physician,  J.  C.  McKee,  Elected  in  1905— 
Charles  B.  Bills  Chosen  in  1909. 


Sacramento  County  Assemblymen _ 122 

Cornwall  Elected  to  Assembly  in  1849 — A  Pioneer  of  1848  in  Sacramento- 
Assemblyman  Henley  a  Pioneer  Banker — McKinstry  Later  Justice  of  the 
Supreme  Court — Assemblyman  Bigler  Later  Elected  Governor  of  California — 
Charles  Robinson  Later  Governor  of  Kansas — Assemblyman  J.  Neely 
Johnson  Governor  of  California  in  1855 — Other  Influential  Men  in  Assem- 
bly— Contested  Election  of  Charles  Buncombe — Charles  Crocker  an  Assem- 
blyman in  1861 — Stephens  a  Member  in  1869 — Clunie,  Member  in  1875,  After- 
ward Congressman — Judge  Anderson  Assemblyman  in  1893 — Recent  Repre- 
sentation in  Assembly. 

California  State  Library 

First  Steps  Toward  Library — Gradual  Development — Seven  Departments — • 
Books  for  the  Sightless  Sent  Throughout  the  State — County  Libraries  of 
Great  Helpfulness. 


City  Free  Library 133 

Association  Organized  in  1857 — Building  Erected  in  1872— Turned  Over  to 
City — Leading  Papers  on  Pile — Books  Increasing  in  Number — Library  Sup- 
ported by  Public  Tax — Residents  of  Entire  County  Given  Library  Privileges — 
Librarian  Has  Management  of  Institution. 


Government  Offices  135 

Sacramento  Postoffice — Facilities  Always  Less  Than  Needs — City  Deliv- 
ery Service — Rural  Service — United  States  Land  Otflce — Internal  Revenue 
Office— United  States  Weather  Bureau  Station. 


Charitable  Institutions 137 

Need  of  Relief  for  Early  Emigrants — First  Organized  Relief  Instituted  by 
Odd  Fellows — Hospital  Built  in  1850  by  Masons  and  Odd  Fellows— Other 
Pioneer  Hospitals — First  Public  Hospital — County  Physicians — Southern  Pa- 
cific Hospital — Protestant  Orphan  Asylum — The  Marguerite  Home — Other 
Hospitals — Mater  Misericordiae  Hospital — Wentworth-Igo  Hospital — White 
Hospital — Home  of  the  Merciful  Saviour — Howard  Benevolent  Association — 
Catholic  Ladles'  Relief  Society  No.  1 — The  Young  Men's  Christian  Associa- 
tion— Cemeteries. 


The  Press 147 

Monterey  Californian  First  Newspaper  of  California — California  Star  Second 
Newspaper — Two  Papers  United  in  1848 — Pacific  News  the  Third  Newspaper 
— Alta  California  Started  in  1849 — Sacramento  Transcript  Started  in  1850 — 
First  Daily  Outside  of  San  Francisco — Consolidated  with  Placer  Times — 
Removed  to  San  Francisco — Absorbed  into  the  Alta  California — Settlers  and 
Miners  Tribune — Sacramento  Index — Sacramento  Daily  Union — Launched  in 
1851 — Weekly  Started  in  1852 — Consolidation  of  Union  and  Record — Sunday 
Edition  Added — Many  Expensive  Improvements  in  Union  Plant — Democratic 
State  Journal — Brief  Life  of  a  Baptist  Paper — California  Statesman — Other 
Early  Sheets — State  Tribune  Appeared  in  1855-56 — Daily  Morning  Bee  Born 
February  3,  1857 — Wide  Influence  of  Paper — Many  Sheets  of  Brief  Life— Sun- 
day Leader  First  Appeared  in  1875 — Occidental  Medical  Times  Started  as 
Sacramento  Medical  Times  in  1887 — Nord  California  Herold  (German)  an 
Influential  Paper  in  its  Field— Folsom  Telegraph  an  Old  and  Prominent 
Journal — Gait  Gazette  in  Southern  End  of  County — The  Sunday  News  Begun 
in  1893 — Now  Widely  Read  and  Influential — Tlae  Sacramento  Star  of  Modern 
Inception  and  Growing  Prosperity. 


Educational  Matters  lfc>5 

Schools  Have  Shown  Steady  Growth — School  in  Sacramento  in  Summer 
of  1849— C.  T.  H.  Palmer  Taught  In  August — Rev.  J.  A.  Benton  His  Suc- 
cessor in  October — First  Public  School  Opened  February  20,  1854 — Attend- 
ance Increased  Rapidlj — City  Schools  First  Controlled  by  Assessor — 
Accommodations  Insufflcient — Colored  Schools  Apportioned  F'unds  in  1856 — 
Enrollment  of  One  Thousand  in  All  Schools  in  18611 — Twelve  Hundred  Pupils 
in  1864 — Fourteen  Schools  and  Fifteen  Hundred  Pupils  in  1866 — School  Li- 
brary Started  in  1867 — Twenty-two  Hundred  Pupils  and  Seventeen  Schools 
by  End  of  1869— Thirty-four  Hundred  Pupils  Enrolled  in  1880- Later 
Boards — The  High  School — The  Colored  Pupils — Other  Items — Sacramento 
Business  College. 


Railroads    182 

First  Railroad  in  State — Previous  Attempts — Judah  the  First  to  Demon- 
strate Feasibility  of  Sierra  Nevada  Route — Convention  Held  in  1859 — Judah 
Sent  to  Washington  to  Promote  Railroad  Enterprise — More  Thorough  Sur- 
veys with  Barometer — Judah  Discouraged  by  San  Francisco  Capitalists — 
Stock  Largely  Subscribed  by  Sacramento  Citizens — Topographical  Features 
of  the  Sierras — Government  Assistance  to  Railroad — Donation  by  California 
— Ability  of  Originators  of  Movement — First  Train  Schedule — Celebration  at 
Shoveling  of  First  Dirt — Equipment  for  Road — Difficulties  Many — Courage 
of  Promoters  Undaunted — Last  Spike  Driven — Western  Pacific  Railroad  Com- 
pany— Other  Important  Roads — Enthusiasm  on  Entrance  of  California  Pacific 
in  Sacramento — The  Sacramento  Valley  Railroad — Various  Railroad  Enter- 
prises—Southern Pacific  Shops— First  Shop  Erected  in  1863— Magnitude  of 
Present  Plant — Electric  Roads. 


Navigation 201 

Sacramento  River  First  Medium  of  Transportation — Immense  Amount  of 
Traffic  on  the  River — Red  Bluff  the  Head  of  Navigation — Russians  the  First 
to  Navigate  the  River — Crowning  Success  with  Sailing  Vessels  in  Trip  of 
the  Whiton — Little  Sitka  the  First  Steamboat  on  the  River — Voyage  of  the 
Steamer  New  World — Twenty-eight  Steamers  on  River  in  1850 — California 
Steam  Navigation  Company  Organized  in  1854 — Bought  in  1869  by  Central 
Pacific — Sacramento  Wood  Company — Sacramento  Transportation  Com- 
pany— California  Transportation  Company — Farmers  Transportation  Com- 
pany— Explosions  Frequent  in  Early  Days — ^Yolo  Bridges. 


Local  Judiclvry  and  Attorneys  _, _ 211 

Common  Law  Established  in  Sacramento — Alcaldes  and  Justices  of  the  Peace 
— Superior  Tribunal  and  Courts  of  First  Instance — Court  of  Sessions  Created 
in  1850 — Early  Courts  Superseded  by  Superior  Court — Jurists  Identified 
with  County — Deceased  Attorneys  of  County — Attorneys  Now  Practicing 
in  Sacramento. 


Members  of  the  Har 219 

Early  Lawyers  Eminent  in  Public  Affairs — B.  B.  Crocker  Supreme  Court 
Justice  and  Pounder  of  Crocker  Art  Gallery — Governor  Johnson — Chief  Jus- 
tice W.  H.  Beatty — United  States  Senator  Cornelius  Cole — Col.  E.  D.  Baker 
Killed  in  Civil  War— H.  W.  Halleck  Commander-in-Chief  of  Union  Army- 
Col.  E.  J.  C.  Kewen  Financial  Agent  for  the  Noted  William  Walker — J.  C. 
Zabriskie  the  First  City  Attorney — Frank  D.  Ryan,  A  Native  Son,  One  of 
Sacramento's  Finest  Lawyers — The  Name  of  George  Cadwalader  Prominent 
in  Supreme  Court  Reports— Successful  Career  of  A.  C.  Freeman — Peter  H. 
Burnett  the  First  Governor  of  California — The  Genius  of  Albert  M.  John- 
son— Judge  Catlin  Influential  in  Securing  State  Capitol  for  Sacramento — 
Henry  Edgerton,  Orator,  Statesman,  Lawyer — Remembered  Now  by  Pew — 
Never  Attained  the  Goal  of  His  Ambition — A  Pioneer  of  1853 — Prosecuting 
Attorney  of  Napa  County — Orator  at  Reception  of  General  Grant — Presi- 
dential Elector — State  Senator — N.  Greene  Curtis  a  Pioneer  of  1850  from 
Tennessee — True  to  Union  in  Civil  War,  Senator  Several  Terms — Counsel 
in  Many  Important  Cases — James  W.  Coffroth,  Senator  from  Old  Tuolumne — 


Fond  of  Humor— Helpful  to  Young  Lawyers— John  H.  McKune  a  Factor  in 
Constructing  Law  and  Ethics  of  California — A  Pioneer  of  Sacramento — 
Land  Commissioner,  State  Assemblyman,  District  Judge  and  Code  Commis- 
sioner— Newton  Booth,  Governor  of  State — Entertained  Many  Famous 
Guests — William  A.  Anderson — Success  Reached  by  Sterling  Qualities  of 
Mind  and  Heart — Resident  of  Sacramento  from  1S49 — City  Attorney,  As- 
semblyman and  Police  Judge. 


Fraternal  Societies 246 

Masons  Among  Early  Trappers  in  West — Peter  Lassen  the  First  Masonic 
Missionary — Connecticut  No.  T.")  the  First  Lodge  in  Sacramento — Grand  Lodge 
of  California  Organized  in  1S50 — Present  Lodges  of  City — Chapter,  Council, 
Commandery  and  Scottish  Rite — Eastern  Star — Colored  Lodges — Lodges  of 
Odd  Fellows — Encampment,  Grand  Canton  and  Sovereign  Grand  Lodge — 
Rebekahs— Knights  of  Pythias— I.  O.  R.  M.— A.  O.  U.  W.— U.  A.  O.  D.— N.  S. 
G.  W. — K.  of  H. — 'Y.  M.  I. — Hebrew  Benevolent  Association — Sons  of  Veter- 
ans— Other  Organizations. 


Criminal  Records  264 

The  Fate  of  Roe — First  Lynching  In  Sacramento — Robbery  and  Grand  Lar- 
ceny Punishable  with  Death  in  Early  Days— Chinaman  Hanged  for  Murder 
of  His  Wife — Other  Executions — Unknown  Fate  of  William  Wells — Quick 
Justice  for  Murder  of  Sailor — Killing  of  OfBcer  Scott — Mysterious  Murder 
of  a  Rancher  on  Grand  Island — Grocer  and  Wife  Murdered — Escape  of 
Convicts — A  Later  Attempt  Foiled — A  Sicilian  Murder. 


The  Great  Railroad  Strike, - 279 

Disastrous  Results  of  Strike  of  1894 — Begun  in  Pullman  Near  Chicago- 
Extended  to  Coast — Baggage  and  Freight  and  Mail  Delayed — Troops  Ordered 
Out — Incidents  of  the  4th  of  July — Troops  Camped  in  Capitol  Park  on  .5th 
of  July — More  Soldiers  on  the  11th — Train  Wrecked  and  Several  Killed — 
Revulsion  of  Feeling — Trial  of  Wreckers. 


The  Churches  -.-- - 291 

Grace  Episcopal  the  First  Church  in  Sacramento — Organization  and  His- 
tory— Foreclosure  of  Mortgage  in  1877 — Organization  of  St.  Paul's— Present 
Stone  Edifice — Other  Episcopal  Churches — Roman  Catholic  Organizations — 
Majestic  Cathedral  the  Most  Spacious  Church  in  California — First  Congre- 
gational Church — Presbyterian  Churches— Methodist  Episcopal  Activities 
Started  by  "Father"  Owen — German  Evangelical  Lutheran  Organized  in  1867 
—Handsome  Edifice  of  Scientists— Other  Denominations  and  Their  Useful 
Services  to  the  Community. 


Reminiscences - 308 

Railroad  Building  in  Early  Days — Experiences  of  James  G.  Patterson — 
Experiences  of  McConnell  as  Storekeeper — The  Great  Ball  of  1849 — Refresh- 
ments Unique — Interesting  Incidents  at  the  Ball. 


Township  History 317 

Township  Alabama — American— Brighton — Center — Cosumnes — Dry  Creek 
— Franklin — Georgiana — Lee — Mississippi — Natoma — San  Joaquin — Sutter — 
Riverside — Granite — Origin  of  Local  Names — Levees — Funded  Debt. 


Capital  and  Capitol..-. 358 

Constitutional  Convention  of  1849 — Election  of  Senators,  Assemblymen  and 
Two  Congressmen  in  1849 — First  Legislature  at  San  Jose — Gwln  and  Fremont 
First  United  States  Senators — Proclamation  of  General  Riley — Seat  of  State 
Government  at  San  Jose  and  Then  at  Vallejo — Removed  to  Sacramento  Jan- 
uary 12,  18.52 — Legal  Technicalities  Involved  in  Removal  of  Capital — All  Ses- 
sions in  Sacramento  Since  1854  Excepting  That  of  1862— Later  Attempts  to 


Remove  Capital — Building  of  Capitol — Total  of  Ten  Blocks  in  Capitol  Park — 
Most  Attractive  Grounds  of  Any  Capitol  Park — Group  of  Statuary — Trees  and 
Shrubbery  of  Every  Kind — Grand  Army  Plat  with  Trees  from  Battlefields  of 
Civil  War — Sacramento's  Contribution  to  the  List  of  Governors. 


The  Military  364 

State  Militia  Organized  in  1850 — Four  Divisions  and  Eight  Brigades — 
Changed  in  1852  to  Seven  Districts — Six  Divisions  and  Twelve  Brigades 
Created  in  1855 — One  Division  and  Six  Brigades  in  1862 — Successive  Briga- 
dier-Generals— Fourth  Regiment — Sutter  Rifle  Corps — Sacramento  Guards — 
Young  Men's  Pioneer  Guard — Sacramento  Cadets — Independent  City  Guard — 
Sacramento  Hussars — Otner  Companies — Grand  Army  of  the  Republic — Span- 
ish War  Veterans. 


Fire  Department 373 

Organized  in  1850— Fires  of  That  Year— Great  Fire  of  1853-— Catastrophe  of 
1854 — Loss  of  Western  Hotel  in  1875 — Other  Fires — First  Fire  Company  in 
State — Mutual  Hook  and  Ladder  Company  No.  1 — Other  Volunteer  Organiza- 
tions— Paid  Fire  Department — Established  1872 — Three  Companies — Chief 
Engineers — Services  of  Guthrie — Stations  4  and  5 — Most  Modern  Equip- 
ment— Exempt  Firemen. 

Early  Business  Enterprises. ..._ 

Business  and  Professional  Men — Every  Line  of  Industry  Represented 
— Groceries  and  Provisions — Breweries — Beet  Sugar  Factory — Broom  Fac- 
tories— Wagon  and  Carriage  Shops — Foundries — Flouring  Mills — Wheat  No 
Longer  the  Principal  Crop — Land  Now  Too  Valuable  for  Grain — Export  Flour 
Trade  an  Industry  of  the  Past. 


Banks  and  Bankers 38S 

Banks  of  Sacramento  Second  to  None  in  Stability — National  Bank  of  D.  O. 
Mills  &  Co.— Early  History  of  the  Bank— Capital  Savings  Bank— Odd  Fellows 
Savings  Bank — California  National  Bank — People's  Savings  Bank — Farmers 
and  Mechanics  Savings  Bank — Sacramento  Savings  Bank  One  of  Oldest  in 
City — Capital  Banking  and  Trust  Co. — Sacramento  Valley  Bank  and  Trust 
Co. — Fort  Sutter  National  Bank — Banks  and  Bankers  1851-1871 — Sacra- 
mento Clearing  House. 


Public  Utilities 398 

First  Franchise  for  Gas  Works — City  First  Lighted  With  Gas  December  17, 
1855 — Various  Changes  in  Companies — Advance  in  Methods  of  Manufactur- 
ing Gas — The  Telephone — First  Appearance  of  Sunset  Telephone  Company — 
First  Express  System  of  Telephone — Early  Rate  $6  per  Month — Capital  Tele- 
phone and  Telegraph  Company — Water  Works — First  Bonds  Issued  in  1853 — 
Original  Plant  Soon  Too  Small  for  Needs  of  City — New  Works  Started  in 
1872  and  Completed  in  1873. 


The  Crocker  Art  Gallery .- 404 

Gathered  in  Europe  at  Great  Expense — Deeded  to  City  in  1885 — Building 
Adequate  to  House  Magnificent  Collection — California  Artists  Represented — 
Portraits  of  Prominent  Californians — California  Museum  Association — First 
Exhibition  a  Social  and  Financial  Success — Appreciation  of  Mrs.  Crocker's 
Gift — Festival  in  Her  Honor — Ladies  Museum  Association. 


Associations  and  Clubs .• 40S) 

Sacramento  Pioneers — Chamber  of  Commerce— Sacramento  Valley  Develop- 
ment Association— The  Saturday  Club— The  Tuesday  Club— The  Sutter  Club 
— Dramatic  and  Musical — State  Agricultural  Society — Sacramento  Athletic 
Club— Sacramento  Boat  Club — Other  Clubs. 



Adams,  Harry  W 961 

Ahern,    David 546 

Ahern,  William   M 809 

Albright,  Sidney  S 690 

Amaya,   Daniel   D 760 

Anderson,    Alden 789 

Anderson,   Andrew 878 

Anderson,  Charles   W 819 

Anderson,    Lars    P 1023 

Anderson,    Ludwig 1026 

Andrew,   William   J 654 

Angrave,  Joseph  W 991 

Aram,   Eugene 883 

Armstrong,    Robert 676 

Arnold,   Alphonse    962 

Atkinson,   Edmund    C 833 

Atkinson,   F.    L 746 

Azevedo,    Joseph   F. 857 


Baker,  Harry  W 992 

Barfoot,    Spencer  993 

Bassett,  W    Walter  997 

Beckman,   William  1020 

Beckwith,   Chailes   M  782 

Bedwell,  John  F  667 

Beede;  Jeremiah  K  653 

Bellmer,   Edgar   H  1055 

Bennett,    Hariison  963 

Bethel,   Fiank   J                               .  609 

Bettens,   R    M  1022 

Bickle,   Thomas   V  858 

Bills.   Charles   B  994 

Bishop,   Fled   J  776 

Bock,    George  1019 

Boggess,  Jiles  S  661 

Bohl,    Peter  964 

Bonte,   H.   S  1042 

Borchard,    Alfred  680 

Boss,    Ira   C  808 

Bostwick,  George  W 829 

Bowsher,  Amos    L  774 

Bradford,  William  B  574 

Bramhall,  Robert  N  ,  M    D  860 

Brauer,   Herman  .  723 

Breuner,    Louis    F  692 

Brickell,   Jerome   P  620 

Brickell,  Thomas  E  638 

Brown,  Alfred   J  967 

Brown,  Edward    S  861 

Brown,  Egbert   A 864 

Brown,  John    Q 863 

Brunschwiler,  Joseph  I  866 

Bullock,  George    S..  867 

Burns,  George    A....  975 

Butler,  Guy    W 870 


Calligori,  Vincent 841 

Cameron,  Archibald  M 980 

Campbell,  Alden  W 825 

Caples,   George   W  1024 

Carlaw,    Andrew  871 

Carmichael,   Daniel   W  445 

Carraghar,  Will  J  872 

Carroll,    Daniel    H  793 

Carroll,  Jeremiah                    773 

Gate,  Daniel    R  873 

Cavitt,  George  W  932 

Chambers,  Vactor  T  981 

Chaplin,    William  874 

Chinn,  Fredeiick  C  766 

Christian,  James  T  ,  M.  D  979 

Cippa,  Fred  T  670 

Clark,  George  H  788 

Clayton,  Marion  P  803 

Clayton,  Mrs.  Sarah  E 803 

Clifton,   Archie   W 875 

Coffin,    Edward    M  1018 

Cohen,   Isidoi  571 

Cohn,  Philip    C  475 

Coolot,  Augustin   E  1053 

Cooper,  John  F  558 

Cope,   O.   Harold  813 

Cornell,   Joseph   D  504 

Cox,    Frederick  976 

Coyle,  Thomas    J  842 

Crocker,  Charles  H  877 

Croke,  Frank    C  683 

Crowell,  Montfort   K  811 

Cuff,  Clarence    C  820 

Cutter,  George   H 996 

Dalton,    Alfred,   Jr. 

Dargitz,   J.   P 
DaRoza,   Edward    L 
Davis,  Charles    K 
Day,  Stephen    S 
Dehn,    Henry 
Derby,  Charles    M 
Derby,  Frank  M 
Diepenbrock,  Melchior    H 

Dike,  Uburto  L 1000 

Doan,  Warren    E  998 

Donahue,    John...  934 

Donnelly,   James   H  1017 

Donnelly,   Peter   F  895 

Dozier,    Melville,   Jr  657 

Driver,  Elisha  S.  648 

Dunn,   Chauncey   H  484 


Ebel,  Mark    H 759 

Eckhardt,    Henrv  689 

Ehret,   Louis   D  770 

Eldred,    Charles    H                                  1013 
Elkus,   Louis  999 

Elliott,  James   F  935 

Ellis,  Charles    J  982 

Ellis,  Rev.    John    H  1001 

Ellis,  Rev.  William  F  752 

Emigh,  Clay  W  797 

Emigh,  James  L 796 


Fairbank,  Herbert    A 523 

Fairfield,   Willard    A 936 

Fancher,  Frederick    B  801 

Farren,    John 937 

Fical,  Charles    A  1042 

Ficks,  George    W  750 

Filcher,  Joseph    A  1014 

Fischer,  Jacob    J  897 

Fisher,  J.  Hayes,  M.  D  1047 

Fisk,  Katherine    B  745 

Fitzgerald,  Petei    A  573 

Folger,  Alfred    G  898 

Foster,    Stephen  938 

Foster,  Walter   T 884 

Fox,  David    F..  685 

Frasinetti,   James  747 

Fratt,  Francis   W  1043 

Frommer,  Bernard  941 


Gallup,  William   R 1025 

Gardner,  Mrs.  Anna  G -.-- 951 

Geary,    William 887 

Geiger,  Charles    C 788 

Gerber,  Edward  H 888 

Gerber,  John  A.,  Jr  1016 

Gerber,  William    E  947 

Gibson,    Francis  985 

Gillespie,  Edward,   Sr  950 

Godard,  Charles  W  986 

Gore,  William    R  886 

Gormley,  William    F  891 

Gouiden,    James 944 

Grace,    Thomas  427 

Graham,  Charles   H  987 

Grant,  William    E  "Ti- 

Green,  Charles   F  436 

Green,   George  988 

Gregory,  Frank  705 

Gregory,  T.  T    C  1029 

Griffeth,  Clarence   M  664 

Griffin,  M.    W 989 


Hall,  Thomas    B  839 

Halloran,    Martin  837 

Harlow,  John  M  '''36 

Hart,  James    V  488 

Hartmann,  Geoige    P  696 

Haynes,  Edward  818 

Haynie,  Stephen  W  695 

Hencken,    William  472 

Henry,   L....  1011 

Hicks,  John  B  949 

Hinkle,  Isa&c  917 

Hinsey,  William   W  743 

Hippie,  Geoige    W  545 

Hobrecht,  Joseph    C  956 

Hodson,  Burton  M  767 

Hook,    George  955 

Hopkins,  A    S  831 

Hopkins,  O    G  491 

Hotchkiss,  George   W  647 

Hulings,  Burton   F  798 

Hullin,   Nicholas    T  762 

Humbert,  Hubeit    J  524 

Hummel,   Joseph   F 952 

Huntress,  James  S 513 

Hutton,  Frank    O 1012 

Irvine,  Richard    C 900 


Jacobs,  Julius   S 850 

Jenks,  William    M 733 

Johns,  Fred    J 614 

Johnson,  Grove    L 500 

Johnson,  Hiram    W 836 

Johnson,  Joseph   \V  588 

Johnston.  John    \\  953 

Johnston,  William     A  529 

Jones,  Edward    S  849 

Jones,  Thomas    R  507 

Junior,  Eugene  A  493 


Kaufman,    August 768( 

Kaufman,    Carl 763 

Kavanaugh,  Edward  C 619 

Keach,    George 919 

Kennedy,  William  M 663 

Kessler.  Adam    B 1056 

Kestler,  Gustave   A 739 

Keyes.  Henry    C 880 

Kiesel.  Frederick  W 815 

Kilgariff,  Henry    J 503 

Kimball,  Moses    N 881 

Kitt,  Fred    T ..^    946 

Kleinsorge,  Charles    B 1003 

Klune.  J.    Bernhard 830 

Knight,    Ralph 499 

Knight,  William  L.    622 

Koch,  Bernhardt    P 892 

Koch,  Otto    J 784 

Kohler.    Ferdinand 890 

Krebs,  Harry    G 944 

Lafferty,  Frank    A 

Langley,  William    A 

Larkin,  John    N 

LaRue,  Hon.    Hugh    M... 
LaRue,  Hugh   M.,  Jr 
Latourrette,    Johnl 

Lavenson,    Gus 

Lawton,    John 

Lawton,  William    D 
Leonard,    Albert... 
Leonard,  Harry  W 
Levering,  Charles   D 

Lewis,   Thomas 

Limbaugh,  Leonard    M 
Lindsay,  Arthur    H 
Lindsay,  William  K..  M 
Lothhammer,   Charles 

Lowry,  Felton 

Lubin,    David 

Lubin,  S.   J 

Luce,    Niron 

.  644 

,.  729 













.  928 

.  628 

.  833 


.  922 

McCurdy,  Arthur    H... 

McDougal,    George 

McDougall,    Donald 

McElwaine,    R 

McEwen,    Edward    J 
McFarland,  Ray  D 
McKenzie,  Francis    R 
McKevitt,   Frank   H 
McKinstry,  J.    K ... 
McMahon,    John... 
McWilliams,    Hugh 
Mackinder,  Willis   A 

.  466 



Mangan,    James 


Manning,  Frank   J.. 


Martin,  Fred    L 


Marty,    Benjamin 


Mathews,  Herschel    B 


Mauldin,    Hugh 

.  778 

Mayden,  John    L 


Mayer,  George    H 


Mealer,  Thomas    J 


Meister,   Albeit 

.  800 

Meredith,   Craddoc 


Meyer,    Frank 


Meyer,  William    A 


Mikle,  Pleas    G 


Mikulich,    Andrew 


Mill,   Russell   W 


Miller,  Frank    C 


Miller,  John  H  ,  Jr 


Miller,  O.    H 

Morrill,  William  D 


Morris,    Edward 


Morrison,  Alexander  W 


Muddox,  Harry    C 


Muddox,    Ralph    H 


Murphy,  Patiick    H 



Nagle,  John  L 
Nathan,  Charles    P 
Nauman,  Harrj    A 
Nelson,    Jacob 
Nethercott,    George 
Noble,  George  W 
Noyes,  Charles    T 


O'Kelly,   T.   J 1051 

O'Neil,  Tliomas  W 822 

Owen,  Harry  D 740 


Patterson,   John  L 552 

Paule,    Charles  442 

Peck,  F.    S  ...  783 

Perkins,    Chailes   C  806 

Pfund,  Edwaid  F  1030 

Phillips,  Sidney  M  494 

Phinney,  Cassius    M  902 

Phinney.  George    A  1035 

Pierce,  John    A  684 

Pike,  John  E    T  742 

Pipher,  Joseph     E  456 

Powers,  William    M  610 

Prouty,    Simon  1031 

Prouty,  William    H 1037 


Quaas,  William    H 457 


RalfE,    Otto 978 

Randle,   George   N 452 

Raper,    Robert  641 
Read,  Heibeit  J                                       1U04 

Rees,  Fredeiick   G  6b  ^ 

Reese,  Ed  waul   E  603 

Reese,    Johu  95j 

Reynolds,  Aarou    B  ii65 

Richards,  William  F  "21 

Riley,    Jolin  TIS 

Robb,  Charles   S  'J32 

Roberts,  John    H  4"i"j 

Rooney,  Stephen     J  693 

Ross-Roan,   Mrb    Maij  469 

Ruhstallei,  Frank    J  S'll 

Runyon,   Solomon  9ii5 

Russell,  Scimuel    W  460 

Rutter,   James  j">6 

Ryan,  Frank   D  J20 

Ryan,  Henry   P  670 

Ryan  &  Cippa  670 

Rydberg,    Herman 675 


St.    Joseph's    Academy 606 

Saner,    Joseph 635 

Sargent,  Franklin  H 856 

Sawyer,  John  H 1038 

Schad,   Isidor 539 

Schad,    Thomas 540 

Schaden,    Alfred 1039 

Scheld,    Philip 547 

Scheunert,  Wilhelm  R.  H 550 

Schneider,  Casper  V  1049 

Schnetz,    Henry  701 

Selliiiger,  George    P  802 

Sellon,  George    C  828 

Seymour,  Henry    I  826 

Shannon,  Hunter  W.  S  940 

Sharpe,  Elton  D  958 

Shaw,  F.  E.,  M.  D  613 

Sheehan,  Edgar  M  549 

Shields,  Peter  J  755 

Silva,  Charles  F  439 

Silva,  Manuel  S  ,  M.  D  709 

Sisson,  Benjamin    L  876 

Slight,   Samuel   B  960 

Smiley,  Hugh    J  557 

Smith,  Mrs.    Anna  924 

Smith,  Herbert    F  .  669 

Steffens,    Joseph  853 

Stewart,  Louis    H  562 

Strachan,  Hugh  M 971 

Strachan,  James  845 

Strand,  William  A  673 

Studarus,    John  565 

Sullivan,  Daniel  U  753 

Swinney,  John   A  605 

Switzer,  Herbert    C  1007 


Taverner,   George  M 595 

Telfer,  C.  Allison  846 

Thlsby,   George  632 

Thomson,  Fredenck   F  795 

Thorp,    Harry  433 

Thorp,    Sidnev    G  541 

Timm,    Richard  717 

Townsend,  George  H  908 

Trainor,  Isaac  J  531 

Twitchell,   Edward 535 

Uren,    Stephen 925 


Wachhorst,    Eugene 1005 

Wahrhaftig,   Moses   S  968 

Walke,    Adolph  931 

Walker,   Joseph    E  594 

Walton,  Fredenck  S  lO.iO 

Warner,    Willai  d  913 

Warren,  Lloyd    G  600 

Washburn,   O    F  930 

Watson,  William  S,  M  D                        9L5 

Weisman,  William  J  910 

Welch,    Benjamin  567 

Wentz,  John  H  711 

Wentzel,  Charles  E  928 

Werner,  Charles 616 

Wiesenhofer,  Frank  X 792 

Wilder,  James  A  598 

Wiley,    David    E  916 

Williams,  Lincoln   P  969 

Willis,  William  L  593 

Wilson,   Jesse   W  517 

Wise,  Philip  929 

Woodburn,   Elwood   J  794 

Woods,  John  L  597 

Wulff,  Henry   F.  G  911 

Yardley,  Herbert   E 
Yell,    Archibald 
Yoerk,  Charles  A 
Young,  Charles  J 
Younger,   Andrew 
Yule,    William    /"L^ 





"Serene  I  fold  my  hands  and  wait, 
Nor  care  for  wind,  nor  tide,  nor  sea ; 
I  rave  no  more  'gainst  time  or  fate. 
For  lo !  my  own  shall  come  to  me. 

"The  stars  come  nightly  to  the  sky. 
The  tidal  wave  unto  the  sea; 
Nor  time,  nor  space,  nor  deep,  nor  high. 
Can  keep  my  own  away  from  me. ' ' 

— John  Burroughs. 

Sncli  has  been  for  many  years  the  attitude  of  a  large  part  of  this 
grand  state,  the  empress  that  sits  throned  on  the  shores  of  the  Pacific, 
conscious  of  her  cliarm  and  confident  of  the  future  that  awaits  her, 
and  that  is  drawing  as  a  magnet  tlie  dwellers  of  colder  climes  and 
more  inhospitable  shores  to  the  land  of  sunshine  and  flowers.  And 
such  has  long  been  the  attitude  of  Sacramento  county,  the  peer  of  any 
in  California.  But  a  transformation  has  begun  and  the  future  will 
witness  the  unfolding  of  the  bud  of  beauty  into  a  pja-fect  flower  that 
shall  surpass  the  most  sanguine  expectations.  Witn  a  city  that  will 
expand  in  the  future  into  the  largest  inland  city  on  the  coast,  all  her 
advantages  will  keep  pace  with  her  evolution  and  she  will  take  her 
proper  place  among  the  gems  that  grace  the  diadem  of  the  great 
empire  of  the  Pacific  coast,  the  magnificent  state  that  took  for  her 
motto  "Eureka,"  and  might  well  have  added  to  it  "Excelsior." 

It  may  he  safely  said  of  Sacramento  county  that  she  has  played 
a  more  important  part  in  the  history  of  the  state  than  any  other 
county  within  the  borders  of  California.  Embracing  in  her  confines 
the  most  precious  gifts  of  the  lofty  Sierras  and  the  foothills  at  their 
base — the  fertile  alluvial  soil  washed  down  from  their  hillsides  and 
canyons  to  fill  up  the  inland  sea  of  which  she  was  once  a  part — making 
her  a  second  valley  of  the  Nile,  no  whit  inferior  to  the  original  in 
fertility  and  jiroductiveness,  she  is  almost  without  a  peer.  But  the 
mountains  and  foothills  were  not  niggardly  in  their  munificent  gifts, 
for  in  addition  to  her  splendid  soil  they  sprinkled  it  liberally  with 
golden  dust  and  nuggets  that  enriched  many  a  one  of  the  Argonauts 
and  of  the  generation  that  succeeded  them,  and  is  to  this  day  pouring- 
millions  into  the  pockets  of  the  men  who  are  mining  the  precious  metal 
on  the  lands  adjoining  the  American  river. 

Sitting  majestically  on  the  banks  of  the  magnificent  river  that 
forms  her  western  boundary,  she  has  beheld  for  half  a  century  barges 


and  steamers  bringing  her  choicest  products  down  tlie  bosom  of  the 
river  to  the  sea,  to  supply  the  markets  of  the  coast  cities  and  of  lands 
beyond  the  ocean.  With  the  summer's  sun  and  the  winter's  rain,  aided 
by  the  balmy  winds  of  spring  and  autumn,  her  crops  follow  each  other 
in  annual  succession,  and  are  sent  abroad  to  feed  the  less  fortunate 
dwellers  of  Occident  and  Orient  and  to  spread  the  fame  of  her  wealth 
of  resources  to  distant  lands.  Well  has  she  played  her  part  so  far, 
but  it  is  an  insig-nificant  one  compared  to  that  which  she  will  play  in 
the  near  future,  when  instead  of  a  few  thousands,  this  magnificent 
valley  of  the  Sacramento  sliall  su]>port  millions  of  happy,  prosperous 
men,  women  and  children  of  the  mighty  empire  that  is  llevehnjing  so 
rapidly  on  the  western  coast  of  our  country.  And  now  has  come  to  her 
a  quickeniB,:^fof  perception  that  will  have  far-reaching  results.  Her 
own  has  cqijifto  her.  She  realizes  the  value  of  her  birthright  and  will 
take  advantage  of  it  to  the  fullest  extent.  Agriculture,  horticulture, 
commerce  and  manufacturing  all  feel  the  impulse  resultant  on  the  real- 
ization of  lier  ])ower  and  opportimity,  and  lier  watchword  is  "Onward." 

In  the  days  before  the  American  occupation,  Gen.  John  A.  Sutter, 
the  pioneer  of  pioneers  of  the  state,  saw  with  the  vision  of  a  prophet 
the  futu]-e  of  the  country,  and  built  his  fort  near  the  confluence  of  the 
Sacramento  and  American  rivers,  to  become,  a  few  years  later,  the 
objective  point  of  the  wagon  trains  which  wended  their  weary  way 
across  the  trackless  wilderness  of  this  vast  continent.  Here  many  a 
company  of  im|^grants,  worn  out  with  their  long  journey  and  often 
half  starved  ana  in  distress,  arrived  and  were  fed  and  relieved  from 
the  stores  of  the  generous-hearted  old  pioneer,  and  rested  and  recu- 
perated under  the  protection  of  his  fort.  Here  was  for  many  years 
the  point  where  the  gold  seekers,  landing  from  their  long  and  danger- 
ous voyage  around  the  Horn,  arrived  on  boats  from  San  Francisco, 
and  fitted  themselves  out  for  the  mines.  Here,  too,  was  the  supply 
point  for  these  seekers  foi'  gold  after  they  had  begun  with  pick,  shovel 
and  rocker,  to  delve  their  fortunes  from  the  rich  placers  of  the  foot- 
hills.   Here,  then,  began  the  making  of  tlie  history  of  the  Golden  state. 

It  was  to  Sacramento,  too,  that  Marshall,  long  before  the  irrup- 
tion of  the  dwellers  of  every  clime  hastening  to  be  first  on  the  ground 
to  gather  the  treasure,  brought  for  Sutter's  inspection  the  bright 
pieces  of  yellow  metal  found  in  the  race  at  Coloma,  and  it  was  from 
Sacramento  that,  after  that  conference,  the  news  went  forth  to  the 
world  that  the  gold  placers  of  California  held  out  the  ojjportunity  of 
acquiring  wealtli  to  all  who  possessed  the  nerve  and  confidence  to  come 
and  seek  for  it. 

The  history  of  a  nation,  a  state,  a  country  or  a  city,  has  a  numbej- 
of  natural  divisions,  each  interdeijendent  with  regard  to  the  others, 
and  which  form  a  harmonious  whole  when  lu'ought  into  proper  relation 
to  each  other.  Political,  governmental,  industrial  and  commercial, 
each  has  its  province  in  promoting  the  general  welfare  of  a  community 


Not  more  interesting  and  romantic  was  the  search  of  Jason  auu 
his  Argonauts  for  the  Golden  Fleece  than  was  that  of  his  prototypes 
who  braved  the  wilderness  with  its  hostile  Indians,  or  endured  the 
tedium  and  the  dangers  of  the  voyage  round  the  Horn  in  search  of  the 
precious  metal  with, which  California  was  endowed.  There  is  a  fas- 
cination which  never  grows  old  or  lessens  as  one  listens  to  the  remin- 
iscences of  the  old  pioneers  and  their  tales  of  their  journeyings  to  the 
new  Eldorado  under  the  lure  of  gold;  and  one  lives  over  again  with 
them  the  exciting  experiences  they  met  with,  both  on  their  way  and 
after  their  arrival.  Such  a  polyglot  community  never  was"drawn  to- 
gether, surely,  banded  in  one  common  aim,  but  still  each  one  pursuing 
his  own  way  independently  and  striving  to  acquire  wealth  as  quickly 
as  possible  and  return  to  his  old  home.  A  few  did  so,  l^ut  with  the 
majority  the  case  was  different.  They  never  dreanied  i^i^t  they  were 
to  be  founders  of  a  great  state  which  would  hold  theii*'  Snemory  in 
reverence  and  respect  them  for  their  sturdy,  earnest  qualities.  Alas, 
they  are  fast  dwindling  in  numbers  and  only  a  few  brief  years  will  see 
them  among  us  no  more. 

The  lure  of  gold  is  one  of  the  strongest  incentives  to  man,  induc- 
ing him  to  leave  home  and  its  loved  ones,  to  brave  well-known  and 
certain  danger  and  to  tempt  fate  in  the  most  daring  manner.  Perhaps 
the  spice  of  danger  and  adventure  lends  force  to  the  lure,  although 
optimism  must  necessarily  be  the  most  potent  factor.  Other  men  have 
made  fortunes  quickly  and  comparatively  easily,  why  not  he  ?  We  hear 
only  of  the  successful  ones,  but  rarely  of  the  unsuccessful,  their  priva- 
tions or  sufferings,  and  the  dazzle  of  gold  blinds  us  to  the  reverse  side 
of  the  question.  The  struggles  and  privations  of  the  thousands  who 
joined  in  the  mad  rush  to  Alaska  in  the  last  decade  are  very  little 
known  or  considered.  Rotten  ships,  condemned  years  before,  were 
chartered  to  take  them  on  the  treacherous  sea  voyage,  laden  to  the 
gunwales  with  passengers  and  freight,  and  with  the  chances  against 
their  proceeding  a  hundred  miles  on  their  journey  before  experiencing 
shipwreck.  And  yet  men  fought  and  pleaded  for  a  chance  to  brave 
the  perils  of  the  journey  and  the  certain  suffering  from  cold  and 
hunger  and  other  perils  after  their  arrival  in  the  land  of  the  Great 
White  Silence.  So  it  was  in  the  days  of  '49.  The  long  six  months' 
journey  across  the  plains  and  lofty  mountains,  with  only  a  trail  to 
follow,  the  dangers  of  Indians,  floods,  tire  and  starvation  could  not 
deter  the  dauntless  ones  who  took  up  their  journey  of  more  than  two 
thousand  miles  through  the  wilderness,  many  of  them  with  their  wives 
and  children. 

Right  here  it  is  only  just  to  give  their  due  to  the  women — the 
pioneer  mothers  of  whom  we  hear  so  little — the  women  who  forsook 
home  and  kindred  to  follow  their  husbands  through  all  trials  and 
dangers  to  the  imknown  la-nds  and  to  assist  with  their  labors  and  coun- 
sel, and  with  the  children  of  the  rising  generation,  in  the  shaping  and 


moulding  of  a  great  empire  whose  fame  was  destined  to  reach  the 
uttermost  parts  of  the  earth.  Like  the  pioneer  women  of  the  great  west 
and  the  Mississippi  valley,  they  have  not  received  their  meed  of  praise 
and  recognition  of  the  important  part  they  played  in  empire  building. 
While  the  men  labored,  the  women  had  to  make  the  home  as  comfort- 
able as  conditions  allowed,  to  rear  and  care  for  and  clothe  the  children 
and  to  endure  all  sorts  of  privations.  Theirs  the  test  of  patience  and 
courage  to  meet  and  overcome,  to  cheer  and  encourage  under  adverse 
circumstances,  and  well  the  pioneer  women  did  their  part.  Not  the 
least  of  their  tests  was  the  scarcity  of  female  companionship,  as  for 
several  years  but  few  women  came  to  this  coast,  and  they  were  widely 
scattered  after  their  arrival.  The  coming  of  a  woman  to  a  mining 
camp  was  a  great  event  and  roused  all  the  latent  chivalry  of  the  rough 
men  of  the  community,  who  vied  in  doing  her  honor  and  making  her 
comfortable  and  mitigating  the  conditions  around  her.  She  was  placed 
upon  a  pedestal  and  surrounded  by  adoring  subjects.  A  man  would  be 
safer  in  committing  murder  than  in  insulting  or  injuring  her. 

Pioneers  have  told  the  writer  of  the  appearance  of  the  country 
adjoining  Sacramento  on  the  south  in  the  days  of  '49  and  '50.  "A 
man  could  ride  over  the  plains  ra  horseback,"  they  say,  "and  tie  the 
wild  oats  across  his  saddle  bow,  as  they  rose  often  above  the  head  of  a 
man  on  foot.  Droves  of  antelope  were  to  be  seen  on  the  plains  and 
deer  were  to  be  found  in  the  groves  along  the  river,  while  in  the  tules 
and  along  the  sloughs  and  lakes  in  the  southern  part  of  the  county 
herds  of  elks  passed  most  of  their  time."  And  yet,  with  those- fertile 
plains  at  their  doors,  such  was  tlie  fixity  of  the  idea  that  had  taken 
hold  of  men's  minds  and  impelled  them  to  the  mines,  that  they  scoffed 
at  the  few  wise  ones  who  planned  to  take  up  land  and  go  to  farming. 
"What!"  they  would  say,  "would  you  go  out  there  and  drudge,  when 
you  could  go  to  the  mines  and  pick  up  gold  ?  Wliy,  you  would  starve 
to  death  out  there !    Not  any  land  for  me. ' ' 

But  among  them  were  men  who  had  left  the  farm  in  the  east  to 
come  to  California.  These  men  saw  that  while  many  lucky  ones  made 
their  fortunes  more  or  less  quickly  in  the  mines,  there  were  thousands 
of  others  who  lived  from  hand  to  mouth  or  went  broke  in  quest  for 
gold.  They  looked  on  the  face  of  the  country  and,  like  the  Israelites, 
"found  it  good."  They  realized  that  the  soil  that  would  ])rodu('e  such 
crops  without  cultivation  would  produce  bounteously  when  properly 
cultivated.  They  realized  too  that  the  gold  diggers  must  be  fed,  and 
that  feeding  them  would  bring  its  reward  in  rich  profits.  They  knew 
the  stock  must  have  hay  in  the  winter  as  well  as  in  the  summer,  when 
every  spear  of  grass  was  dried  up  in  the  absence  of  rain.  So  the  wise 
men  took  up  tracts  of  land.  Some  of  them  purchased  large  grants 
which  had  been  given  by  the  Mexican  government,  as  had  Sutter's. 
They  prepared  to  feed  the  hungry,  and  their  descendants  are  carrying 
out  their  plans  today.    The  land  which  the  miners,  in  their  ignorance 


of  the  effects  of  climatic  conditions  in  the  valley,  designated  as  a 
desert,  has  proved  "a  land  flowing-  with  milk  and  honey,"  and  has 
promoted  the  growth  of  an  industrious  and  ))rosi)erous  community 
which  has  done  its  share  in  the  upbuilding  of  the  great  commonwealth 
that  extends  along  the  shore  of  the  Pacific  for  a  distance  almost  as 
great  as  that  of  the  Atlantic  states  on  the  ocean  that  washes  the  east- 
ern shore  of  oiir  country. 

The  great  possibilities  of  our  county  are  only  in  their  first  stage 
of  development.  The  days  of  the  stock  and  cattle  men  and  of  the 
herds  that  covered  the  land  are  gone.  The  days  of  wheat-raising  that 
followed  them  are  almost  past  and  the  era  of  intensive  farming  has 
come.  The  small  home  of  a  few  acres,  where  the  work  that  in  the  days 
of  the  wheat  farmers  was  distributed  over  a  quarter  or  half  section 
is  now  concentrated  on  ten  or  twenty  acres,  has  begun  to  take  the  place 
of  the  big  ranch.  Instead  of  sparsely  settled  plains  where  the  farm 
house,  barns  and  corrals  were  the  only  signs  of  habitation,  and  the 
rancher  depended  on  the  peddler's  wagon  to  supply  him  with  vege- 
tables and  fruit ;  where  perhajjs  a  few  straggling  fowls  were  to  be  seen 
around  the  barn  yard,  and  the  rancher  brought  out  from  the  town  his 
butter,  eggs,  condensed  milk  and  bacon,  are  now  to  be  seen  the  orchard 
and  vineyard,  with  perhaps  a  patch  of  alfalfa  yielding  green  feed  the 
year  around  for  the  cows  and  chickens.  "The  old  order  changeth, 
yielding  place  to  new."  The  country  is  daily  growing  nearer  to  the 
city.  The  tele]3hone,  the  parcels  post,  the  rural  delivery  which  brings 
to  the  farmer  his  daily  paper  and  his  letters  and  keeps  him  in  touch 
with  the  markets  on  which  he  depends  for  the  sale  of  his  products — 
all  are  making  the  farm  more  attractive  to  the  rising  generation.  The 
immense  holdings  of  the  wheat  barons  are  passing  away  and  in  place 
of  the  scattered  bunk-houses  where  in  winter  the  men  who  ran  the 
gang-plows  and  sowed  the  seed  and  in  summer  the  harvester  gangs 
passed  their  nights,  are  the  small  farms  of  settlers,  with  comfortable 
homes  growing  in  beauty  and  attractiveness  and  the  children  are  to 
be  found  who  will  grow  up  as  the  next  generation  of  our  citizens.  The 
schoolhouse,  the  cornerstone  of  our  nation's  greatness,  begins  to  dot 
the  landscape  and  the  church  and  postoffice  soon  are  seen,  a  nucleus 
for  the  thriving  communities  that  are  springing  up  and  will  soon  cover 
the  state  thickly,  as  they  do  in  the  east.  We  are  coming  into  our  own 
at  last. 




Sacramento  county  is  situated  on  the  river  from  which  it  is 
named  (Rio  Sacramento,  liver  of  the  Sacrament),  being  bounded  on 
the  north  by  Placer  county,  on  the  east  by  Eldorado  and  Amador,  on 
the  south  by  San  Joaquin  and  on  the  west  by  Yolo  and  Solano.  Sacra- 
mento City  is  the  county  town  as  well  as  the  capital  of  the  state.  The 
city  is  in  38°  35'  north  latitude  and  121°  30'  west  longitude  from 
(Greenwich.  The  county  contains  nine  hundred  and  eighty-eight  square 
miles,  only  a  little  less  than  the  area  of  Rhode  Island.  The  popu- 
lation of  the  county  according  to  the  census  of  1910  is  sixty-seven 
thousand  eight  hundred  and  six,  but  it  is  rapidly  increasing,  owing 
to  the  era  of  rapid  development  which  has  set  in  during  the  past  five 
years.  The  coming  of  a  new  transcontinental  railj-oad — the  Western 
Pacific — and  the  approaching  entry  of  the  Great  Northern  and  Santa 
Fe,  as  well  as  several  interurban  electric  lines  either  already  con- 
structed or  in  course  of  construction,  have  greatly  hastened  its  ra])id 
progress  and  prosperity.  The  magnificent  river  that  flows  along  its 
western  boundary  bears  on  its  bosom,  it  is  stated,  almost  as  much 
freight  annually  as  the  mighty  Mississippi  does.  While  the  figures 
are  not  at  hand  to  verify  this  statement,  it  is  certain  that  the  tonnage 
of  grain,  wood,  fnait,  vegetables  and  other  products  of  the  State  which 
are  carried  on  the  river  by  steamers  and  barges  totals  an  immense 
amount  and  relieves  the  railroads  of  a  very  great  amount  of  freight  dur- 
ing the  busy  season,  and  is  a  decided  factor  in  keeping  down  freight 
charges  in  the  valley.  The  river  flows  through  a  country  unsurpassed  in 
fertility  in  the  whole  world  and  producing  a  vast  variety  of  grain,  fruit 
and  vegetables.  On  the  river  and  the  islands  bounded  by  its  various 
channels  and  tributaries,  in  addition  to  the  fruit  orchards  that  have 
been  celebrated  for  their  fine  fruit  for  nearly  a  half  century  jiast, 
asparagus  and  celery  growing  have  of  late  years  become  a  most 
important  and  yearly  increasing  interest,  the  former  furnishing  many 
thousands  of  cases  of  canned  product,  which  is  shipped  all  over  the 

Sacramento  County  was  one  of  the  large  wheat  growing  counties 
many  years  ago,  but  as  wheat  growing  became  less  profitable  and  the 
land  became  more  valuable,  it  gradually  became  utilized  for  vineyard 
and  orchard  ijroduction,  for  which  most  of  the  land  in  the  county  is 
admirably  adapted.  Hence  of  late  years  Sacramento  has  become  the 
chief  shipping  point  for  all  kinds  of  fruit  except  the  citrus  varieties, 
and  as  its  soil  and  climate  have  been  found  to  be  of  the  best  for  the 
citrus  fruits,  their  production  has  been  rapidly  increasing,  both  in 
quantity  and  quality,  the  latter  being  found  to  be  inferior  to  none 


raised  elsewhere.  A  peculiar  feature  of  the  climatoloi^y  of  Sacranieuto 
and  the  adjoining  counties  on  the  east  and  north  is  found  in  what 
is  known  as  the  thermal  belt  in  the  foothills  and  higher  portion  of 
the  plain,  where  the  citrus  fruits  ripen  to  jjerfection  and  so  much 
earlier  than  in  other  sections  that  they  are  from  a  month  to  six  weeks 
earlier  than  those  in  the  southern  part  of  the  State.  They  are  there- 
fore marketed  before  the  frosts  come,  reaching  the  eastern  markets 
before  the  holiday  season  and  of  course  bringing  the  highest  prices. 
Besides  these,  all  varieties  of  deciduous  fruit  grow  in  profusion  and 
perfection,  tlie  shipments  in  1909  reacliing  as  high  as  two  hundred 
carloads  in  one  day,  and  on  one  day  in  July,  1912,  totaling  two  hundred 
and  twenty  carloads. 

The  city  of  Sacramento  is  thirty-one  feet  above  the  sea  level, 
the  river  below  Colusa  having  a  verj'  gradual  fall.  The  mountains 
which  form  the  walls  of  the  valley  are  visible  on  both  sides  of  the  city, 
and  the  panorama  of  the  river,  plain,  foothills  and  mountains  as  seen 
from  the  dome  of  the  capitol  is  a  grand  one,  Mt.  Shasta  and  Lassen 
Peak,  more  than  two  hundred  miles  away,  being  visible  on  some  clear 
days.  The  climate  of  the  city  and  county  is  tempered  by  the  Sierra 
Nevadas  and  the  Coast  Range,  and  the  humidity  of  the  air  in  the 
summer  is  perceptibly  lessened  by  being  shut  out  from  tlie  ocean  to 
a  large  degree  by  the  Coast  Range.  For  this  reason,  while  the  ther- 
mometer on  some  days  in  summer  shows  a  high  reading,  the  absence  of 
moisture  in  the  atmosphere  renders  it  much  more  comfortable 
than  in  a  moister  climate,  and  sunstrokes  and  heat  prostrations  are 
practically  unknown.  Sacramento  valley  is  about  one  hundred  and 
fifty  miles  long,  with  a  breadth  of  about  fifty  to  sixty  miles,  and  is 
walled  in  by  two  ranges  of  mountains,  the  Sierra  Nevadas  on  tlie 
east,  and  the  Coast  Range  on  the  west.  Thej"  gradually  approach 
each  other  until  they  come  together  in  Shasta  county.  At  the  head 
of  the  valley  Mount  Shasta  stands,  looking  down  from  his  snowy 
heights  like  a  hoary  sentinel  placed  there  to  watch  over  the  welfare 
of  the  country  below.  Beneath  him  winds  the  Sacramento  river,  on 
its  way  to  water  the  fertile  plains  to  the  south.  The  alluvial  lands 
along  the  rivei'  slowly  merge  into  the  plains,  and  they  gradually  rise 
until  they  meet  the  foothills  with  which  the  valley  is  fringed,  the  foot- 
hills in  turn  giving  way  to  the  higher  ranges,  the  loftiest  peaks  of 
which  are  Pyramid  Peak,  ten  thousand  and  fifty-two  feet  in  altitude, 
and  Alpine,  ten  thousand  and  twenty-six  feet,  in  the  Sierra  Nevadas; 
and  Mount  Johns,  eight  thousand  feet  high,  in  the  Coast  Range.  To 
the  southwest  fifty-three  miles  rises  Mount  Diablo,  in  a  detached 
range,  three  thousand  eight  hundred  and  fifty-six  feet  high,  while  the 
Marysville  Buttes,  from  forty  to  fifty  miles  north,  rise  two  thousand 
feet  out  of  the  level  plain  and  cover  an  area  of  fifty-five  square  miles. 
Adjoining  the  alluvial  lands  along  the  river  are  the  plains,  the  soil  of 
which  is  a  sandv  loam,  a  reddish  land  containing  some  clay,  and  a 


heavy  black  olayish  soil  known  as  adobe.  There  are  also  gravelly 
ridges  running  nearly  north  and  south  through  the  center  of  the 
county  and  also  east  of  the  Cosumnes  river,  which  comes  down  from 
Amador  county  and  entering  the  eastern  part  of  Sacramento  county, 
flows  into  the  Mokelumne  river  on  the  southern  boundary.  Around 
Folsom,  on  the  eastern  edge  and  three  miles  from  the  Eldorado 
boimdary,  the  soil  becomes  of  a  deep  red  color  and  is  a  gold-bearing 
gravel  which  turned  out  many  millions  in  the  early  days,,  and  is  still 
mined  with  great  profit.  All  these  varieties  of  land  grow  fine  grapes 
and  other  fruits,  which  are  mostly  shipped  to  the  east,  bringing  good 
prices.  Along  the  rivers,  corn,  hops  and  vegetables  are  grown  in 
large  quantities,  the  hop  crop  being  an  important  industry  in  the 
county.  Large  quantities  of  vegetables  are  shipped  to  Utah,  Idaho 
and  Montana,  and  some  even  as  far  east  as  Chicago  and  New  York. 
The  American  river,  coming  down  from  Eldorado  county,  runs 
through  Folsom  and  empties  into  the  Sacramento  just  above  Sacra- 
mento City. 

The  greater  part  of  the  surface  of  the  county  is  level,  or  nearly 
so.  As  it  approaches  the  Cosumnes  it  becomes  more  hilly,  falling 
again  to  Deer  creek,  which  runs  along  the  west  side  of  the  Cosumnes 
river  bottom,  and  becoming  rolling  land  on  the  other  side  of  the 
Cosumnes,  until  it  reaches  the  lower  foothills.  On  the  Cosumnes  are 
hop  yards,  orchards,  corn  and  alfalfa  fields.  Dry  creek  on  the  south 
forms  part  of  the  southern  boundary  and  empties  into  the  Mokelumne, 
which  also  forms  a  ])art  of  the  southern  boundary.  Thus  the  county 
is  abundantly  watered  in  its  various  localities  by  four  rivers  and  their 
tributary  streams.  The  American,  Cosumnes  and  Mokelumne  are  all 
torrential  streams  rising  in  the  high  Sierras  and  with  a  large  area 
of  land  contributing  to  their  watershed.  Down  the  canyons,  there- 
fore, through  which  tliey  flow,  rushes  annually  an  immense  volume  of 
water  on  its  way  to  the  ocean.  In  the  early  days  this  often  over- 
flowed the  alluvial  lands  along  the  Sacramento  river,  carrying  death 
and  destruction  along  its  course.  Several  of  these  floods  were  disas- 
trous to  Sacramento  City  in  its  early  history.  Judging  from  the  t^les 
of  the  pioneers,  the  flood  in  the  winter  of  1862  must  have  covered  not 
only  the  river  bottoms,  but  also  a  large  portion  of  what  is  familiarly 
known  as  "the  plains,"  for  the  writer  has  heard  old  settlers  tell  of 
transporting  their  provisions  and  other  merchandise  from  Sacramento 
during  that  winter  on  flatboats  or  barges  almost  to  the  town  of  Elk 
Grove.  An  idea  of  the  immense  volume  of  water  that  found  its  way 
to  the  sea  on  that  occasion  may  be  gained  from  the  fact  that  it  not 
only  covered  the  great  tule  basin  of  Yolo  county,  but  also  a  large 
portion  of  the  plains  east  and  south  of  the  city  to  a  width  of  manv 
miles.  Since  that  time  the  settlers  liave  learned  the  lesson  that 
safetv  can  be  found  only  in  liigh  and  wide  levees,  ]iro])erly  constructed 
to  withstand  the  wind  and  water. 


But  man,  while  always  striving  against  the  elements  and  the 
forces  of  nature,  often  succeeds  in  the  herculean  task  of  subduing 
them  and  turning  the  master  into  the  servant.  These  same  torrential 
streams,  which,  unbridled,  sweep  man  and  his  works  fi'om  their  jjath 
like  feathers,  are  being  harnessed  and  confined  to  do  his  bidding  and 
foster  his  prosperity.  The  great  dam  at  Folsom,  built  by  the  state, 
furnishes  power  to  the  state's  prison  as  well  as  electricity  for  light- 
ing the  grounds.  It  has  also  for  many  years  supplied  Sacramento 
city  and  county  with  light  and  power.  In  the  near  future  the  water 
of  those  streams  will  be  used  again  and  again  to  turn  mills  and 
machinery  for  factories,  and  the  electrical  power  generated  by  the 
rivers  will  be,  even  more  than  in  the  past,  transmitted  to  long 
distances — a  factor  in  building  up  the  prosperity  of  many  a  com- 

The  day  will  come,  moreover,  when  immense  reservoirs  will  l)e 
constructed,  either  by  the  government  or  the  state,  for  the  im|)ound- 
ing  of  the  flood  water  from  the  rain  and  melting  snow  and  its  dis- 
tribution during  the  long,  dry  summer  over  the  thirsty  land,  doubling 
and  trebling  the  crops  and  bringing  greater  prosperity  to  the  valley. 
Then  too  will  the  rivers,  instead  of  bringing  down  destriictive  torrents 
upon  the  valley,  remain  within  their  banks  and  the  Sacramento,  with 
its  channel  deepened,  will  once  more  see  the  ships  of  distant  nations 
iiringing  their  commerce  to  our  door. 

Many  centuries  ago  a  vast  sea  occupied  the  place  now  known  as 
the  Sacramento  and  San  Joaquin  valleys.  The  action  of  sun,  rain 
and  air  slowly  disintegrated  the  surrounding  mountains  and  erosion  • 
set  in,  the  detritus  forming  soil  which  was  washed  down  into  the 
inland  sea,  eventually  filling  up  the  great  basin.  It  is  no  wonder  then, 
that,  like  the  valley  of  the  Nile,  which  was  formed  in  the  same  way, 
the  valley  of  the  Sacramento  became  one  of  the  richest  and  most  fer- 
tile in  the  world.  For  nearly  half  a  century  it  was  one  of  the  great 
wheat-producing  sections  of  the  United  States.  As  the  soil  became 
exhausted  for  wheat-raising  under  the  one-crop  system,  the  farmer 
began  to  find  it  necessary  to  change  the  crop.  He  found  that  it  would 
not  only  raise  all  varieties  of  fruit  and  berries,  but  that  on  a  much 
smaller  acreage  he  could  raise  a  far  more  profitable  crop,  as  well  as 
a  more  certain  one.  So  in  a  few  years  Sacramento  developed  into  a 
great  fruit  shipping  center  and  today  the  Florin  district  is  one  of  the 
largest,  if  not  the  largest  of  the  strawberry-growing  centers  in  the 
state.  Sacramento  also  leads  in  the  production  of  the  Tokay  grajie, 
the  color  and  quality  of  which  always  secures  for  it  in  the  eastern 
market  the  highest  price. 

Nor  must  the  tule  lands  along  the  Sacramento  river  in  the  south- 
western part  of  the  county  be  overlooked.  Alluvial  lands  of  the  richest 
quality,  for  some  distance  back  from  the  river  they  have  been  re- 
claimed and  thousands  of  acres  planted  with  orchards   of  deciduous 


fruits  or  sown  with  alfalfa  and  used  as  dairy  farms.  Of  lat«  years 
they  are  being-  reclaimed  faster  and  asparagus  and  celery  have  been 
found  to  be  very  successful  and  profitable  crops,  the  former  being 
canned  in  immense  quantities  and  sent  east  to  supply  the  markets  of 
the  world. 

In  fact  e^•erything  that  can  be  produced  in  a  semi-tropical  country 
can  be  grown  in  the  Sacramento  valley,  and  even  some  fruits  and 
other  ]:)roducts  that  really  belong  to  tropical  climes.  Rice  is  being 
grown  with  great  success  and  of  the  finest  quality  in  Butte  county,  as 
well  as  to  a  limited  extent  in  Sacramento  county,  a  large  portion  of 
the  soil  of  which  is  admirably  fitted  for  its  culture.  Hemp  and  ramie 
bid  fair  to  become  profitable  textile  products  and  much  of  the  land 
is  suitable  for  flax.  Hops  are  also  an  imi^ortant  product,  being  grown 
of  the  finest  quality  along  the  Sacramento  and  the  Cosumnes  rivers. 

A  large  portion  of  the  area  of  Sacramento,  which  is  now  in  pri- 
vate ownership  through  subdivision,  was  in  the  early  days  comjirised 
in  the  old  Spanish  grants.  The  boundaries  and  other  matters  were 
the  cause  of  much  costly  and  vexatious  litigation.  The  grants  were 
as  follows: 

The  Rancho  Rio  de  los  Americanos,  or  Leidesdorff  grant,  lying 
along  the  American  river  and  country  around  Folsom. 

The  Sutter  Grant,  or  New  Helvetia. 

The  Sheldon  Grant,  embracing  the  estates  of  Jared  Sheldon  and 
William  Daylor,  on  the  Cosumnes  river,  originally  known  as  the 
Rancho  Omochumnes. 

The  Hartnell  Grant,  also  on  the  Cosumnes  river. 

The  Rancho  San  Jon  de  los  Moquelumnes,  generally  known  as  tlic 
Chabolla  Grant,  on  the  lower  Cosumnes  around  Hicksville  and  running 
to  the  Mokelumne  river. 

The  Arroyo  Seco  Grant,  in  Alabama  township,  on  Dry  creek. 

The  Rancho  San  Juan,  on  the  north  side  of  the  American  river 
and  embracing  the  Carmichael  colony,  Fair  Oak.s  and  a  part  of 

The  Rancho  del  Paso,  formerly  known  as  the  Norris  Grant  and 
now  generally  spoken  of  as  the  Haggin  Grant.  This  stood  for  more 
than  fifty  years  as  a  barrier  to  the  extension  of  the  city  on  the  north 
and  has  only  been  subdivided  within  the  past  three  years,  the  last  of 
the  great  land  holdings  in  this  county. 

The  Rancho  Sacayac,  on  the  north  side  of  the  Cosumnes,  between 
the  Sheldon  grant  and  the  east  line  of  the  county. 

The  Rancho  Cazadores,  on  the  northwest  side  of  the  Cosumnes, 
o])posite  the  Chabolla  grant. 

Sacramento  is  fourth  among  the  counties  of  the  state  in  jwint  of 
property  valuation,  Los  Angeles  standing  first,  according  to  the  re- 
port of  State  Controller  Nye  for  the  year  1912,  San  Francisco  being 
second  and  Alameda  third.     The  report  states  that  the  valuation  of 


property  in  Sacramento  county  is  $86,589,795,  an  increase  of  over 
$5,000,000  above  the  valuation  for  1911.  The  increase  is  largely  due 
to  the  increase  of  values  of  j^roperty  in  Sacramento  City,  and  also  the 
subdivision,  sale  and  improvement  of  many  tracts  in  the  county.  Thus 
is  evidenced  a  steady  growth  of  property  in  the  county,  which  is  really 
just  beginning  to  exhibit  the  advantages  of  soil  and  climate,  coupled 
with  comparatively  low  prices  of  acreage  land  and  the  opportunity 
for  a  home  market  in  a  large  city  close  by,  which  it  has  for  many 
years  possessed,  but  has  only  recently  advertised. 

The  pioneer  who  in  the  early  days  crossed  the  dark  river  to  the 
"undiscovered  bourne  from  which  no  traveler  returns,"  would  look 
with  astonishment  on  the  present  city.  The  city  of  tents  has  grown 
to  large  dimensions,  covering  many  square  miles  and  containing  many 
stately  edifices  and  blocks  of  beautiful  homes.  The  cottonwoods  and 
willows  of  the  early  days  have  given  place  to  long  lines  of  stately  and 
umbrageous  elms  that  embower  in  a  grateful  shade  the  residences 
along  the  streets,  tempering  the  heat  of  the  summer  days  and  afford 
ing  a  restful  prospect  to  the  eye.  Strangers  visiting  the  city  generally 
remark  on  the  beauty  thus  enhanced,  and  a  visit  to  the  Capitol  dome 
often  induces  them  to  say:  "What  a  beautiful  city!"  Even  old  resi- 
dents who  have  lieen  absent  for  the  past  ten  years  look  in  astonish- 
ment at  the  rapid  changes.  For  in  the  past  five  years  especially  has 
the  place  doffed  the  garb  of  a  country  town  and  blossomed  out  as  a 
live,  progressive  city.  The  ways  of  '49  have  disappeared.  Finely 
improved  streets  have  rapidly  come  to  the  front,  nearly  one  hundred 
miles  of  asphalt,  oiled  macadam  and  some  old  graveled  streets  having 
taken  the  place  of  the  mud  holes  of  twenty  years  ago.  A  splendid 
system  of  electric  car  service  has  sprung  up,  connecting  the  old  city 
with  the  suburbs,  and  is  still  extending  its  ramifications.  The  old  one 
and  two-story  buildings  of  early  days  are  fast  giving  way  to  edifices 
of  five  to  eight  stories,  of  the  most  modern  style  of  architecture.  The 
new  courthouse,  costing  nearly  $600,000,  is  nearing  completion,  and 
the  splendid  new  city  hall  houses  the  various  departments  of  the  city 
government.  The  stately  Capitol  with  its  magnificent  park  is  the  ad- 
miration of  all  visitors,  and  the  art  gallery  and  Sutter's  Fort  are  al- 
ways points  of  attraction  to  our  visitors.  Modern  hotels  furnish  ac- 
commodation to  thousands  of  tourists  and  others  and  the  city  is  often 
spoken  of  as  the  "loveliest  city  on  the  coast."  Investors  from  the 
east  and  elsewhere  are  looking  over  the  ground  and  several  large 
firms  are  starting  extensive  business  adventures  here.  The  recent  an- 
nexation of  the  suburbs  has  greatly  widened  Sacramento's  prospects 
and  the  fact  becomes  more  evident  each  day  that  she  is  destined  in 
the  near  future  to  become  a  great  city.  Her  geographical  situation, 
the  immensely  rich  lands  that  surround  her,  the  great  quantities  of 
fruit  and  other  ]iroducts  grown  around  her  and  shipped  from  here  all 
over  the  country,  are  all  advertising  her  to  the  world  and  bringing 


people  to  her  from  the  frozen  east  to  enjoy   her  climate  and  other 

To  smn  up  its  advantages :  Sacramento  has  the  geographical  ad- 
vantage not  only  of  river  transportation,  but  of  being  the  natural 
center  for  all  transcontinental  railroads  entering  Northern  California. 
Two  already  pass  through  the  city,  two  more  will  certainly  do  so  in 
the  near  future  and  two  more  now  projected  will  probably  do  so.  It 
will  be  the  center  of  many  i-adiating  electric  roads  which  will  bring 
city  and  country  into  close  touch  and  settle  thickly  adjacent  territory. 
The  logical  shipjnng  point  of  all  the  fruit  and  other  products  of  two 
great  valleys  is  here.  The  richest  and  most  productive  area  in  the 
world  is  naturally  tributary  to  Sacramento.  The  three  great  alluvial 
basins  of  the  Sacramento  river,  capable  when  reclaimed  of  supporting 
several  millions,  are  adjacent  to  or  near  Sacramento,  their  natural 
market  or  shipping  point.  The  immense  amount  of  power  capable  of 
being  developed  in  the  Sierra  Nevadas  renders  it  certain  that  many 
factories  will  ultimately  be  centered  here,  giving  employment  to  thou- 



The  discovery  of  gold  at  Coloma  on  the  South  Fork  of  the  Ameri- 
can river  was  soon  heralded  to  the  world  and  a  cosmopolitan  assembly 
soon  poured  into  California  by  land  and  sea  and  in  a  frenzied  race  for 
riches  overspread  the  land,  i)eopling  the  g-ulches  and  ravines  that  had 
never  before  been  trodden  by  the  foot  of  white  man.  Reasoning 
logically  that  the  gold  on  the  rivei-  bars  had  some  source  more  or  less 
distant,  they  explored  every  gully  and  canyon  abo\'e  and  below 
Coloma.  finding  diggings  in  all  of  them  and  many  of  them  very 
rich.  The  country  around  Folsom  was  especially  rich,  and  a  large 
population  soon  centered  there,  making  it  a  lively  raining  camp,  which 
at  one  time  cast  considerably  over  two  thousand  votes.  The  bars  and 
banks  on  the  American  river  for  miles  above  and  below  the  town 
were  very  rich  and  were  worked  over  by  the  early  miners  and  later 
by  hydraulic  process.  In  the  jiast  few  years  gold  dredging  has  be- 
come prevalent  in  that  territory  as  well  as  in  Butte  county.  While  it 
is  impossible  to  obtain  statistics  of  the  amount  of  gold  obtained  by 
dredging,  the  owners  being  secretive,  it  is  known  that  it  runs  into  the 
millions.  While  the  amount  is  so  large,  it  is  regrettable  that  it  cannot 
be  obtained  except  at  the  sacrifice  of  much  of  the  best  land  in  the 
state,  which  is  transformed  by  the  dredgers  from  rich  orchards  and 
vineyards  into  unsightly  heaps  of  cobblestones,  and  ])ractically  re- 
moved for  many  years  from  the  assessment  rolls  of  the  county  as  a 
revenue  ])roducer  for  the  ])ublic  weal.     Much  damage,  it  is  claimed, 


has  been  done  to  the  American  and  other  rivers  by  the  "slickens" 
from  the  dredges  filling  up  the  river  beds  and  fouling  the  water,  and 
there  are  many  who  advocate  the  passage  of  laws  regulating,  if  not 
restraining,  the  oj^eration  of  dredger  mining. 

Hydraulic  mining  succeeded  the  pick,  shovel,  rocker  and  long  torn 
of  the  early  miners  and  was  continued  for  a  number  of  years.  The 
shoaling  of  the  river  beds  and  the  frequent  floods  and  breaking  of 
levees  that  covered  the  adjacent  lands  with  sand  and  debris,  aroused 
the  attention  of  the  dwellers  in  the  valley  and  a  bitter  controversy 
was  begun  between  the  hydraulic  miners  and  the  citizens  of  the  coun- 
ties affected.  An  association  was  formed,  denominated  the  "Anti- 
Debris  Association,"  composed  of  citizens  of  the  counties  along  the 
Sacramento  river.  It  was  pointed  out  that  valuable  orchards  were 
being  destroyed  along  and  below  the  entry  of  the  tributaries  of  the 
Sacramento  which  carried  down  the  detritus  from  the  hydraulic 
mines;  that  the  bed  of  the  Sacramento  and  its  tributaries  was  being 
raised  by  the  deposits  of  the  debris  and  navigation  was  impeded,  if 
not  utterly  destroyed  in  the  summer,  while  the  floods,  the  result  of 
the  raising  of  the  river  plane,  carried  destruction  to  the  low  lands 
and  the  towns  along  their  banks.  Marysville  was  a  great  sufferer 
from  broken  levees  and  inundations  and  today  the  town  lies  below 
the  level  of  the  bottom  of  the  river  on  which  it  is  situated,  while 
thousands  of  formerly  fertile  acres  of  adjacent  lands  are  a  waste  of 
gravel  and  sand  many  feet  deep.  The  association  secured  ap]:)ropria- 
tions  for  its  support  from  the  supervisors  of  the  counties  of  which  its 
membership  was  composed  and  a  long  legal  battle  was  begun  with 
the  object  of  compelling  the  hydraulic  miners  to  cease  their  opera- 

At  last  its  contest  was  successfi;!  and  finally  an  injunction  was 
obtained,  prohibiting  hydraulic  mining  unless  the  debris  could  be  suc- 
cessfully impounded  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  association. 



The  climate  of  Sacramento  county  cannot  be  surpassed  in  the 
state.  To  the  denizen  of  the  east,  where  frost,  snow  and  ice  reign 
for  from  four  to  six  months ;  where  the  farmer  works  for  six  months 
in  the  year  to  provide  for  his  stock  during  the  other  six,  our  climate 
is  a  revelation.  True  he  misses  the  merry  jingle  of  the  sleigh  bells, 
the  exhilarating  sport  of  gliding  over  the  ice  on  skates,  and  the  other 
winter  sports;  neither  is  he  frozen  to  death  in  blizzards,  nor  does  he 
have  to  build  cyclone  cellars  to  which  he  may  retreat  while  his  house 
is  being  picked  up  and  blown  into  the  next  county.  His  winter  sports 
he  can  easily  enjoy,  if  he  desires,  by  boarding  the  cars  and  riding  a 


few  hours  into  the  Sierras.  But  as  a  general  thing,  when  he  has  once 
settled  in  Sacramento  county,  he  prefers  to  remain  where  three-quar- 
ters of  the  winter  is  sunshine  and  the  rest  supplies  him  with  rain  for 
the  ground  to  store  up  and  utilize  in  producing  crops.  Seldom  indeed 
does  the  thermometer  fall  below  the  freezing  point,  and  many  children 
grow  up  in  Sacramento  without  having  ever  seen  any  snow,  except  on 
the  far  distant  Sierras.  With  a  climate  rivaling,  if  not  excelling,  the 
far-famed  climate  of  Italy,  in  a  land  that,  like  Italy,  produces  the  or- 
ange, the  lemon,  the  olive  and  the  vine,  why  should  not  the  emigrant 
from  the  east  pronounce  it  perfect  and  sit  down  content  to  enjoy  his 
life  here?  Is  the  picture  too  highly  drawn?  Ask  the  man  from  Maine, 
or  the  states  bordering  on  the  great  lakes,  or  the  northwest,  who, 
after  traveling  through  cold  and  storm,  crosses .  the  lofty  Sierras — 
sentinels  on  the  east  that  ward  off  the  snow  from  the  great  central 
valleys  of  California — drops  down  in  a  couple  of  hours  from  the  sum- 
mit, to  tind  the  peach  and  almond  trees  in  blossom  in  the  foothills  and 
the  earth  green  with  the  footprints  of  the  spring,  who  hears  the 
hum  of  the  bees,  and  inhales  the  air,  fragrant  with  blossoms,  almost 
before  his  eyes  have  become  used  to  the  absence  of  the  glittering  crys- 
tals of  the  snow  and  ice  of  the  mountain  ranges. 
' '  What  is  so  rare  as  a  day  in  June, 
Then,  if  ever,  come  perfect  days." 
Thus  wrote  Lowell,  the  sweet  singer.  But  Sacramento  does  not  need 
to  wait  till  June.  She  has  perfect  days,  yes,  many  of  them,  while  the 
streams  of  the  New  England  states  and  the  western  states  are  still 
prisoned  in  icy  fetters,  and  the  people  snowbound  or  delving  in  the 
great  snow  drifts  that  make  the  roads  impassable. 

We  hear  mucli  of  the  vaunted  climate  of  southern  Italy  and  Los 
Angeles.  There  is  no  wish  to  disparage  the  merits  of  either.  The 
dwellers  of  Sacramento  county  are  glad  to  know  that  those  places  are 
so  blessed  in  climatic  conditions.  However,  we  present  a  few  trgnrep 
in  comparison.    They  are  authentic  and  furnish  food  for  reflection. 

Statistics,  gathered  from  United  States  Government  Weather 
Bureau  for  past  fifteen  years : 

Southern  Italy. — Average  winter  temperature,  47.3;  average 
spring  temperature,  57.3;  average  summer  temperature,  73.7;  average 
autumn  temperature,  61.9;  average  yearly  temperature,  60.0;  average 
highest  temperature,  85;  average  lowest  temperature,  20;  average 
clear  days,  220. 

Los  Angeles. — Average  winter  temperature,  52.0 ;  average  -spring 
temperature,  60.0 ;  average  summer  temperature,  70.0 ;  average  autumn 
temperature,  65.0;  average  yearly  temperature,  62.0;  average  highest 
temperature  109;  avei-age  lowest  temperature,  28;  average  clear 
days,  250. 

Sacramento. — Average  winter  temperature,  48.0 ;  average  spring 
temperature,  60.0;  average   summer  temperature,   75.0;   average   au- 


tumn  temperature,  61.0;  average  yearly  temperature,  61.0;  average 
highest  temperature,  100;  average  lowest  temperature,  29;  average 
clear  days,  238. 

The  record  of  the  blossoming  of  fruit  trees  for  tweuty-Iive  years 
])revious  to  1894  showed  the  earliest  date  to  have  been  January  20, 
1888,  and  the  latest  March  8,  1871.  No  later  data  are  at  hand,  but 
the  seasons  have  varied  very  little  for  cycles  of  ten  years  since  the 
settlement  of  the  state  and  the  growing  of  fruits,  so  that  these  figures 
may  be  regarded  as  a  fair  average  of  conditions.  Cherries  ripen  and 
are  shipped  from  here  in  Api'il  and  on  exceptional  seasons  a  few 
boxes  have  l)een  shipped  earlier,  the  usual  period  of  blossoming,  how- 
ever, being  aliout  the  15th  of  February.  The  long,  dry  summer  ripens 
all  kinds  of  fruit  perfectly,  and  but  rarely  do  the  autumn  rains  come 
early  enough  to  damage  the  fruit  crop  not  already  marketed.  The 
farmer  leaves  his  hay  or  grain  in  the  stack  for  months  if  necessary, 
secure  that  it  will  not  be  damaged  by  untimely  rains.  Each  season 
thus  brings  its  own  work.  As  the  fall  months  advance  and  the  winter 
begins,  the  rains  make  their  appearance.  The  summer  fallow  is  mois- 
tened and  the  grain  is  sown  and  harrowed.  The  winter  plowing  is 
begun  as  soon  as  the  rain  has  penetrated  the  soil  to  the  proper  depth 
and  when  the  seeding  is  completed  the  farmer  leaves  the  rainfall  to 
complete  the  work. 

In  the  matter  of  rainfall,  Sacramento  county  enjoys  the  happy 
medium,  the  average  rainfall  being  nearly  twenty-one  inches.  Taken 
in  connection  with  the  fertility  of  the  soil,  and  the  conditions  sur- 
rounding the  valley  and  influencing  its  climate,  the  fact  is  that  a  crop 
failure  in  this  county  has  never  been  recorded,  and  that  it  was  the 
boast  of  the  past  generation  of  farmers  that  irrigation  was  not  nec- 
essary in  order  to  secure  a  crop.  That  boast  was  made  in  the  days 
of  wheat  raising  and  does  not  apply  so  strictly  to  fruit  raising  and 
later  methods  of  farming.  Still  in  most  sections  of  the  county  the 
raising  of  grapes  and  deciduous  fruits  and  nuts  is  in  many  cases  made 
profitable  by  thorough  cultivation  without  resorting  to  irrigation. 

While  this  is  true,  there  are  several  irrigation  systems  of  ditches 
from  which  water  can  be  obtained  on  reasonable  terms,  and  which 
is  found  necessary  for  the  production  of  citrus  fruit  and  alfalfa. 

The  absence,  or  rather  scarcity,  of  humidity  in  the  atmosphere  at 
Sacramento  during  the  summer  time  is  a  great  factor  in  making  the 
heat  more  endurable  when  the  thermometer  shows  a  reading  that  is 
high.  As  is  well  known,  a  high  degree  of  atmospheric  humidity  in- 
tensifies the  suffering  when  the  temperature  reaches  one  hundred  de- 
grees or  more.  In  fact,  in  the  country  east  of  the  Rocky  Mountains, 
where  showers  are  more  or  less  frequent  in  the  summer,  there  is  more 
suffering  when  the  thermometer  rises  to  ninety  degrees,  and  the  air 
is  charged  with  moisture,  than  there  would  be  in  Sacramento  when  it 
marked  one  hundred  degrees  or  m.ore.     In  one  case  fatalities  from 


sunstroke  are  verj^  common,  while  in  the  other  sunstroke  is  unknown. 
The  breeze  from  the  ocean  which  ascends  the  Sacramento  river  in  the 
summer  afternoons  has  a  cooling  eifect  on  the  atmosphere  and  renders 
the  evenings  delightful  for  outdoor  amusements.  It  is  a  rare  thing 
in  Sacramento,  in  fact  not  more  than  two  or  three  nights  in  the  year, 
that  a  person  cannot  sleep  comfortably  under  a  sheet  or  even  under 
a  blanket  or  two.  The  spring  and  fall  weather  are  delightful  and 
winter  almost  seems  a  misnomer  when  one  enjoys  the  sunny  days 
when  a  coat  seems  almost  a  burden.  No  wonder,  in  such  a  climate, 
that  the  fruit  trees  haste  to  break  into  blossom  and  fill  the  air  with 
their  fragrance.  To  the  easterner,  impelled  by  the  cold  of  his  native 
state  to  seek  a  more  balmy  climate,  Sacramento  offers  one  not  to  be 
excelled  by  any  other  place,  in  winter  or  summer. 

Sacramento  presents  further  advantages  to  the  settler.  As  has 
lieen  stated,  all  kinds  of  fruits  of  the  temperate  zone,  all  semi-tropical 
fruits,  and  even  some  tropical  fruits  ripen  here  in  perfection.  But  a 
])eculiar  climatic  condition  prevails  in  the  foothill  section  of  the 
Sierras  of  Sacramento  and  the  adjacent  counties.  It  is  known  as  the 
thermal  belt.  The  southern  part  of  the  state  has  been  extensively 
advertised  as  the  home  of  the  orange  and  the  lemon.  AVhile  this  is 
true,  it  is  equally  true  that  Sacramento  and  adjoining  counties  are 
also  the  home  of  the  orange  and  all  other  citrus  fruits  and  the  ship- 
ment of  such  fruits  is  a  constantly  increasing  factor  in  their  ])ros- 
perity.  Many  hundreds  of  carloads  of  oranges,  lemons  and  pomelos 
or  grape  fruit  are  shipjied  to  the  east  annually.  The  very  decided 
advantage  that  Sacramento  has  over  the  southern  part  of  the  state  is 
that  her  oranges  ripen  from  a  month  to  six  weeks  earlier  than  in  the 
south  and  her  crop  is  practically  disposed  of  in  the  eastern  market  for 
the  Tlianksgiving  and  holiday  trade  at  high  jirices,  before  the  southern 
iranges  are  ripe  enough  to  begin  shipment.  Such  being  the  case,  the 
freezing  of  the  orange  crop  is  a  thing  unknown  in  Sacramento  county, 
nor  do  the  later  varieties  ever  suffer  from  frost. 

Olives  thrive  and  bear  profitable  crops  in  Sacramento  county, 
where  there  are  many  orchards  of  them.  As  fine  a  quality  of  oil  as 
is  to  be  found  in  the  state  is  made  at  Fair  Oaks,  and  both  there  and 
in  several  other  places  is  the  business  of  pickling  the  ripe  olive  made 
a  paying  industry. 

We  are  indebted  to  Nathaniel  R.  Taylor,  local  forecaster  of  tlie 
United  States  Weather  Bureau  in  this  city,  for  very  valuable  data 
concerning  the  climate  and  rainfall  in  this  coiintry  from  1849  until  the 
jiresent  time.  We  often  hear  ]:)ersons  make  the  assertion  that  our 
climate  is  changing;  that  this  thing  or  that  is  not  as  it  was  forty  or 
fifty  years  ago.  While  it  is  true  that  there  is  a  different  amount  of 
rainfall  and  temperature  during  individual  years,  it  will  be  seen  that 
taken  in  cycles  of  five  or  ten  years,  the  average  weather  of  the  seasons 
shows  but  little  variation,  and  there  is  no  great  amount  of  change  for 


tlie  past  fifty  years.  The  increase  in  irrigation  which  has  been  made 
during  the  past  few  years,  and  which  will  increase  rapidly  within  the 
next  decade  may  make  a  perceptible  change  in  the  course  of  time,  as 
the  creation  of  the  Salton  sea  has  brought  about  an  increased  rainfall 
in  the  southern  part  of  the  state,  but  as  yet  no  noticeable  change  has 
occurred  here.  As  will  be  seen  by  the  foregoing  table,  our  climate  is 
if  anything  better  than  the  vaunted  climate  of  Italy  and  is  not  mate- 
rially different  from  that  of  Los  Angeles,  upon  which  so  much  stress 
is  laid  by  the  inhabitants  of  the  south.  Taken  all  in  all,  the  climate 
of  our  glorious  state  is  unequaled  by  that  of  any  similar  extent  of 
country  in  the  world,  and  the  Californian  who  desires  a  change  of 
climate  can  easily  obtain  it  in  a  few  hours,  without  lea^dng  his  own 

As  will  be  seen  by  the  table  of  absolute  maxinmm  and  absolute 
minimum  temperature  for  the  last  thirty  years,  taken  in  cycles  of  ten 
years,  the  average  maximum  for  the  ten  years  from  1881  to  1891,  in- 
clusive, is  103.4';  that  from  1891  to  1901  is  104.2';  and  that  from 
1901  to  1911  is  103.6'.  On  the  other  side,  the  average  minimum  from 
1881  to  1891  was  26.5';  from  1891  to  1901,  it  was  27.6';  and  from 
1901  to  1911  it  was  29.4'. 

The  following  table  gives  the  monthly,  seasonal  and  annual  rain- 
fall from  1849  to  January  1,  1912,  and  will  be  found  a  very  valuable 
one  for  reference.  As  will  be  seen  by  it,  the  average  seasonal  rainfall 
for  the  sixty-two  years  is  19.48  inches,  and  the  annual  rainfall  is  19.24 

Sacramento  rainfall,  monthly,  seasonal  and  annual,  1849-1911: 

1849-50.— July,  0;  August,  0-  September,  0.25;  October,  1.50;  No- 
vember, 2.25;  December,  12.50;  January,  4.50;  February,  0.50;  March, 
10.00;  April,  4.25;  May,  0.25;  June,  0;  seasonal,  36.00;  year,  1850; 
annual,  19.50. 

1850-51.— July,  0;  August,  0;  September,  0;  October,  0;  No- 
vemlier,  T. ;  December,  T. ;  January,  0.65;  February,  0.35;  March, 
1.88;  April,  1.14;  May,  0.69;  June,  0;  seasonal,  4.71;  year,  1851; 
annual,  15.10. 

1851-52.— July,  0;  August,  0;  September,  1.00;  October,  0.18;  No- 
vember, 2.14;  December,  7.07;  January,  0.58;  February,  0.12;  March, 
6.40;  A])ril,  0.19;  May,  0.30;  Jime,  6;  seasonal,  17.98;  year,  1852; 
annual,  26.99. 

1852-53.— July,  T. ;  August,  0;  September,  T.;  October,  0;  No- 
vember, 6.00;  December,  13.40;  January,  3.00;  February,  2.00;  March, 
7.00;  April,  3.50;  May,  1.45;  June,  T.;  seasonal,  36.35;  year,  1853; 
annual,  19.99. 

1853-54.— July,  0;  August,  0;  September,  T.;  October,  T.;  No- 
vember, 1.50;  December,  1.54;  January,  3.25;  February,  8.50;  March, 
3.25;  April,  1.50;  May,  0.21;  June,  0.31;  seasonal,  20.06;  year,  1854; 
annual,  19.83. 


1854-55.— July,  0 ;  August,  T. ;  September,  T. ;  October,  1.01 ;  No- 
vember, 0.65;  December,  1.15;  January,  2.67;  February,  3.46;  March, 
4.20;  April,  4.32;  May,  1.15;  Jime,  0.01;  seasonal,  18.62;  year,  1855; 
annual,  18.56. 

1855-56. — July,  0 ;  Augaist,  0 ;  Sejjtember,  T. ;  October,  0 ;  No- 
vember, 0.75 ;  December,  2.00 ;  January,  4.92 ;  February,  0.69 ;  March, 
1.40;  April,  2.13;  May,  1.84;  June,  0.03;  seasonal,  13.76;  year,  1856; 
annual,  14.26. 

1856-57.— July,  0;  August,  0;  September,  T.;  October,  0.20;  No- 
vember, 0.65;  December,  2.40;  January,  1.38;  February,  4.80;  March. 
0.68;  April,  T. ;  May,  T. ;  June,  0.3.5;  seasonal,  10.-16;  year,  1857; 
annual,  12.91. 

1857-58.— July,  0;  August,  T.;  September,  0;  October,  0.66;  No- 
vember, 2.41;  December,  2.63;  January,  2.44;  February,  2.46;  March, 
2.88;  April,  1.21;  May,  0.20;  June,  O.iO;  seasonal,  14.99;  year,  1858; 
annual,  16.80. 

1858-59.— July,  0.01;  August,  T. ;  Septembei',  T. ;  October,  3.01; 
November,  0.15;  December,  4.34;  January,  0.96;  February,  3.91; 
March,  1.64;  April,  0.98;  May,  1.04;  June,"  0;  seasonal,  16.04;  year, 
1859;  annual,  16.86. 

1859-60.— July,  0;  August,  0;  September,  0.02;  October,  0;  No- 
vember, 6.48;  December,  1.83;  January,  2.31;  Feliruary,  0.93;  March, 
5.11;  Ain-il,  2.87;  May,  2.49 ;  June,  0.02;  seasonal,  22.06;  year,  1860; 
annual,  19.79. 

1860-61.— July,  0.63;  August,  0;  September,  0.06;  October,  0.91; 
November,  0.18;  December,  4.28;  January,  2.67;  P"'ebruary,  2.92; 
March,  3.32;  April,  0.48;  May,  0.59;  June,  0.14;  seasonal,  16.18;  year. 
1861 ;  annual,  21.48. 

1861-62.— July,  0.55;  August,  0;  Septeml)er,  0;  October,  T.;  No- 
vember, 2.17;  December,  8.64;  January,  15.04;  February,  4.26;  March, 
2.80 ;  April,  0.82 ;  May,  1.81 ;  June,  0.01 ;  seasonal, ;  year,  1862 ; 
annual,  27.44. 

1862-63.— July,  0 ;  August,  0.01 ;  September,  0 ;  October,  0.36 ;  No- 
vember, T. ;  December,  2.33;  January,  1.73;  February,  2.75;  March, 
2.36;  April,  1.69;  May,  0..36;  June,  0;  seasonal,  11.59;  year,  1863; 
annual,  12.20. 

1863-64.— July,  0;  August,  0;  September,  T.;  Octol)er,  0;  No- 
vember, 1.49;  December,  1.82;  January,  1.08;  February,  0.19;  March, 
1.30;  April,  1.08;  May,  0.74;  June,  0.09;  seasonal,  7.79;  year,  1864; 
anmml,  19.27. 

1864-65.— July,  0;  August,  0.08;  September,  T.;  October,  0.12; 
November,  6.72;  December,  7.87;  January.  4.78;  February,  0.71; 
March,  0.48;  Ai)ril,  1..37;  May,  0.46;  June,"0;  seasonal,  22.59;  year, 
1865;  annual,  11.15. 

1865-66.— July,  T.;  August,  0;  September,  0.08;  October,  0.48;  No- 
vember, 2.43;  December,  0.36;  January,  7.70;  February,  2.01;  March, 


2.02;  April,  0.48;  May,  2.25;  Juue,  U.IO;  seasonal,  17.i»l;  year,  1866; 
annual,  26.52. 

1866-67.— July,  0.02;  Augaist,  0;  September,  0;  October,  T. ;  No- 
vember, 2.43;  December,  9.51;  January,  3.44;  February,  7.10;  March, 
1.01;  April,  1.80;  May,  0.01;  June,  6;  seasonal,  25.32;  year,  1867; 
annual,  30.03. 

1867-68.— July,  0;  August,  0;  September,  0.01;  October,  0;  No- 
vember, 3.81;  December,  12.85;  January,  6.04;  February,  3.15;  March, 
4.35;  April,  2.31;  May,  0.27;  June,  T.;  seasonal,  32.79;  year,  1868; 
annual,  19.50. 

1868-69.— July,  0;  August,  0;  September,  0;  October,  0;  No- 
vember, 0.77;  December,  2.61;  January,  4.79;  February,  3.63;  March, 
2.94;  April,  1.24;  May,  0.65;  June,  0.01;  seasonal,  16.64;  year,  1869; 
annual,  18.19. 

1869-70.— July,  0;  Aug-ust,  0;  September,  T.;  October,  2.12;  No- 
vember, 0.85;  December,  1.96;  Jauuar.y,  1.37;  February,  3.24;  March, 
1.64;  April,  2.12;  May,  0.27;  June,  T. ;  seasonal,  13.57;  year,  1870; 
annual,  10.21. 

1870-71.— July,  T.;  August,  T.;  September,  0;  October,  0.02;  No- 
vember, 0.58;  December,  0.97;  January,  2.08;  February,  1.92;  March, 
0.69;  April,  1.45;  May,  0.76;  June,  T. ;  seasonal,  8.47;  year,  1871; 
annual,  18.92. 

1871-72.— July,  0;  August,  0;  September,  T.;  October,  0.21;  No- 
vember, 1.22 ;  December,  10.59 ;  January,  4.04 ;  February,  4.74 ;  March, 
1.94;  April,  0.61;  May,  0.28;  June,  0.02;  seasonal,  23.65;  year,  1872; 
annual,  19.17. 

1872-73.— July,  0;  August,  0;  September,  T.;  October,  0.22;  No- 
vember, 1.93;  December,  5.39;  January,  1.23;  February,  4.36;  March, 
0.55;  April,  0.51;  May,  0;  Jime,  T. ;  seasonal,  14.19;  year,  1873; 
annual,  18.20. 

1873-74.— July,  0.02;  August,  T. ;  September,  0;  October,  0.31; 
November,  1.21;  December,  10.01;  January,  5.20;  February,  1.86; 
March,  3.05;  April,  0.99;  May,  0.37;  June,  T.;  seasonal,  22.92;  year. 
1874;  annual,  17.92. 

1874-75.— July,  T.;  August,  0;  September,  0.05;  October,  2.26; 
November,  3.80;  December,  0.44;  January,  8.70;  February,  0.55; 
March,  0.80;  April,  T.;  May,  T. ;  June,  1.10;  seasonal,  17.70;  year, 
1875;  annual,  23.31. 

1875-76— July,  0 ;  August,  0 ;  September,  0 ;  October,  0.44 ;  Novem- 
ber, 6.20;  December,  5.52;  January,  4.99;  February,  3.75;  March,  4.15; 
x\pril,  1.10;  Mav,  0.15;  June,  0;  seasonal,  26.30;  vear,  1876;  annual, 

1876-77— Julv,  0.21;  August,  0.02;  September,  T. ;  October,  3.45; 
November,  0.30 ;  December,  0;  Januarv,  2.77;  February,  1.04;  March. 
0.56;  April,  0.19;  May,  0.64;  June,  0.01;  seasonal.  9.19;  year,  1877; 
annual,  8.44. 


1877-78— July,  T.;  August,  T.;  September,  0;  October,  0.73;  Nov- 
ember, 1.07;  December,  1.43;  January,  9.26;  February,  8.04;  March, 
3.09;  April,  1.07;  May,  0.17;  June,  0;  seasonal,  24.86;  year,  1878; 
annual,  23.45. 

1878-79— July,  0 ;  August,  0 ;  September,  0.29 ;  October,  0.55,  Nov- 
ember, 0.51;  December,  0.47;  January,  3.18;  February,  3.88;  March, 
4.88;  April,  2.66;  May,  1.30;  June,  0.13;  seasonal,  17.85;  year,  1879; 
annual,  22.37. 

1879-80— July,  T. ;  August,  T. ;  September,  0 ;  October,  0.88 ;  Nov- 
ember, 2.05;  December,  3.41;  January,  1.64;  February,  1.83;  March, 
1.70;  April,  14.20;  May,  0.76;  June,"0;  seasonal,  26.47;  year,  1880; 
annual,  31.99. 

1880-81— July,  T.;  Augaist,  0;  September,  O;0ctober,  0;  Novem- 
ber, 0.05;  December,  11.81;  January,  6.14;  February,  5.06;  March, 
1.37;  April,  1.64;  May,  T.;  June,  0.50;  seasonal,  26.57;  year,  1881; 
annual,  20.71. 

1881-82— July,  T.;  August,  0;  September,  0.30;  October,  0.55;  Nov- 
ember, 1.88;  December,  3.27;  January,  1.89;  February,  2.40;  March, 
3.78;  April,  1.99;  May,  0.35;  June,  0.10;  seasonal,  16.51;  year,  1882; 
annual,  18.06. 

1882-83— July,  T.;  August,  0;  September,  0.57;  October,  2.63;  Nov- 
ember, 3.22;  December,  1.13;  January,  2.23;  Februarv,  1.11;  March, 
3.70;  April,  0.67;  May,  2.85;  June,  0;  seasonal,;  year,  1883; 
annual,  13.48. 

1883-84— July,  0 ;  August,  0 ;  September,  0.90 ;  October,  0.97 ;  Nov- 
ember, 0.61;  December,  0.44;  Januarv,  3.43;  Februarv,  4.46;  March, 
8.14;  April,  4.32;  May,  0.06;  June,  1.45;  seasonal,  24.78;  year,  1884; 
annual,  34.92. 

1884-85— July,  0 ;  August,  T. ;  September,  0.60 ;  October,  2.01,  Nov- 
ember, 0;  December,  10.45;  January,  2.16;  Februarv,  0.49;  March, 
0.08;  April,  0.68;  May,  T. ;  June,  0.11;  seasonal,  16.58;  vear,  1885; 
annual,  20.72. 

1885-86— July,  T.;  August,  0;  September,  0.08;  October,  0.02;  Nov- 
ember, 11.34;  December,  5.76;  Januarj^,  7.95;  February,  0.29;  March, 
2.68;  April,  4.08;  May,  0.07;  June,  0;  seasonal,  32.27;  year,  1886; 
annual,  18.17. 

1886-87— July,  0;  August,  0;  September,  0;  October,  0.68;  Nov- 
ember, 0.21;  December,  2.21;  January,  1.12;  Februarv,  6.28;  March, 
0.94;  April,  2.53;  Mav,  T.;  June,  OJ  seasonal,  13.97;  vear,  1887; 
annual,  13.43. 

1887-88— July,  0;  August,  T.;  September,  0.02;  October,  0;  Nov- 
ember, 0.45;  December,  2.09;  January,  4.81;  Februarv,  0.57;  March, 
3.04;  April,  0.10;  May,  0.40;  June,  0.08;  seasonal,  11.56;  year,  1888; 
annual,  18.46. 

1888-89— July,  T. ;  August,  T. ;  September,  0.55 ;  October,  0 ;  Nov- 
ember, 4.28;  December,  4.63;  January,  0.15;  Februarv,  0.33;  March, 
6.25 ;  April,  0.26 ;  Mav,.  3.25 ;  June,  0.25 ;  seasonal,  19.95 ;  year,  1889 ; 
annual,  27.48. 

1889-90— July,  0;  August,  0;  September,  0;  October,  6.02;  Nov- 
ember, 3.15 ;  December,  7.82 ;  .January,  6.62 ;  February,  4.06 ;  March, 


3.00;  April,  1.33;  May,  1.80;  June,  0;  seasonal,  33.80;  year,  1890; 
annual,  20.95. 

1890-91— July,  0;  Aiioust,  T.;  September,  0.80;  October,  T.;  Nov- 
ember, 0;  December,  3.34;  January,  0.53;  February,  6.61;  March, 
1.78;  April,  2.04;  May,  0.66;  June,  0.05;  seasonal,  15.81;  year,  1891; 
annual,  15.63. 

1891-92— July,  T. ;  August,  0 ;  September,  0.10 ;  October,  0.10 ;  Nov- 
ember, 0.48;  December,  3.28;  January,  1.78;  February,  2.84;  March, 
3.02;  April,  1.20;  Mav,  2.38;  June,  T.;  seasonal,  15.18;  year,  1892; 
annual,  23.60. 

1892-93— July,  0;  August,  0;  September,  0.18;  October,  0.70;  Nov- 
ember, 6.60,  December,  4.90;  January,  3.27;  February,  2.66;  March, 
.3.51;  April,  1.08;  May,  1.05;  June,  0;  seasonal,  2.3.95;  year,  1893; 
annual,  16.59. 

1893-94— July,  T. ;  August,  T. ;  September,  0.22 ;  October,  0.12 ;  Nov- 
ember, 2.92;  December,  1.76;  January,  4.17;  February,  3.92;  March 
0.74;  April,  0.34;  May,  1.70;  June,  0.46;  seasonal,  16.35;  year,  1894; 
annual,  22.61. 

1894-95— July,  T. ;  August,  T. ;  September,  0.88 ;  October,  1.06 ;  Nov- 
ember, 0.48;  December,  8.86;  January,  8.42;  February,  1.84;  March, 
1.20;  April,  0.86;  May,  0.51;  June,  0;  seasonal,  24.11;  year,  1895; 
annual,  17.38. 

1895-96— July,  0.04;  August,  T. ;  September,  1.26:  October,  0.17; 
November,  1.54 ;  December,  1.54 ;  January,  9.76 ;  February,  0.09 ;  March, 
2.57;  April.  5.34;  May,  0.92;  June,  0;  seasonal,  23.23;"  year,  1896; 
annual,  25.06. 

1896-97— July,  T.;  August,  0.20;  September,  0.31;  October,  0.55; 
November,  3.56 ;  December,  1.76 ;  January,  3.66 ;  February,  4.15 ;  March. 
2.54;  April,  0.25;  May,  0.30;  June,  0.04;  seasonal,  17.32;  year,  1897; 
annual,  15.32. 

1897-98— July,  0 ;  August,  0.01 ;  September,  0.16 ;  October,  1.96 ;  Nov- 
ember, 0.61;  December,  1.64;  January,  0.98;  February,  3.19;  March, 
0.04;  April,  0.28;  May,  1.50;  June,  0.14;  seasonal,  10.51;  year,  1898; 
annual,  10.04. 

1898-99— July,  0;  August,  0;  September,  0.36;  October,  0.64; 
November,  0.61;  December,  2.30;  January,  3.94;  February,  0.04;  March, 
6.02;  April,  0.10;  May,  0.54;  June,  0.49;'  seasonal,  15.04;  year,  1899: 
annual,  21.14. 

1899-00— July,  0 ;  August,  0.02 ;  September,  0 ;  October,  4.46 ;  Nov 
ember,  2.62;  December,  2.91;  January,  3.54;  February,  0.32;  March, 
1.61,  April,  1.88;  May,  2.88;  June,  T.;  seasonal,  20.24;  year,  1900: 
annual,  17.91. 

1900-01— July,  T.;  August,  0;  September,  0.06;  October,  1.74;  Nov 
ember,  4.50;  December,  1.38;  January,  3.70;  February.  5.32;  March, 
0.48;  April,  2.23;  Mav,  0.80;  June,  T";  seasonal,  20.21;  year,  1901; 
annual,  18.52. 

1901-02— July,  0 ;  August,  T. ;  September,  0.56 ;  October,  1.56 ;  Nov- 
ember, 2.68;  December,  1.19;  January,  0.95;  February,  6.52;  March, 
1.99;  April,  1.36;  May,  0.45;  June,  0.01;  seasonal,  17.27;  year,  1902; 
annual,  17.88. 

1902-03— July,  0;  Augiist,  T.;  September,  0;  October,  1.67;  Nov- 


ember,  2.02;  December,  2.91;  January,  3.05;  February,  1.70;  March, 
4.81;  April,  0.46;  May,  T. ;  June,  T.;"  seasonal,  16.62;  year,  1903; 
annual,  14.70. 

1903-04— July,  0 ;  August,  0 ;  September,  0 ;  October,  0.12 ;  Nov- 
ember, 3.44;  December,  1.12;  January,  0.45;  February,  5.26;  Marchj 
5.43;  April,  1.02;  Mav,  0.03;  June,  T. ;  seasonal,  16.87;  vear,  1904; 
annual,  20.99. 

1904-05— July,  T.;  August,  0.07;  September,  3.62;  October,  1.86; 
Noyember  2.05;  December,  1.20;  January,  3.33;  February,  2.47;  March, 
3.75;  April,  1.18;  May,  2.45;  June,  0;  "seasonal,  21.98;  year,  1905; 
annual,  14.97. 

1905-06— July,  0;  August,  T.;  September,  0.03;  October,  0;  Nov- 
ember, 1.20 ;  December,  0.56 ;  January,  6.63 ;  February.  3.02 ;  March, 
8.45;  April,  1.21;  May,  2.24;  Jime,  0.59;  seasonal,  23.93;  year,  1906; 
annual,  30.70. 

1906-07— July,  0 ;  August,  T. ;  September,  0.20 ;  October,  T. ;  Nov- 
ember, 0.99 ;  December,  7.37 ;  January,  4.63 ;  February,  2.37 ;  March, 
7.28;  April,  0.25;  May,  0.10;  June,  0.85;  seasonal,  24.04;  year,  1907; 
annual,  20.05. 

1907-08— July,  0;  August,  0;  September,  T.;  October,  1.20;  Nov- 
ember, 0.04;  December,  3.33;  January,  3.84;  February,  2.75  March, 
0.42;  April,  0.08;  May,  0.54;  June,  T.;  seasonal,  12.20;  yeai.  1908: 
annual,  11.21. 

1908-09— July,  T.;  August,  0;  September,  0.05;  October,  0.26;  Nov- 
ember, 1.23;  December,  2.04;  January,  9.65;  February.  6.68;  March, 
1.84;  April,  T. ;  May,  T. ;  June,  0.03;"  seasonal,,  21.78;  year.  1909; 
annual,  24.87. 

1909-10— July,  0 ;  August,  0 ;  September,  0.21 ;  October,  1.27 ;  Nov- 
ember, 1.32;  December,  3.87;  January,  1.48;  February,  0.83;  March, 
3.06;  April,  0.11;  May,  0.03;  June,  T. ;  seasonal,  12.18;  year.  1910; 
annual,  7.78. 

1910-11— July,  T. ;  August,  0 ;  September,  0.20 ;  October,  0.28 ;  Nov- 
ember; 0.17;  December,  1.62;  January,  12.72;  February,  1.88;  March, 
4.30;  April,  0.66;  May,  0.03;  June,  0.12;  seasonal,  21.98;  year.  1911; 
annual,  21.11. 

1911-12— July,  0;  August,  0;  September,  T.;  October,  0.18;  Nov- 
ember, 0.15;  December,  1.07;  January,  0;  February,  0;  March,  0; 
April,  0;  May,  0;  June,  0;  seasonal,  0;  year,  1912;  annual,  0; 

Means  (62  years),  July,  0.02;  August,  0.01;  September,  0.22;  Oct- 
ober, 0.83;  November,  2.02;  December,  3.95;  January,  3.96;  Februarv, 
2.89;  March,  3.00;  April,  1.58;  May,  0.80;  Jime,  0.12;  seasonal,  19.48; 
annual,  19.24. 


Following  is  a  table  of  al>soliite  maxinnim  and  minimum  tempera- 
tures since  1878: 

Year,  1878:     Absolute  maximum,  100  in  August;  a1)solute  minimum, 

24  in  December. 

Year,  1879  :    Al)solute  maximum,  103  in  August ;  absolute  minimum, 

25  in  Deceml)er. 


Year,  1880:  Absolute  niaxinuun,  98  in  July;  absolute  iiiuuinum, 
25  in  January. 

Year,  1881:  Absolute  niaxinuun,  !)8  in  July;  al)solnte  minimuni, 
32  in  November  and  December. 

Year.  1882:  Absolute  maximum,  lOU  in  August  and  Septeniher ; 
absolute  minimum,  27  in  December. 

Year,  1883:  Absolute  maximum,  104-  in  July;  absolute  niiniuunn, 
22  in  January  and  February. 

Year,  1884:  Absolute  maximum,  100  in  August;  absohite  mini- 
mum, 21  in  February. 

Year,  1885:  Absolute  maximum,  105  in  August;  absolute  mini- 
mum, 34  in  January. 

Year,  1886:     Absolute  niaxinuun,  105  in  July;  absolute  minimum, 

28  in  January. 

Year,  1887:  Absolute  maximum,  100  in  June,  August  and  Sep- 
tember; alisolute  minimum,  28  in  November. 

Year,  1888 :  Absolute  maximum,  108  in  August ;  absolute  minimum, 
19  in  January. 

Year,  1889 :  Absolute  maximum,  104  in  July,  absolute  minimum, 
31  in  January  and  February. 

Year,  1890:     Absolute  maximum,  102  in  July;  absolute  miniinum, 

29  in  January. 

Year,  1891:  Absolute  maximum,  106  in  June,  July  and  August; 
absolute  minimum,  26  in  December. 

Year,  1892 :  Absolute  maximum,  106  in  August ;  alisolute  mini- 
mum, 26  in  December. 

Year,  1893:  Absolute  maximum,  103  in  July;  absolute  minimum, 
28  in  December. 

Year,  1894:  Absolute  maximum,  108  in  August;  absolute  mini- 
mum, 26  in  December. 

Year,  1895:  Absolute  maximum,  102  in  June;  absolute  minimum 
28  in  December. 

Y'ear,  1896:  Absolute  maximum,  104  in  July,  absolute  miuinium 
28  in  January. 

Year,  1897:     Absolute  maximum,  105  in  July;  absolute  luininium 

28  in  December. 

Year,  1898:  Absolute  maximum,  110  in  August,  absolute  mini 
mum,  26  in  January. 

Year,  1899:     Absolute  maximum,  102  in  July;  absolute  niinimum 

30  in  February. 

Y^ear,  1900:  Absolute  maximum,  102  in  August;  absolute  mini 
mum,  30  in  December. 

Year.  1901:  Absolute  maximum,  105  in  August;  absolute  mini 
mum,  26  in  January. 

Year,  1902:     Absolute  maximum,  107  in  July;  absolute  miniinum 

29  in  January. 

Year,  1903 :  Absolute  maximum,  102  in  September ;  absolute  mini 
mum,  29  in  January. 

Year,  1904:  Absolute  maximum,  102  in  September,  absolute  mini 
mum,  32  in  January. 


Year,  1905 :    Absolute  maxinnim,  110  in  July ;  absolute  minimum. 

28  in  December. 

Year,  1906:     Absolute  maximum,  104  in  July,  absolute  minimum, 

30  in  December. 

Year,  1907:     Absolute  maximum,  99  in  August;  absolute  minimum, 

31  in  January. 

Year,  1908:  Absolute  maximum,  103  in  August;  absolute  mini- 
mum, 28  in  December. 

Year,  1909:     Absolute  maximum,  101  in  July;  absolute  minimum, 

29  in  December. 

Year,  1910:  Absolute  maxinmm,  103  in  May;  absolute  minimum, 
28  in  January. 

Year,  1911:     Absolute  maximum,  100  in  July;  absolute  minimum. 

30  in  December. 

The  following  tables  will  be  found  of  interest  in  relation  to  climate: 


Average  Conditions  by  Montbs 

Humidity  24  years.    Sunshine  mean  for  5  years. 

January:  Humidity,  5  a.  m.,  86;  5  p.  m..  71;  per  cent  of  sunshine. 
37;  hours  of  sunshine,  111.5. 

February:  Humidity,  5  a.  m.,  83;  5  p.  m.,  61;  per  cent  of  sunshine, 
54;  hours  of  sunshine,  162.2. 

March:  Humidity,  5  a.  m.,  81;  5  p.  m.,  55;  per  cent  of  sunshine,  63; 
hours  of  sunshine,  234.5. 

April :  Humidity,  5  a.  m.,  79 ;  5  p.  m.,  46 ;  per  cent  of  sunshine,  81 ; 
hours  of  sunshine,  323.4. 

May:  Humidity,  5  a.  m.,  78;  5  p.  m.,  44;  per  cent  of  sunshine,  ^3; 
hours  of  sunshine,  368.0. 

June:  Humidity,  5  a.  m.,  75;  5  p.  m.,  38;  per  cent  of  sunshine,  87; 
hours  of  sunshine,  390.4. 

July:  Humidity,  5  a.  m.,  75;  5  p.  m.,  34;  per  cent  of  sunshine.  96; 
hours  of  sunshine,  4.34.3. 

August :  Humidity,  5  a.  m.,  75 ;  5  p.  m.,  35  ;  per  cent  of  sunshine,  !)6  ; 
hours  of  .sunshine,  405.4. 

September  :  Ilumiflity,  5  a.  m.,  72 ;  5  p.  m.,  36 ;  )ier  cent  of  sunshine, 
88;  hours  of  sunsliine,  329.3. 

October:  Humidity,  5  a.  m.,  74;  5  p.  m.,  43;  ]ier  cent  of  sunshine. 
77 ;  hours  of  sunshine,  265.7. 

November:  Humidity,  5  a.  in.,  76;  5  p.  m.,  53 ;  per  cent  of  sunshine, 
60 ;  hours  of  sunshine,  180.0. 

December:  Humidity,  5  a.  m.,  82;  5  p.  m.,  40;  jier  cent  of  sunshine, 
38;  hours  of  sunshine,  111.2. 


1878  to  1911,  Inclusive. 

January :  Al)solute  maximum,  72;  year  and  date,  30,  1899 ;  absolute 
minimum,  19;  year  and  date,  14,1888. 


February:  Absolute  maximum,  76;  year  and  date,  28,  1889;  abso- 
lute minimum,  21 ;  year  and  date,  13,  1884. 

March:  Absolute  maximum,  80;  year  and  date,  30,  1882;  absolute 
minimum,  29 ;  year  and  date,  15,  1880. 

April:  Absolute  maximum,  89;  year  and  date,  24,  1910;  absolute 
minimum,  35 ;  year  and  date,  4,  1901. 

May:  Absolute  maximum,  103;  year  and  date,  30.1910;  absolute 
minimum,  39 ;  year  and  date,  9,  1896. 

June:  Absolute  maximum,  106;  year  and  date,  30,  1891;  absolute 
minimum,  44;  year  and  date,  1,  1890. 

July:  Absolute  maximum,  110;  year  and  date,  8,  1905;  absolute 
minimum,  47 ;  year  and  date,  3,  1901. 

August:  Absolute  maximum,  110;  year  and  date,  11,  1898;  absolute 
minimum,  48;  year  and  date,  30,  1887. 

September :  Absolute  maximum,  106 ;  year  and  date,  1 1 ,  1888 ;  abso- 
lute minimum,  44 ;  year  and  date,  18,  1882. 

October:  Absolute  maximum,  98;  year  and  date,  3,  1885;  absolute 
mininnmi,  36;  year  and  date,  14,  1881. 

November  :  Absolute  maximiun,  81 ;  year  and  date,  5,  1898 ;  absolute 
minimum,  27 ;  year  and  date.  28,  1880. 

December :  Absolute  maximum,  69  ;  year  and  date,  8, 1893 ;  absolute 
minimum,  24;  vear  and  date.  14,  1883. 


1895  to  1911,  Inclusive. 

January:  Maximum  velocity,  60;  direction.  Southeast;  year,  1901 
day,  3. 

February :  Maximum  velocity,  60 ;  direction.  Southeast ;  year,  1902 
day,  25. 

March :  Maximum  velocitv,  65 ;  direction.  Southeast ;  year,  1904 
day,  10. 

April :    Maximum  velocity,  46;  direction.  South;  year,  1902;  day,  7 

May:  Maximum  velocity,  45;  direction.  Northwest;  year,  1902 
day.  18.' 

June:  Maximum  ^■elocitv,  42;  direction,  Northwest;  venr,  1886 
day.  12. 

Jiilv:  Maximum  velocitv,  40;  direction,  Northwest;  vear,  1903 
day,  2. 

Aiis^ust:  Maximum  veloritv,  38;  direction.  Soutliwest ;  vear,  1908 
dav,  9. 

September:  Maximum  velocitv,  40;  direction.  Northwest:  vear 
1903;  day,  11. 

(Vtober:  Maximum  velocitv,  48;  direction.  South;  vear,  18  »4 
day,  20. 

November:  Maximum  \eIocitv,  48;  direction.  North;  vear,  1895 
day,  22. 

December  :  Maximum  velocitv,  60 ;  direction.  Southeast ;  year,  1894 
dav,  9. 




No  man's  name  is  so  intimately  connected  with  the  settlement  of 
Sacramento  city  and  county  as  that  of  Gen.  John  A.  Sutter,  the  first 
permanent  white  settler  within  its  limits  and  the  pioneer  of  civiliza- 
tion here.  Born  of  Swiss  parents,  in  the  Grand  Duchy  of  Baden, 
February  28,  1803,  and  educated  there,  he  entered  the  French  military 
service  as  captain  under  Charles  X  and  remained  there  until  he  was 
thirty  years  of  age.  Embarking  for  New  York,  he  arrived  there  in 
July,  1834,  having  come  to  select  a  place  and  prepare  the  way  for  a 
colony  of  his  countrymen  in  the  west.  His  first  location  was  at 
St.  Charles,  Mo.,  but  liaving  lost  his  property  through  the  sinking  of 
a  vessel,  he  abandoned  the  place.  Leaving  St.  Louis,  where  he  had 
stayed  for  a  time,  he  went  to  New  Mexico.  There  lie  met  some  hunters 
and  trappers,  who  told  him  of  Uiiper  California,  whither  they  had 
journeyed,  of  its  fertile  and  beautiful  valleys,  its  verdant  foothills 
and  its  lofty  mountain  ranges,  covered  with  magnificent  pine  and 
redwood  forests.  He  at  once  resolved  to  go  to  this  state  and  make 
it  liis  future  field  of  labor.  There  being  no  lines  of  steamers  running 
to  California  ports,  the  only  way  of  arriving  here  was  to  cross  the 
))lains  and  mountains  with  one  of  the  trapping  expeditions  of  the 
American  or  English  fur  companies.  Accordinglj^,  April  1,  1836,  he 
joined  Captain  Tripp,  of  the  American  F'ur  Company,  and  traveled 
with  him  to  the  rendezvous  in  the  Rocky  Mountains. ,  Crossing  the 
mountains  with  six  horsemen,  after  a  long  and  dangerous  trip,  he  ar- 
rived at  Fort  Vancouver.  Embarking  on  a  vessel  bound  for  the 
Sandwich  Islands,  he  hoped  to  find  an  opportunity  to  sail  thence  to 
the  Pacific  Coast  and  sailed  from  the  islands  in  a  vessel  bound  for 
Sitka  and  from  there  down  the  coast.  July  2,  1839,  the  vessel  was 
driven  by  furious  gales  into  the  bay  of  Yerba  Buena  (as  San  Fran- 
cisco was  then  called),  and  there  was  boarded  by  a  government  officer 
with  an  armed  force,  who  ordered  him  to  leave,  saying  that  Monterey, 
ninety  miles -south,  was  the  port  of  entry.  Sutter,  however,  obtained 
leave  to  stay  forty-eight  hours  in  order  to  jirocure  supplies. 

When  he  reached  Monterey  he  succeeded  in  meeting  Governor 
Alvarado,  whom  he  told  that  he  wished  to  secure  and  colonize  a  sec- 
tion of  country  in  Upper  California  on  the  Sacramento  river.  The 
governor,  who  was  desirous  that  the  country  should  be  subdued  and 
settled,  warmly  approved  Sutter's  plan,  but  warned  him  that  the  In- 
dians were  hostile  and  would  not  allow  the  whites  to  settle  there; 
further,  that  they  had  robbed  the  people  of  San  Jose  and  the  lower 
country  of  their  cattle  and  other  property.  However,  he  gave  Sutter 
a  passport   with   authority   to   explore   and   occupy   any  territory   he 


might  consider  desirable  for  liis  colony,  and  requested  him  to  return 
in  one  year,  when  he  should  have  his  citizenship  acknowledged  and 
receive  a  grant  of  such  lands  as  he  might  desire  to  secure. 

Returning  to  Yerba  Bueua,  wliich  at  that  time  contained  scarcely 
fifty  inhabitants,  Sutter  secured  a  schooner  and  several  small  boats 
with  which  to  explore  the  interior,  and  started  with  ten  whites  to 
ascend  the  river.  He  could  secure  no  guide,  as  no  one  could  be  found 
who  had  ever  ascended  the  Sacramento  river.  However,  in  eight  days 
he  discovered  the  mouth  of  the  river.  Reaching  a  point  about  ten 
miles  below  the  present  city  of  Sacramento,  he  came  on  a  jiarty  of 
about  two  hundred  Indians  who  showed  hostility.  As  some  of  the  In- 
dians fortunately  understood  Spanish,  Sutter  was  able  to  assure  them 
that  there  were  no  Spaniards  (against  whom  the  Indians  showed  par- 
ticular hostility)  among  his  party,  and  explained  that  he  was  simply 
a  peaceful  citizen,  coming  among  them  to  settle  and  trade.  Finally 
he  was  guided  by  two  Indians  who  spoke  Spanish,  up  the  river  to  the 
Feather  river.  He  made  his  way  up  this  river  for  some  distance,  but 
some  of  his  white  men  became  alarmed  and  discontented  and  he  was 
constrained  to  return.  Reaching  the  mouth  of  the  American  river,  he 
ascended  it  a  short  distance,  and  AugTist  15,  1839,  landed  at  a  point 
on  the  southern  side,  where  he  afterward  established  his  tannery, 
within  the  limits  of  the  present  city.  After  landing  his  effects  on  the 
following  morning,  he  informed  the  discontented  whites  that  if  they 
wished  to  return  to  Yerba  Buena  they  could  do  so,  but  that  he  was 
determined  to  remain,  and  that  the  Kanakas  were  willing  to  remain 
with  him.  Three  of  the  whites  determined  to  leave  and  he  put  them 
in  possession  of  the  schooner,  with  instructions  to  them  to  deliver  it  to 
its  owners  when  they  reached  Yerba  Buena.  They  started  the  next 

Three  weeks  later  he  moved  to  the  sjiot  where  he  afterwards  con- 
structed Fort  Sutter,  which  was  destined  in  a  few  years  to  ])ecome 
the  niicleus  of  civilization  in  the  Sacramento  valley.  He  encountered 
iriany  troubles  with  the  Indians  in  the  early  days  of  his  settlement, 
and  a  number  of  plots  were  laid  to  massacre  him  and  his  men  and 
secure  the  goods  which  were  such  a  great  temptation  to  the  aborigines. 
These  iilots  were  foiled,  several  of  them,  as  the  Indians  afterwards 
confessed  to  him,  through  the  vigilance  of  his  favorite  bulldog.  After- 
ward manv  of  the  Indians,  at  first  most  hostile  to  him,  became  his 
firmest  friends  and  co-operated  with  him  in  his  work.  He  now  de- 
voted himself  to  agriculture  and  raising  cattle  and  soon  became 
wealthy  and  prosperous.  His  companions  at  this  time  were  six  no- 
madic whites  of  various  nationalities,  and  eight  Kanakas,  who  always 
remained  faithful  to  him,  and  who  constituted  his  "colony"  and  his 
army.  They  aided  him  in  subduing  and  colonizing  a  large  area  before 
totally  unknown  and  inhabited  by  roving  tribes  of  hostile  Indians. 
The  nearest  white  settlement  was  at  Martinez,  and  the  Indians  around 


him  were  known  as  "Diggers,"  from  their  habit  of  digging  roots  for 

In  the  fall  of  1839  he  bought  from  Senor  Martinez  three  hundred 
head  of  cattle,  thirty  horses  and  thirty  mares.  During  the  fall  eight 
more  white  men  were  added  to  his  colony.  Having  been  considerably 
handicapped  by  the  lack  of  lumber  and  timber  during  his  construction 
of  the  fort,  he  floated  some  down  the  American  river,  and  was  also 
compelled  to  send  for  some  to  Bodega,  on  the  coast,  a  distance  of  sev- 
eral hundred  miles.  In  1840  five  white  men  who  had  crossed  tlie 
Rocky  Mountains  with  him  and  whom  he  had  left  in  Oregon,  joined 
him,  swelling  his  colony  to  twenty-five,  seventeen  being  white  men  and 
the  others  being  Kanakas.  During  the  fall  of  that  year  General  Sut- 
ter was  forced  to  make  open  war  on  the  Mokelumne  Indians,  who  had 
become  troublesome,  stealing  live  stock  from  the  settlers  and  render- 
ing themselves  obnoxious  by  their  acts  and  menaces.  He  marshalled 
his  army  of  "six  brave  men  and  two  baqueros,"  as  his  diary  quaintly 
states,  and  marched  against  the  Indians  in  the  night  time.  Coming  to 
the  camp  where  they  had  concentrated  over  two  hundred  warriors,  he 
attacked  them  so  determinedly  that  they  retreated  and  sued  for  peace. 
He  granted  it  readily  and  it  was  ever  afterward  mutually  maintained. 
In  time  he  made  the  Indians  cultivate  the  soil,  help  build  his  fort, 
care  for  the  stock  and  be  useful  in  various  other  ways.  In  the  mili- 
tarj^  history  of  California  at  a  later  date,  he  and  his  Indians  were  an 
important  factor.  He  iiurchased  a  thousand  more  cattle  and  seventy- 
five  more  horses  and  mules,  and  his  herds  began  to  increase  in  num- 
bers and  value.  He  sent  hides  to  San  Francisco,  kept  supplies  for  the 
trappers  and  purchased  their  skins  and  either  employed  all  the  me- 
chanics and  laborers  or  found  work  for  them. 

In  June,  1841,  General  Sutter  visited  Monterey,  the  capital,  where 
he  was  declared  a  Mexican  citizen  and  received  from  Governor  Alva- 
rado  a  grant  for  his  land,  under  the  name  of  New  Helvetia,  he  having 
caused  a  survey  of  it  to  be  made  for  him.  He  was  also  honored  with 
a  commission  as  "represendente  del  Govierno  en  las  fronteras  del 
norte  y  encargado  de  la  jnsticia."  He  was  visited  shortly  after  by 
Captain  Ringgold  of  the  United  States  exploring  exjiedition  under 
Commodore  Wilkes.  About  the  same  time  Alexander  Rotcheff,  gov- 
ernor of  the  Russian  possessions.  Fort  Ross  and  Bodega,  offered  to 
sell  to  him  the  Russian  possessions,  settlements  and  ranches  at  those 
places.  The  terms  were  advantageous  and  Sutter  purchased  them  at 
a  price  of  $30,000.  Besides  the  vast  area  of  real  estate,  he  came  into 
possession  of  two  thousand  cattle,  over  one  thousand  horses,  fifty 
mules  and  two  thousand  sheep,  the  most  of  which  were  driven  to  New 
Helvetia  and  added  to  his  herds  there.  In  1844  he  petitioned  Governor 
Micheltorena  for  the  grant  or  purchase  of  the  sobrante  or  surplus, 
over  the  first  eleven  leagues  of  land  within  the  bounds  of  the  survey 
of  the  Alvarado  grant,  which  the  governor  agreed  to  let  him  have. 


but  the  grant  was  not  finally  executed  until  February  5,  1845.  During 
this  time  he  had  rendered  valuable  military  services  and  advanced 
supplies  to  the  government  to  enable  it  to  suppress  the  Castro  rebel- 
lion. For  these  considerations  and  personal  services  he  obtained  by 
(jnrchase  the  sobraute  or  surplus. 

When  the  Mexican  war  broke  out,  although  Sutter  was  a  Mexican 
citizen  and  an  officer  under  that  government,  his  respect  for  the  citi- 
zens and  the  institutions  of  the  United  States  was  such  that  his  un- 
bounded hospitality  was  extended  to  all  Americans,  civil  or  military, 
who  visited  him.  When  the  country  surrendered  to  the  American 
forces,  Sutter,  being  convinced  that  all  was  over,  heartily  hoisted  the 
American  flag  July  11,  1846,  and  accompanied  it  with  a  salute  from 
the  guns  of  the  fort.  Lieutenant  Missoon,  of  the  United  States  navy, 
soon  after  organized  a  garrison  for  the  fort  and  gave  Sutter  the  com- 
mand which  he  held  till  peace  was  declared.  He  was  appointed  alcalde 
by  Commodore  Stockton  and  Indian  agent  by  General  Kearney,  with 
a  salary  of  $750  a  year,  but  his  first  trip  in  discharge  of  his  duty  cost 
him  $1600  and  he  naturally  resigned  his  office.  During  all  these  years 
his  hand  and  his  fort  were  always  open  to  relieve  the  distressed.  As 
he  said  afterwards,  "I  have  never  turned  a  jnan  away  hungry  or  re- 
fused him  shelter."  Many  a  party  of  immigrants  who  had  arrived 
near  the  fort  half-starved  and  destitute,  sent  one  of  the  party  in  ad- 
vance to  ask  assistance,  and  Sutter  alwa.vs  granted  it,  often  sending 
an  expedition  out  to  bring  in  the  exhausted.  On  one  occasion  ('aptain 
Fremont,  who  had  been  exploring  farther  north  with  a  party,  man- 
aged to  reach  the  fort  and  announced  that  his  party  was  exhausted 
and  destitute  some  distance  away.  General  Sutter  immediately  dis- 
patched an  expedition  which  relieved  them  and  brought  them  in.  A 
handsome  fortune  was  expended  by  him  in  like  charitable  acts  and  he 
was  a  great  favorite  among  the  pioneers  on  account  of  his  large- 
hearted  generosity.  The  hungry  he  never  turned  away.  Often  they 
were  nursed  back  to  health  and  strength  on  his  place.  On  one  occasion 
a  solitary  starving  immigrant  reached  the  fort  and  announced  that  his 
party  some  distance  l)eliind  were  starving.  Immediately  General  Sut- 
ter packed  seven  mules  with  supplies  and  sent  them  in  charge  of  two 
Indian  boys  to  the  rescue  of  the  party.  On  their  arrival  everything 
was  seized  and  devoured  by  the  famished  wretches.  Other  starving 
immigrants  arriving  on  the  scene,  they  killed  the  seven  mules  and  ate 
them,  then  killed  and  ate  the  two  Indian  boys.  Afterwards  Sutter 
said  with  much  feeling,  "They  ate  my  Indian  boys  all  up." 

However,  evil  days  were  at  hand.  "Ingratitude,  more  strong  than 
traitor's  arms"  was  to  reduce  the  old  pioneer  to  poverty.  Gold  was 
discovered.  While  a  boon  to  the  country  and  hailed  with  delight  all 
over  the  world,  this  proved  the  ruin  of  the  grand  old  man.  His  la- 
borers and  mechanics  deserted  Mm.  His  mill  was  forced  to  cease 
operation.     He  could  not   hire  labor  to  plant   his   crops   or  cut  his 


ripened  grain.  Laborers  would  not  work  for  less  than  an  ounce  of 
gold  a  day,  as  they  could  often  make  more  in  the  mines.  The  influx 
of  immigration  had  brought  men  of  all  nations.  Among  them  were 
many  who  had  no  respect  for  the  property  of  others.  Convicts  from 
Australia,  thieves  and  murderers  from  the  east,  flocked  to  the  coast. 
Both  as  a  Mexican  citizen  and  as  a  citizen  of  the  United  States  by 
the  treaty  with  Mexico,  General  Sutter  considered  himself  doubly  pro- 
tected in  his  property  rights  and  felt  that  he  held  a  strong  claim  on 
his  coiantry's  justice.  But  many  of  the  newcomers  took  forcible  pos- 
session of  his  land  and  began  to  cut  his  wood,  claiming  that  it  was 
vacant  and  unappropriated  land  of  the  United  States.  Up  to  Janu- 
ary, 1852,  the  settlers  had  occupied  all  of  his  land  capable  of  settle- 
ment and  appropriation,  while  another  class  had  stolen  all  of  his  cat- 
tle, horses,  mules,  sheep  and  hogs,  except  a  few  that  he  himself  had 
sold.  During  the  high  water  of  1849-50  one  party  of  five  men  killed 
and  sold  enough  of  his  cattle  (which  were  surrounded  by  water  near 
the  river)  to  amount  to  $60,0U0.  Despoiled  of  his  propertj",  he  re- 
moved to  the  west  bank  of  the  Ffeather  and  took  up  his  residence  at 
Hock  farm,  where,  in  the  midst  of  his  family,  recently  arrived  from 
England,  he  led  a  quiet  life.  Later  he  went  to  Washington  to  press 
his  claims  upon  the  government  for  the  losses  sustained  by  him  from 
the  immigrants  in  the  early  days.  During  1873  he  removed  to  Lititz, 
Pa.,  and  June  18,  1880,  he  died  at  Washington,  D.  C,  after  having 
devoted  his  last  years  to  endeavoring  to  obtain  from  congress  redress 
for  his  wrongs.  It  is  to  the  honor  of  California  that  in  1864  a  bill 
was  introduced  in^the  state  senate  by  Hon.  J.  P.  Buckley  and  became 
a  law,  appropriating  $15,000  to  be  paid  in  installments  of  $250  per 
month,  for  the  benefit  of  Sutter  and  his  heirs.  In  1870  another  bill 
by  Hon.  W.  E.  Eichelroth  was  passed,  providing  $250  a  month  for  two 
years,  and  in  1872  a  similar  bill  by  Hon.  B.  C.  Northrup.  Thus  the 
state  he  founded,  more  grateful  than  the  country  to  which  he  was 
instrumental  in  giving  an  empire  whose  gold  saved  the  Union  in  the 
Civil  War,  made  the  latter  days  of  the  noble-hearted  old  man  com- 


As  time  rolled  on  after  General  Sutter  removed  to  his  farm,  and 
afterwards  to  the  east,  the  decay  of  the  old  fort  set  in.  Wind  and 
storm  did  their  work.  The  adobe  bricks  became  loosened,  and  the 
tiles  of  the  roof  became  broken  and  loosened.  The  property  had 
passed  into  other  hands  and  was  used  for  other  purposes  than  had 
been  originally  intended.  The  two  blocks  on  which  the  fort  stood  had 
been  cut  up  into  lots  by  John  A.  Sutter,  Jr.,  and  sold  to  different 
parties,  but  had  finally  all  come  into  the  ownership  of  Benjamin  Mer- 


rill,  who  was  residing  in  the  east.  Like  many  non-residents,  he  took 
no  care  of  the  property  and  allowed  it  to  deteriorate.  Some  enter- 
prising individual  stuck  a  long  hop  pole,  bearing  an  old  red  flannel 
shirt,  through  the  roof  like  a  flag  pole.  The  underpinning  became 
dilapidated  and  the  venerable  ruin  was  used  as  a  chicken  house  and 
hog  pen.  The  walls  cracked  open,  and  it  was  evident  that  the  days  of 
the  historic  relic  would  soon  be  ended  by  its  collapse.  Many  citizens 
regretted  its  passing,  but  as  usual  notliing  was  done  to  preserve  it. 
Finally  the  board  of  city  trustees  decided  to  open  Twenty-seventh 
street  from  K  to  L.  The  street  would  run  through  the  old  fort  and 
necessitate  its  destruction.  Still  the  community  was  apathetic  and 
the  historic  building  seemed  doomed.  But  Sacramento  contained  one 
patriotic  citizen  who  was  determined  to  avert  this  disgrace,  if  possible. 
Gen.  James  G.  Martine,  whose  brain  was  always  filled  with  ideas  for 
promoting  the  progress  and  jjrosperity  of  the  city,  took  immediate 
action.  As  a  result  the  following  open  letter  was  published,  June  4, 
1889,  in  the  Bccorcl-Unioii,  and  later  in  the  press  of  the  coast,  and 
also  in  many  newspapers  in  the  east,  where  it  would  come  to  the 
notice  of  pioneers  :  12G2*793 

"To  the  Pioneers  of  the  Pacific  Coast,  Gentlemen:  In  the  year 
'49,  and  even  before  that  date,  you  left  home,  friends  and  all  that  was 
dear  to  you,  and  journeyed  to  the  shores  of  the  broad  Pacific  in  search 
of  fame  and  fortune.  After  many  months  of  toil  and  hardshij)  you 
finally  reached  her  golden  shores,  both  tired  and  hungry.  Who  was 
the  first  to  reach  you  a  helping  hand  and  say  to  you :  '  Come,  my  sons, 
you  are  strangers  in  a  strange  land,  and  while  you  are  here  make  my 
house  your  home,  and  what  is  in  it  is  yours'?  Pioneers,  do  you  re- 
member how  grateful  you  felt  then  for  the  shelter  given  you  i)y  Sut- 
ter's fort?  Well,  gentlemen,  that  was  nearly  forty  years  ago,  and  the 
old  fort  is  still  in  the  same  ))lace,  but  in  a  most  wretched  condition, 
and  while  most  of  your  noble  band  have  been  blessed  with  good  health, 
wealth  and  happiness,  this  old  friend  has  fared  badly.  It  is  now  old 
and  can  hardly  stand,  and  unless  you  come  to  the  rescue  it  will  soon 
fall  by  the  wayside.  Pioneers,  there  are  many  of  you  on  the  Pacific 
Coast,  and  a  few  dollars  from  each  of  you  would  buy  the  ground  and 
fix  up  the  old  Sutter's  fort  as  it  was  in  the  old  days  of  '49.  Once  re- 
paired, it  would  be  a  lasting  monument  to  you  all  long  after  you  have 
crossed  the  silent  river.  I  am  not  rich  by  any  means,  but  if  the  Pio- 
neers or  Native  Sons  do  not  take  this  worthy  object  in  hand  at  once, 
I  suggest  that  a  siibscription  be  raised  among  the  citizens  of  Sacra- 
mento to  purchase  the  ground  and  rejiair  the  old  fort.  I  will  sub- 
scribe fifty  dollars  towards  it.  Sacramento  has  but  few  historic  relics 
left,  and  it  would  be  a  burning  shame  to  have  Sutter's  fort  torn  down. 
The  city  authorities  have  already  announced  their  intention  of  pulling 
it  down  unless  something  is  done  with  it,  and  there  is  no  time  to  lose." 
(Sig-ned)         J.  G.  MARTINE. 


The  appeal  commanded  attention  and  responses  came  from  in- 
dividuals throughout  the  state,  commending  Mr.  Martine's  pro]iosal, 
and  making  donations  toward  carrying  it  out.  Mr.  Martine  olitained 
a  subscription  from  Col.  C.  F.  Crockef  of  $15,000  on  behalf  of  himself 
and  family,  and  $500  from  Mrs.  Leland  Stanford,  the  governor  stating 
later  that  he  would  make  up  any  existing  deticiency.  The  Native  Sons 
took  up  the  matter,  and  Mr.  Merrill  finally  set  a  price  of  $20,000  on 
the  property,  subscribing  $2,000  of  the  amount  himself.  It  was  found, 
when  the  first  payment  was  made,  September  12,  1889,  that  John  Rider 
and  the  city  of  Sacramento  owned  an  interest  in  a  part  of  the  fort, 
but  the  title  was  cleared  and  the  jnirchase  made,  the  Native  Sons' 
canvassing  committee  and  others  having  secured  the  necessary  funds. 
The  iiroperty  was  deeded  to  the  Native  Sons  and  by  them  to  the 

In  1891  the  legislature  passed  a  bill  appro])riating  $20,000  foi" 
the  restoration  of  the  fort,  and  it  is  worthy  of  remembrance  that  in 
the  assembly  Beecher  and  Phillips,  both  members  of  the  order  of 
Native  Sons,  voted  against  it,  the  latter  moving  to  cut  down  the  ap- 
propriation to  $10,000.  The  governor  appointed  as  the  first  board  of 
trustees  to  manage  the  property,  which  had  been  conveyed  to  the 
state:  C.  E.  Grunsky,  of  San  Francisco;  E.  E.  Gaddis,  Woodland; 
Frank  D.  Ryan,  Sacramento;  Charles  E.  Hollister,  Courtland,  and 
Eugene  J.  Gregory,  Sacramento,  all  natives  of  California.  Consider- 
able feeling  was  engendered  among  the  Pioneers,  who  had  worked  and 
contributed  to  the  purchase  of  the  fort,  that  no  member  of  their  so- 
ciety had  been  appointed  on  the  board. 

The  first  adobe  brick  for  the  restoration  of  the  fort  was  laid  Sep- 
tember 21,  1891,  the  bricks  being  made  from  the  soil  on  which  the 
fort  stands,  mixed  with  straw,  and  of  the  same  material  which  Sutter 
used  in  its  construction.  The  same  cannon  which  guarded  the  fort 
after  its  comjiletion  are  to  be  seen  on  the  grounds  today,  as  well  as 
the  heav\  cannon  which  General  Sutter  purchased  from  the  Russians 
with  Fort  Ross,  one  of  which  was  presented  to  John  Stuber  in  1855 
by  General  Sutter,  and  which  for  many  years  guarded  the  entrance 
of  Pioneers'  Hall  on  Seventh  street.  The  original  adobe  bricks  were 
made  by  the  Digger  Indians,  who  used  their  hands  for  molding  them, 
and  their  finger  marks  were  to  be  seen  when  they  were  again  used. 
One  of  them  was  dislodged  from  the  wall  during  the  restoration,  and 
was  found  to  be  the  corner-stone,  on  which  was  chiseled  signs  of  the 
"Indian  Masonic"  order  which  was  known  to  exist  among  the  tribes. 
The  tiles  used  in  the  restoration  were  of  ancient  Sjianish  manufac- 
ture, such  as  were  used  in  the  early  days.  The  fort  as  restored  is 
constructed  with  double  adobe  bricks,  covered  with  concrete  plaster 
to  preserve  them  from  the  ravages  of  the  weather. 

Some  years  later  the  Native  Daughters  of  the  local  parlors 
jilanted  trees  and  flowers  on  the  grounds,  and  within  the  past  three 


years  the  state  has  hiid  out  a  park,  made  a  small  lake  and  beautified 
the  grounds,  which  are  under  the  care  of  a  gardener.  Within  the 
coiirt  inside  of  the  fort  are  found  a  number  of  relics  of  the  early  days : 
an  old  Wells-Fargo  coach  with  the  marks  of  Indian  bullets  on  it,  an 
old  ])rairie  schooner  that  came  across  the  plains,  an  old  Mexican  cart 
with  solid  wooden  wheels  sawed  from  the  trunk  of  a  tree,  and  other 
things.  There  is  also  a  museum  containing  many  old-time  relics.  The 
rooms  of  the  old  fort  liave  been  restored  as  nearly  as  possible  to  their 
original  status  by  the  trustees  of  the  fort,  after  consultation  with 
Gen.  John  Bidwell,  who  was  General  Sutter's  financial  agent,  and 
Charles  Stevens  of  San  Francisco,  who  was  Sutter's  bookkee])ei-  in 
1847  and  1848. 


We  generally  sjjeak  of  the  discovery  of  gold  in  California  as 
having  been  made  by  James  Marshall  at  Coloma,  in  January,  1848, 
and  while  this  is  true  in  a  practical  sense,  resulting  in  the  stampede 
that  brought  adventurers  from  all  over  the  world  to  this  state,  there 
is  no  doul)t  that  tlie  existence  of  gold  had  been  known  many  years 

The  first  mention  of  gold  in  California  is  found  in  Hakluyt's  ac- 
count of  the  voyage  of  Sir  Francis  Drake,  who  si)ent  five  or  six  weeks 
in  June  and  July,  1579,  in  some  bay  on  the  coast  of  California,  the 
locality  of  which  has  never  been  settled  as  to  whether  it  was  San 
Francisco  Bay  or  one  of  those  farther  north.  Hakluyt  wrote:  "There 
is  no  part  of  the  earth  here  to  be  taken  up  wherein  there  is  not  a 
reasonable  amount  of  gold  or  silver."  As  neither  gold  or  silver  has 
ever  been  found  in  the  vicinity  of  the  jjoint  where  Drake  landed, 
Hakluyt's  story  must  be  classed  with  other  tales  of  the  early  ex- 
l>lorers  and  as  mere  conjecture  regarding  an  unknown  land. 

However,  other  early  ex]ilorers  stated  that  gold  had  been  found 
long  before  the  discovery  by  Marshall  and  there  is  no  doubt  that  the 
opinion  existed  that  gold  was  to  be  found  in  California.  The  country 
had  been  explored  by  Spanish,  Russian  and  American  parties  since 
the  sixteenth  century  and  was  visited  by  Commodore  Wilkes  while 
on  an  exploring  expedition  in  the  service  of  the  United  States.  Mem- 
bers of  his  i)arty  ascended  the  Sacramento  river  and  visited  Sutter  at 
his  fort,  while  others  made  explorations  by  land.  James  D.  Dana,  the 
author  of  several  well-known  works  on  geology  and  mineralogy,  was 
the  mineralogist  of  the  expedition  and  journeyed  by  land  through  the 
up])er  part  of  the  state.  He  says  in  one  of  his  works  that  gold  rock 
and  veins  of  quartz  were  observed  by  him  in  1842  near  the  Umpqua 
river,  in  southern  Oregon;  also,  that  he  found  gold  in  the  Sierra  Ne- 
vadas  and  on  the  Sacramento  river,  also  on  the  San  Joaquin  river  and 


between  these  rivers.  In  the  report  of  the  Fremont  exploring  expe- 
dition also,  there  is  an  intimation  of  the  existence  of  gold.  A  state- 
ment has  been  made  also  that  a  Mexican  was  shot  at  Yerba  Buena 
(now  San  Francisco)  in  October  or  November,  1845,  on  account  of 
having  a  bag  of  gold  dust,  and  that  when  dying  he  pointed  toward  the 
north  and  said,  "Legos!  Legos!"  (yonder),  indicating  where  lie  had 
found  it. 

Coming  nearer  home,  into  our  own  county,  we  find  a  claim  that  is 
backed  by  strong  probability  that  the  Mormons  who  came  to  San 
Francisco  on  the  ship  Brooklyn,  and  settled  at  Mormon  Island,  found 
gold  before  Marshall  did.  It  was  a  series  of  circumstances  that 
l)rought  them  to  this  coast.  Persecuted  in  the  east,  where  Joseph 
Smith,  their  founder,  claimed  to  have  found  the  plates  that  he  trans- 
lated into  the  "Book  of  Mormon,"  generally  spoken  of  as  the  Mormon 
bible,  his  followers  had  settled  at  Nauvoo,  111.,  where  they  believed 
they  would  be  free  from  further  persecution.  But  the  people  wlio  had 
settled  around  them  became  antagonistic  to  them  and  in  the  riots  that 
occurred.  Smith  was  shot  and  killed  bj^  a  mob.  They  then  determined 
to  remove  beyond  tlie  jurisdiction  of  the  United  States  and  selected 
California  as  their  future  place  of  abode.  They  divided  into  two 
parts,  the  land  expedition  starting  to  cross  the  Rocky  mountains,  while 
the  other  party  came  around  the  Horn  on  the  ship  Brooklyn.  Among 
the  believers  in  their  faith  was  Samuel  Brannan,  one  of  their  leading 
men,  who  afterwards  became  prominent  in  the  early  history  of  Sac- 
ramento and  San  Francisco.  When  the  Brooklyn  arrived,  the 
Mormons  found  that  their  hopes  were  frustrated,  California  having 
passed  into  the  possession  of  the  United  States.  Couriers  were 
sent  over  land  to  meet  the  other  party,  and  found  them  at  the  place 
where  Salt  Lake  City  now  is  located.  They  determined  to  stay  there, 
although  the  country  was  sterile  and  unpromising.  Those  who  came 
on  the  Brooklyn  scattered  through  the  state,  some  of  them  settling 
above  Folsom  at  the  place  now  known  as  Mormon  Island.  It  is 
claimed  that  they  had  found  gold  long  before  it  was  found  at  Coloma, 
but  had  kept  it  a  secret.  Certain  it  is,  that  mining  was  carried  on 
by  them  a])out  the  time  of  Marshall's  discovery,  and  that  the  diggings 
at  Mormon  Island  were  very  profitable. 

On  January  18,  1878,  the  Associated  Pioneers  of  the  tei-i'itorial 
days  of  California  gave  a  banquet  in  New  York  city,  at  whicli 
Col.  T.  B.  Thorpe,  a  veteran  of  the  Mexican  war  who  had  been  on 
General  Taylor's  staff,  was  present.  He  stated  that  while  he  was 
employed  as  a  journalist  in  New  Orleans  several  years  before  the 
discovery  of  gold  at  Coloma,  a  Swede,  evidently  far  gone  into  con- 
sumption, called  on  him  and  stated  that  he  was  what  was  called  in 
Sweden  a  "King's  Orphan;"  that  he  had  been  educated  at  an  institu- 
tion maintained  by  the  government,  on  condition  that  after  he  had 
received  his  eduf^ation  lie  would  travel   in   foreign  countries,  observe 


and  record  what  he  had  seen  and  transmit  his  records  to  the  govern- 
ment. He  further  stated  that  he  had  visited  California  and  remained 
several  days  at  Sutter's  Fort,  enjoying  Sutter's  hospitality;  that 
while  there  he  had  closely  examined  the  surrounding  country  and  be- 
came convinced  that  it  was  rich  in  gold.  General  Sutter  was  present 
at  that  banquet  and  Colonel  Thorpe  asked  him  if  he  had  any  recollec- 
tion of  the  Swedish  visitor.  General  Sutter  replied  that  he  did  recol- 
lect the  visit,  which  occurred  about  thirty-four  years  before,  and 
that  he  also  remembered  that  the  Swede  spoke  regarding  the  presence 
of  mineral  wealth  in  the  neighboring  hills,  "but,"  added  the  General," 
"I  was  too  much  occui^ied  at  the  time  with  other  concerns  to  devote 
any  time  or  attention  to  it.  My  crops  were  ripe,  and  it  was  imjiera- 
tive  that  thej'  should  be  gathered  as  soon  as  possible,  but  I  do 
recollect  the  scientific  Swedish  gentleman." 

The  report  of  the  remarks  at  the  banquet  was  published,  and  in 
it  is  contained  a  copy  of  the  manuscript  to  which  Colonel  Thoi'pe 
referred,  in  which  the  "King's  orphan"  wrote:  "The  Calif ornias 
are  rich  in  minerals.  Gold,  silver,  lead,  oxide  of  iron,  manganese 
and  copper  ore  are  all  met  with  throughout  the  country,  the  precious 
metals  being  the  most  abundant." 

Still  another  account  of  an  early  discovery  of  gold  was  pub- 
lished in  September,  1865,  in  the  New  Age,  in  San  Francisco,  the 
official  organ  of  the  Odd  Fellows.  It  purports  to  have  been  an  article 
written  by  the  Paris  correspondent  of  the  London  Star.  He  wrote 
that  while  in  Paris  he  visited  a  private  museum,  the  owner  of  which 
exhibited  to  him  a  gold  nugget  and  stated  that  twenty-eight  years 
before  a  poor  invalid  had  called  on  him,  and  taking  out  of  his  tattered 
coat  a  block  of  quartz,  asked  him  if  he  would  purchase  it,  assuring 
him  that  it  was  full  of  gold.  He  stated  that  the  stranger  said:  "I 
have  come  to  you  to  apply  to  the  government  to  give  me  a  vessel 
and  a  crew  of  a  hundred  men,  and  I  will  promise  to  return  with  a 
cargo  of  gold."  The  proprietor  of  the  museum  thought  the  man 
was  mad,  but  gave  him  a  napoleon  as  a  matter  of  charity,  retaining, 
however,  a  piece  of  the  quartz.  Afterwards  the  quartz  was  analyzed 
and  was  proved  to  contain  pure  gold.  After  a  lapse  of  fifteen  years 
a  letter  and  a  parcel  were  left  at  his  door.  The  parcel  was  heavy 
and  was  wrapped  in  a  handkerchief  and  the  letter  was  worn  and 
almost  illegible.  He  deciphered  it  and  it  proved  to  be  the  i)oor 
invalid's  dying  statement,  which  the  lodging-house  keeper,  where 
he  died  after  his  interview  with  the  proprietor  of  the  museum,  had 
neglected  to  deliver.  The  package  contained  a  block  of  quartz  and 
the  letter  read  as  follows:  "You  alone  listened  to  me;  you  alone 
stretched  out  a  helping  hand  to  me.  Alas,  it  was  too  late!  I  am 
dying.  I  bequeath  my  secret  to  you.  The  country  from  which  I 
brought  this  gold  is  called  California." 

All  these  statements  being  true,  the  credit  for  the  practical  dis- 


covery  of  gold  belongs  to  Marshall.  While  it  is  true  that  a  gold 
mine  in  the  lower  part  of  the  state  was  worked  in  1841,  and  that  gold 
from  that  mine  had  been  sent  to  Philadelphia  for  coinage  as  early 
as  July,  1843,  the  mine  proved  unprofitable  and  was  abandoned. 
The  precise  date  of  Marshall's  discovery  will  probably  never  be  set- 
tled. He  was  working  for  General  Sutter,  in  charge  of  a  gang  of 
men  erecting  a  sawmill  at  the  present  site  of  Colonia,  Eldorado  county. 
The  raceway  was  dug  and  the  water  turned  in.  As  Marshall  was 
examining  the  race,  his  attention  was  attracted  by  a  piece  of  shining- 
stuff  and  he  jucked  it  up  and  took  it  to  the  house,  where  it  was 
boiled  in  lye,  and  thought  to  be  gold.  He  took  it  with  other  particles 
down  to  Sutter,  where  it  was  submitted  to  crude  tests  and  declared 
to  be  gold.  Afterward  specimens  were  sent  to  Monterey  and  exhibited 
to  General  Mason,  the  military  governor,  and  W.  T.  Sherman,  after- 
wards one  of  the  most  famous  generals  of  the  Civil  war.  It  was 
liroved  to  be  gold  and  the  news  went  forth  to  the  world  that  caused 
immigration  to  pour  into  California  from  every  clime. 

James  W.  Marshall  was  l)orn  in  Hope  township,  Hunterdon 
county,  N.  J.,  October  8,  1810.  When  he  reached  manhood  he  removed 
to  Indiana  and  afterward  to  Illinois  and  Missouri.  He  arrived  in 
California  in  1844  and  came  to  Sutter's  Port  in  1845  and  was  em- 
]iloyed  by  Captain  Sutter.  He  took  an  active  part  in  the  revolution 
of  1846.  In  consideration  of  his  discovery  of  gold  the  legislature 
allowed  him  a  pension  for  some  years  before  his  death.  He  settled 
on  a  small  piece  of  land  at  Coloma,  near  where  he  discovered  the  gold, 
and  partly  sui^ported  himself  by  farming.  On  the  10th  of  August. 
1885,  he  was  found  dead  in  his  cabin  and  was  buried  near  the  spot 
where  gold  was  first  found  bj'  him.  Marshall  never  married.  After 
his  death  the  state  erected  a  fine  monument  to  him,  a  statue  in  the 
early  miner's  garb,  with  his  finger  iiointing  to  the  jilace  wliere  the 
old  millrace  stood  in  which  his  discovery  was  made.  The  late  John  H. 
Miller,  for  many  years  a  well  known  journalist  of  this  city,  was 
appointed  the  first  guardian  of  the  monument,  which  office  he  held 
for  a  number  of  years. 

The  discovery  of  gold  gave  a  great  impetus  to  the  growth  of 
Sacramento  City  when  the  influx  of  gold-seekers  commenced,  making 
it  the  point  of  departure  for  the  mines  as  well  as  the  depot  for 
su])plies.  A  part  of  the  latter  business  it  lost  when  the  Folsom  and 
Placerville  Railroad  was  built,  but  its  progress  was  only  delayed,  as 
it  still  continued  to  be  the  supply  point  for  distribution  to  a  vast 
territory,  including  a  large  portion  of  Nevada.  Seldom  now  are  the 
jingling  bells  of  the  mule  team  heard  on  its  streets  and  the  "prairie 
schooner"  laden  with  freight  has  become  a  very  rare  sight  on  its 
streets.  Folsom  being  on  the  American  river  and  having  proved  to 
be  surrounded  by  rich  placers,  grew  quickly  to  an  important  town, 
polling  at  one  time  in  the  early  days  over  two  thousand  votes.     Of 


NI«;\V    CITY    HAI.L 


late  years  the  gold  dredge  has  taken  the  place  of  hydraulic  mining, 
since  the  latter  was  i)rohibited,  and  large  areas  of  the  rich  lands  along 
the  American  river  liave  been  turned  into  unsightly  i)iles  of  cobble 
stones,  and  the  gold  extracted  from  it.  Even  the  great  Natoma 
vineyard,  at  one  time  the  largest  in  the  world,  has  been  invaded  by 
the  machines  and  is  being  rapidly  destroyed  and  left  desolate,  and 
practically  wiped  off  the  assessor's  map.  The  viUage  of  Dredge  has 
grown  up,  the  home  of  the  company's  employes,  and  tlie  cobble  |)iles 
are  of  late  being  crushed  for  road  material. 

There  are  other  accounts  of  gold  discovery.  Joseph  Aram  of 
New  York,  and  Sarah  A.  Aram  of  Vermont,  his  wife,  were  mem- 
bers of  a  party  of  immigrants  to  California  which,  in  SeiJtember, 
1846,  pitched  their  camp  near  the  mouth  of  a  little  stream  emptying 
into  the  south  fork  of  the  Yul)a  river  where  it  was  crossed  by  the 
old  overland  trail,  near  where  the  boundary  line  between  Placer  and 
Nevada  comities  has  been  established.  It  is  related  that  Mrs.  Aram 
desired  to  wash  some  articles  of  ai)parel  and  in  scooping  out  an 
improvised  washtub  in  the  bed  of  the  brook  noticed  several  little 
yellow  pieces  in  the  fine  gravel.  They  were  examined  by  the  members 
of  the  i)arty  and  pronounced  to  be  gold.  On  the  same  day,  however, 
news  of  the  declaration  of  war  against  Mexico  by  the  United  States 
reached  the  party,  and  they  made  all  possil)le  haste  in  pushing  on 
to  gain  the  shelter  of  vSutter's  Fort  instead  of  sto])])ing  to  make  any 
further  investigation  of  their  discovery.  In  the  sununer  of  1848, 
after  Marshall's  discovery  had  been  published,  Mr.  Aram  returned 
to  his  old  camping  ground  only  to  find  the  ground  already  occujjied 
by  miners.  Mr.  Aram  was  a  member  of  the  first  constitutional 
convention,  1849,  and  a  member  of  the  assembly  at  the  first  session 
of  the  legislature.  He  died  at  San  Jose,  March  80,  1898.  His  son, 
Eugene  Aram,  born  at  Monterey,  January  14,  1848,  it  is  claimed 
was  the  first  white  child  born  in  California  of  American  parents, 
and  was  a  state  senator  from  Sutter,  Yolo  and  Yuba  counties  during 
the  thirty-first  and  thirty-third  legislative  sessions.  For  some  years 
he  has   been   a  practicing   attorney   in   this   city. 


The  first  election  under  the  city  charter  and  in  tlie  county  was 
held  April  1,  1850,  there  being  three  tickets  in  the  field.  Canvassing 
had  been  going  on  for  several  weeks,  both  in  the  city  and  through  the 
county,  and  an  immense  numlier  of  tickets  and  handl)ills  had  been 
circulated.  The  polls  remained  open  until  late  in  the  evening;  there 
were  lively  times  around  the  ballot  boxes  and  plenty  of  whiskey 
was  drunk,  but  there  was  no  rioting. 

The  whole  number  of  votes  polled  for  Mayor  was  two  thousand 


four  liundred  and  uiuety-tliree,  and  Hardin  Bigiow,  the  people's 
candidate,  had  a  majority  over  all  the  others  of  three  hundred  and 
twenty-three.  Following  is  a  list  of  the  city  and  county  officers 
elected,  with  the  number  of  votes  received  by  each : 

Mayor,  Hardin  Bigiow,  1521;  city  recorder,  B.  F.  AVashington, 
885;  city  marshal,  N.  C.  Cunningham,  1323;  city  attorney,  J.  Neely 
Johnson,  1697;  city  assessor,  J.  W.  Woodland,  792;  city  treasurer, 
Barton  Lee,  2310;  Councilmen:  C.  A.  Tweed,  1629;  V.  Spalding,  1621; 
Demas  Strong,  1420;  T.  McDowell,  1462;  J.  McKinzie,  1182;  C.  H. 
Miller,  887;  J.  R.  Hardenbergh,  862;  Jesse  Moore,  869;  A.  P.  Petit,  804; 
county  treasurer,  William  Glaskin,  1104;  district  attorney,  William  C. 
Wallace,  2011;  county  attorney,  J.  H.  McKune,  2021;  county  judge, 
E.  J.  Willis,  1818;  county  clerk,  Presley  Dunlap,  1567;  county  recorder, 
L.  A.  Birdsall,  714;  county  sheritf,  J.  H.  McKinney,  619;  county  sur- 
veyor, J.  G.  Cleal,  1152;  county  assessor,  D.  W.  Thorp,  1224;  county 
coroner,  P.  F.  Ewer;  569 ;  clerk  supreme  court,  E.  H.  Thorp,  1313. 

On  the  morning  of  April  4th,  a  meeting  of  the  council-elect  was 
held  at  the  courthouse  and  on  motion  of  Jesse  Moore,  C.  A.  Tweed 
was  called  to  the  chair,  as  president  pro  tern.  On  motion  of  Volney 
Spalding,  Charles  H.  Miller  was  requested  to  act  as  secretary  pro 
tem.  The  council  proceeded  to  the  election  of  a  president  and 
Demas  Strong  was  declared  elected.  A  committee  was  also  appointed 
to  wait  upon  the  mayor-elect,  Hon.  Hardin  Bigiow,  and  inform  him 
that  the  council  was  duly  organized  and  ready  to  receive  any  com- 
munication he  might  desire  to  make.  He  appeared  before  the  council 
and  delivered  a  short  and  pertinent  address,  and  the  council  adjourned. 
It  met  the  next  morning  pursuant  to  adjournment  and  a  message  from 
the  mayor  was  read,  accepted  and  referred  to  the  select  committee. 
The  regular  meetings  of  the  board  were  ordered  to  be  held  on  each 
Tuesday  evening  at  the  courthouse. 

Mayor  Bigiow  in  his  message  urged  the  immediate  raising  of  a 
levee  to  protect  the  city  from  future  inundations,  suggesting  the 
building  of  a  cheap  railway  track  along  the  bank  of  the  river,  so 
that  material  for  the  levee  could  be  hauled  from  a  distance  and  the 
natural  bank  of  the  river  be  left  undisturbed;  that  an  election  be 
called  to  vote  the  necessary  amount  as  estimated  by  the  city  engineer 
for  the  levee;  that  the  three  small  lakes  be  included  in  the  limits 
of  the  city  and  the  whole  of  the  present  corporation  be  included  within 
the  levee,  and  levee  regulations  be  adopted,  similar  to  those  at  New 
Orleans.  Other  recommendations  were  relative  to  the  storing  of 
powder,  establishment  of  fire  companies,  a  city  hospital,  a  city  prison 
and  provision  for  the  removal  of  garbage.  Also  that  every  aid  pos- 
sible be  given  to  public  schools. 

The  election  of  Mayor  Bigiow  is  attributed  by  Dr.  Morse  in 
his  interesting  historical  article  published  in  Colville's  Directory 
in  1853-4,  to  his  foresight  and  energy  in  saving  the  city  from  a  second 


flood  in  March,  1850.  Fears  had  been  expressed  that  the  city  mift'lit 
he  again  inundated,  hut  there  seemed  to  be  an  aversion  to  raising 
a  levee  for  j^rotection  and  the  idea  was  unpopular.  Says  Mr.  Morse: 
"In  the  month  of  Marcli  following,  heavy  rains  occurred,  which  with 
the  action  of  the  sun  upon  the  snowy  summits,  caused  another  flood. 
The  rivers  rose  with  great  rapidity,  the  sloughs  filled  up  to  over- 
flowing, and  the  city  must  have  been  nearly  as  severely  flooded  as  in 
January,  but  for  the  masterly  and  herculean  efforts  of  one  Hardin 
Biglow.  This  man  had  declared  from  the  first  the  practicability  of 
defending  the  city  by  a  levee.  Having  thus  committed  himself  to 
the  proposition,  he  was  determined  to  demonstrate  his  theory  in  this 
second  flood.  With  the  moiety  of  means  and  handful  of  men,  he 
commenced  damming  up  the  intruding  waters  at  every  low  point, 
and  finally  extended  his  temporary  levee  almost  to  its  present  limits. 
Night  and  day  he  was  in  his  saddle,  going  from  one  point  to  another, 
and  stimulating  his  men  to  an  almost  superhuman  action.  For  a  few 
days  this  man  met  tide  and  torrent,  mud  and  darkness,  and  croaking 
discouragement  that  few  men  in  the  world  would  have  endured,  and 
to  the  utter  astonishment  of  all,  he  saved  the  town  from  a  severe 
inundation.  J,  Front,  Second,  I  and  a  portion  of  K  streets,  he  kept 
open  for  the  uninterrupted  transaction  of  business.  As  a  natural 
consequence  everybody  praised  him,  and  on  the  first  Monday  of 
April  succeeding,  at  an  election  pursuant  to  the  new  legislative  charter, 
aciopted  February  27,  1850,  he  was  elected  by  a  most  cordial  vote 
as  the  chief  magistrate  of  this  city. 

In  a  few  weeks  after  the  abatement  of  the  waters  of  the  second 
inundation  everything  seemed  almost  transformed  into  business  and 
money  making.  The  council  busied  itself  with  the  subject  of  a  levee 
and  surveys  were  made,  the  tents  gave  way  to  large  and  commodious 
buildings,  built  of  good  material  and  embellished  with  ornamental 
architecture.  Business  began  to  be  reduced  to  a  system,  and  developed 
some  of  the  most  substantial  mercantile  houses  and  manufacturing 
firms  and  some  of  the  strongest  banking  houses  in  the  country. 
Disease  abated  and  everything  pointed  to  prosperity. 

The  assessor's  report  on  the  value  of  property — real  and  per- 
sonal— gave  an  aggregate  of  $7,968,985  that  summer,  an  important 
feature  in  the  light  of  the  pecuniary  revulsion  that  followed.  The 
real  estate  of  the  city  was  assessed  at  $5,586,000,  probably  $5,000,000 
over  its  real  value.  Hence,  following  the  financial  reaction  in  the 
fall  of  1850,  some  of  the  shrewdest  men  in  the  city  found  themselves 
embarrassed  by  immense  losses  on  loans  on  real  estate,  which  on 
foreclosure  often  brought  not  more  than  one-fourth  to  one-eighth 
of  the  loans.  The  three  heaviest  banks  and  many  of  the  prominent 
merchants  were  swept  suddenly  into  bankruptcy  in  the  fall  and  a 
general  prostration  of  business  was  the  result.  The  city  had  survived 
the  struggle  with  Sutterville,  the  distress  and  poverty  of  immigration 


in  1849,  the  floods  of  1850  and  now,  in  the  midst  of  tliis  financial 
storm,  a  new  cahimity  befell  her — the  Squatter  I'iot  of  August  15, 

February  27,  1850,  the  first  legislature  passed  an  act  to  incor- 
porate Sacramento  City,  and  defined  its  boundaries  as  follows: 

"All  that  tract  of  land  lying  within  the  following  boundaries: 
Beginning  at  the  junction  of  the  American  Fork  and  the  Sacramento 
river  to  Y  street,  as  designated  on  the  map  or  plan  of  Sacramento 
City  on  file  in  the  recorder's  office  in  said  city;  thence  along  said  Y 
street  east  to  the  point  where  said  Y'  street  intersects  Thirty-first 
street  as  designated  on  said  map;  thence  along  the  said  Thirty-first 
street  till  the  same  intersects  the  American  Fork;  thence  along  the 
American  Fork  to  the  place  of  beginning,  the  said  boundaries  extend- 
ing to  the  middle  of  Sacramento  river  and  American  Fork." 

The  act  further  provided  that  there  should  be  a  mayor,  a  recorder, 
and  a  council  of  nine  members  for  the  government  of  the  city,  and 
that  one  of  the  members  of  the  council  should  be  elected  president. 
It  provided  further  that  on  the  thirtieth  day  after  the  passage  of  the 
act  a  city  election  should  be  held  for  the  election  of  the  first  officers, 
to  wit:  A  mayor,  recorder,  nine  councilmen,  city  marshal,  city 
attorney,  assessor  and  treasurer.  After  the  first  election  the  officers 
mentioned  were  to  be  elected  on  the  first  Monday  in  May  in  each 
year,  and  in  case  of  a  vacancy  a  special  election  should  be  ordered 
by  the  council  to  fill  the  same.  The  mayor  was  clothed  with  com])lete 
executive  power.  The  recorder  performed  the  duties  now  imposed  on 
the  police  .iudge,  and  the  marshal  those  belonging  now  to  the  chief 
of  police  and  the  collector.  The  common  council  was  empowered  to 
create  the  offices  of  city  collector,  harbor-master,  and  such  other 
offices  as  might  become  necessary. 

An  amendatory  act  was  passed  by  the  same  legislature.  March 
13,  1850,  providing  that,  on  the  first  Monday  of  Ajnil  following,  a 
city  election  should  be  held  to  fill  the  offices  created  by  the  charter, 
making  it  fall  on  the  same  day  as  the  first  county  election.  The 
officers  chosen  at  that  election  were  to  hold  office  till  the  first  Monday 
of  May,  1851.  This  amendment  affected  the  first  election  only. 
A]iril  10,  1850,  an  act  was  passed  providing  for  the  a])pointment  by 
the  goveinor  of  a  i)ort  warden  for  the  port  of  Sacramento. 

The  second  legislature  passed  a  new  cliarter  for  Sacramento 
City,  and  it  became  a  law  March  26,.  1851,  by  operation  of  time,  and 
without  the  ai)])roval  of  the  governor.  Governor  McDougal  said  con- 
cerning it:  "The  within  bill  is  regarded  as  oppressive  and  extraor- 
dinary in  many  of  its  features,  but  not  regarding  it  as  infringing 
on  any  i)arti(ular  ])rinciple  of  the  constitution,  and  as  it  is  the  act 
of  the  rei)resentatives  of  Sacramento  county,  and  presuming  it  to  be 
the  wish  of  the  i)eo])le  of  Sacramento  City,  I  permit  it  to  become  a 


law,  by  the  operation  of  time,  without  ai)proving  it,  or  returning-  it 
to  the  body  in  which  it  originated. ' ' 

The  act  in  question  provided  that  the  then  existing  government 
should  continue  in  office  until  the  election  of  the  officers  provided 
for  l)y  the  new  charter.  The  council  was  to  divide  the  city  into  three 
wards,  from  each  of  which  three  councilmen  were  to  be  elected. 
Vacancies  were  to  be  filled  by  special  election,  unless  one  should 
occur  within  sixty  days  of  a  regular  annual  election,  when  it  was  to 
be  filled  by  the  council.  The  first  election  under  the  act  was  to  take 
place  on  the  first  Monday  of  May  following,  for  officers  to  hold  office 
until  the  first  Monday  of  April,  1852.  All  city  elections  after  that 
were  to  be  held  on  the  first  Monday  of  April  in  each  year.  The 
fixing  of  salaries  was  left  to  the  council,  but  they  were  not  permitted 
to  fix  the  salary  of  any  officer  at  over  $3,000,  excejit  the  mayor  or 
recorder,  the  limit  of  wliose  salary  was  fixed  at  $5,000. 

The  legislature  enacted  a  law  April  26,  1853,  i^roviding  for  a 
special  tax  of  one-fourth  of  one  per  cent.,  for  the  support  of  the  free 
common  schools,  to  be  expended  under  the  direction  of  a  board  of 
trustees,  consisting  of  one  from  each  waixl,  to  be  annually  appointed 
by  the  council. 

March  31,  1855,  a  law  was  enacted  striking  the  harbor-master 
from  the  list  of  the  elective  officers.  It  fixed  the  salaries  as  follows: 
Mayor,  $2,000 ;  recorder,  $4,000 ;  marshal,  $3,000 ;  deputy  city  marshal, 
$1,500;  city  attorney,  $2,000;  treasurer,  $1,500;  superintendent  of  the 
water  works,  $2,000;  assessor,  $1,500;  recorder's  clerk,  $1,500;  each 
lioliceman,  $125  per  month.  In  case  of  death,  sickness  or  leave  of 
absence  of  the  recorder,  the  mayor  was  to  attend  to  the  duties  of 
that  office  also.  It  was  further  provided  that  at  the  next  sul)sequent 
election  there  should  be  chosen  a  superintendent  of  common  schools 
and  two  school  commissioners  from  each  ward,  who,  with  the  super- 
intendent of  schools,  should  constitute  the  school  board. 

A}>ril  2,  1856,  the  legislature  enacted  an  act  to  regulate  the 
fire  department.  It  ])rovided  for  the  election  of  officers  and  the 
reuulation  of  the  de]>artment  in  general. 


On  Ai)ril  24,  1858,  a  law  was  passed  which  cousoliilated  the 
government  of  the  city  and  county  and  gave  to  the  board  of  super- 
visors the  authority  which  had  heretofore  rested  in  the  county  council. 
On  the  first  Monday  of  May  following,  five  supervisors  were  to  be 
elected,  to  hold  office  until  October  5,  1858.  There  was  also  to  be 
elected  at  the  same  time  a  president  of  the  board,  to  continue  in 
office  until  the  general  election  of  1859,  the  term  of  office  thereafter 
to  be  two  years.  After  the  first  Monday  of  October,  1858,  the  board 
was  to  consist  of  a  ])resident  and  eight  members,  and  the  members 


were  to  be  elected  at  the  general  election  in  that  year,  four  to  hold 
office  for  two  years,  and  four  for  one  year.  After  the  first  election 
the  term  was  to  be  two  years.  At  the  general  election  in  1859,  and 
every  two  years  thereafter,  there  were  to  be  elected  the  other  officers, 
who  were  to  laerform  their  duties  for  both  city  and  county.  The 
president  of  the  board  was  to  be  ex-officio  mayor  of  the  city,  and 
superintendent  of  the  streets  and  the  water-works.  The  then  county 
officers  were  required  to  perform  such  city  duties  as  might  be  allotted 
to  them  by  the  board,  and  the  board  was  given  jjower  to  create  and 
fill  b.y  appointment  the  minor  city  offices.  Some  clianges  were  also 
made  in  the  fire  and  school  departments. 

The  consolidation  act  was  repealed  April  23,  1863,  and  a  new 
charter  adopted.  It  provided  that  the  government  of  the  city  should 
be  vested  in  a  board  of  trustees,  to  consist  of  three.  The  first  trustee 
was  to  be  ex-officio  mayor;  the  second,  street  commissioner,  and  the 
third,  superintendent  of  the  water-works.  There  would  also  be  an 
auditor,  an  assessor,  a  collector,  a  police  judge,  and  such  other  officers 
as  might  be  appointed  by  the  board.  The  trustees'  term  of  office 
was  fixed  at  three  years,  and  that  of  the  other  officers  at  two.  It 
was  further  provided  that  on  the  tenth  day  after  the  passage  of 
the  act  a  city  election  should  l)e  held,  at  which  the  offices  above  desig- 
nated should  be  filled,  and  that  annually  thereafter,  on  the  second 
Tuesday  in  March,  city  elections  should  be  held.  At  the  election  in 
1864,  a  third  trustee  should  be  elected;  in  1865,  a  second  trustee, 
assessor,  auditor,  collector,  and  judge,  and  in  1866,  a  first  trustee, 
each  to  hold  for  the  time  indicated.  Any  vacancy  in  the  board  was 
to  be  filled  by  a  special  election,  and  a  vacancy  in  any  other  office  was 
to  be  filled  by  appointment  by  board.  Provision  was  also  made  for 
the  school  and  fire  departments. 

A  slight  change  was  made  in  the  boundaries  of  the  city,  and  a 
change  in  the  time  of  electing  officers  other  than  members  of  the  board 
during  the  life  of  this  charter.  In  1872  a  bill  was  enacted  creating 
a  paid  fire  department,  another  to  i^rovide  a  new  svstem  of  water- 
works, and  a  third  for  the  reorganization  of  the  police  force. 

As  has  been  stated  elsewhere,  Hardin  Biglow  was  elected  the 
first  mayor  of  Sacramento.  He  was  badly  wounded  in  the  Squatter 
riot,  and  before  he  had  recovered,  was  seized  with  cholera  and 
died  in  San  Francisco,  November  27,  1850,  at  the  age  of  forty-one. 
Born  in  Michigan,  he  was  a  man  of  great  courage  and  fine  executive 
ability.    After  his  death  the  president  of  the  council  acted  as  mayor. 

A  special  election  was  held  December  14,  1850,  for  the  purpose 
of  choosing  a  mayor.  Although  there  was  no  excitement  in  the 
morning,  later  it  became  intense,  in  spite  of  a  heavy  rainfall.  Bands 
of  music  paraded  and  both  parties  struggled  hard  to  elect  their 
candidates.     Horace   Smith    (Whig)    was  elected  by  a   vote   of  933. 


Other  votes  were:  J.  R.  Hardenbergh  (Democrat),  865;  James  Mc- 
Clatchy,  183;  Wesley  Merritt,  25;  and  Joseph  Grant,  19.  The  last 
three  were  independents.  May  5,  1851,  J.  R.  Hardenbergh  (Democrat) 
secured  1264  votes  for  mayor,  against  1224  for  Joseph  H.  Nevett 
(Whig).  A-  great  conflagration  in  San  Francisco  on  the  day  of 
election  destroyed  $7,000,000  worth  of  property,  and  the  reception 
of  the  news  rather  dampened  the  ardor  of  the  voters. 

April  5,  1852,  C.  I.  Hutchinson  (Whig)  defeated  Hardenbergh, 
his  vote  being  1450  to  12.34.  It  was  a  particularly  exciting  election, 
mass  meetings  being  held  at  different  points  in  the  city,  and  it  was  a 
campaign  of  mud-throwing. 

Hardenbergh  turned  the  tables,  however,  April  4,  1853,  defeating 
W.  H.  McGrew,  his  Whig  opponent,  by  a  vote  of  2046  to  1382.  Dr. 
Volney  Spalding  had  been  nominated  by  the  Whig  convention  March 
28,  but  he  declined,  and  on  the  30th  McGrew  received  the  nomination. 

April  3,  1854,  R.  P.  Johnson  (Whig)  was  elected  by  a  vote  of  1798 
to  1693  over  his  opponent.  Col.  John  P.  Hall  (Dem.). 

Ajaril  2,  1855,  James  L.  English  (American)  defeated  Hiram 
Arents  (Anti-American)  by  a  vote  of  1523  to  504,  R.  P.  Johnson 
(Whig)  getting  78  votes.  The  latter  had  published  a  card  of  with- 
drawal a  few  days  before  the  election. 

April  7,  1856,  B.  B.  Redding  (Dem.)  was  elected  mayor  over 
L.  B.  Harris  (American)  by  a  vote  of  1743  to  1654. 

April  6,  1857,  J.  P.  Dyer  (Dem.)  defeated  Dr.  R.  B.  Ellis 
(People's  Independent)  by  a  vote  of  1955  to  788.  George  Rowland 
(Rep.)  received  501  votes.  Dyer  lield  office  until  under  the  consoli- 
dation act  he  was  succeeded  by  tlie  president  of  the  board  of 

May  3,  1858,  Dr.  H.  L.  Nichols  (People's  Independent)  was 
elected  president  of  the  board  of  supervisors,  defeating  J.  L.  Craig 
(Dem.)  by  3584  to  1877. 

September  7,  1859,  William  Shattuck  (Lecompton  Dem.)  was 
elected  president  by  a  vote  of  3233  to  2802,  over  B.  B.  Redding  (Dem.), 
and  5  for  George  Rowland  (Rep.). 

September  4,  1861,  Shattuck  was  re-elected  on  the  Douglas  Dem- 
ocratic and  Settlers'  ticket  over  C.  H.  Grinnn  (Republican)  by  a  vote 
of  3633  to  3258,  E.  P.  Figg  (Breckenridge  Dem.)  getting  14  votes. 

After  the  repeal  of  the  Consolidation  Act  mayors  were  elected 
under  the  charter  adopted  at  that  time,  as  follows: 

May  5,  1863,  Charles  H.  Swift  (Union)  over  William  Shattuck 
(Dem.)  by  a  vote  of  1640  to  742. 

March  13,  1866,  Charles  H.  Swift  (Union)  over  William  P.  Knox 
(Dem.)  1321  to  915. 

March  9,  1869,  Charles  F.  Swift  (Rep.)  by  a  vote  of  1232  to  749 


over  Archibald  Henley  (Ind.)  and  71  for  P.  H.  Russell,  (Dem.).  The 
latter  withdrew  on  the  morning  of  election  in  favor  of  Henley. 

March  12,  1872,  Christopher  Green  (Rep.)  over  John  Q.  Brown 
(Dem.)  by  a  vote  of  1629  to  1245. 

March  9,  1875,  Christopher  Green  over  John  Q.  Brown  ( Dem.  and 
Ind.)  by  a  vote  of  1815  to  1271. 

March  12,  1878,  Jabez  Turner  ( Workingnian)  by  a  vote  of  1203 
to  1063  for  James  I.  Felter  (Rep.),  1056  for  Hugh  M.  La  Rue  (Dem.) 
and  726  for  Ezra  Pearson   ( Workingman). 

March  8,  1881,  John  Q.  Brown  (Dem.)  over  Cliristopher  Green 
(Rep.)  by  a  vote  of  1925  to  170*. 

March  11,  1884,  John  Q.  Brown  over  Joseph  Steffens  (Rep.)  by 
a  vote  of  1912  to  1875.  Dr.  A.  B.  Nixon  (Prohiliition)  received  344 

March  8,  1887,  Eugene  J.  Gregory  (Rep.)  over  John  <,).  Brown 
(Dem.)  l)y  a  vote  of  3202  to  1283,  and  39  for  F.  H.  L.  Welier  (Pro- 

March  17,  1890,  W.  D.  Comstock  (Dem.)  over  P^ugene  J.  Gregory, 
(Rep.)  by  a  vote  of  2415  to  2374.  March  14,  1893,  B.  U.  Steinman 
(Rep.)  over  John  Weil  (Citizens  and  Dem.)  by  a  vote  of  2505  to 
2328,  and  279  for  C.  M.  Harrison  (Rep.,  Dem.  and  People's). 

The  new  charter  went  into  effect  in  1893  and  on  the  7th  of  Novem- 
ber of  that  year  B.  U.  Steinman  (Reorganized  Dem.)  defeated  W.  F. 
Knox  (Rep!,  Dem.  and  Citizens')  by  a  vote  of  3203  to  2052,  with 
Dittmar  (People's)  250. 

November  5,  1895,  the  vote  was:  C.  H.  Hubltard  (Citizens')  2526; 
J.  W.  Wi)son  (Reji.)  2280;  B.  U.  Steinman,  (Ind.)  1487;  and  W.  D. 
Lawton  (Dem.)  209. 

November  2,  1897,  William  Land  (Rep.)  3190;  C.  H.  Hubbard 
(Citizens')  2106;  R.  D.  Stephens,  (Ind.)  801;  C.  E.  Leonard,  (Dem.) 

November  7,  1899,  George  II.  Clark  (Rep.),  4012;  R.  D.  Stephens, 
(Dem.)  219.3. 

November  5,  1901,  George  H.  Clark  (Ind.)  3018;  William  Land 
(Rep.)  1755;  J.  H.  Devine,  (Dem.)  879;  Llewellyn  Tozer  (Ind.)  315; 
Mr.  Alderman  (Soc.)  181. 

November  3,  1903,  W.  J.  Hassett  (Dem.)  3076;  Albert  Elkus 
(Rep.)  2522;  W.  J.  McDowell   (Soc.)   263;  D.  J.  Simmons  (Ind.)   14. 

November  7,  1905.  M.  R.  Beard  (Dem.)  24.35;  Albert  Elkus 
(Re]).)  2200;  Henry  E.  Wright,  (Soc.)  781;  E.  I.  Woodman  (Ind.) 

November  5,  1907,  Clinton  L.  White  (Rep.)  2835;  M.  R.  Beard 
(Dem.)   2702. 

November  2,  1909,  M.  R.  Beard  (Dem.)  3522;  John  E.  Sullivan 
(Rep.)  2965;  H.  E.  Wright  (Soc.)  163. 


November  7,  1911,  M.  R.  Beard  (Dem.)  :!9(i(i;  Allen  W.  Stuart 
(Soc.)  2649;  Frank  P..  Sutliff  (Rep.)  2367. 

In  1911  the  new  charter  was  adopted  for  a  commission  for  city 
government  with  five  commissioners,  as  follows:  M.  J.  Burke,  five 
years;  J.  A.  Filcher,  four  years;  C.  A.  Bliss,  three  years;  Dr.  E.  M. 
Wilder,  two  years;  and  Mrs.  LueUa  B.  Johnston,  one  year. 



Many  of  the  immigrants  arriving  in  1849  were  imbued  with  the 
idea  that  Sutter  possessed  no  valid  title  to  the  land  where  the  city 
stands,  as  his  title  was  founded  on  the  grant  by  Governor  Alvarado, 
and  the  United  States  had  subsequently  conquered  and  taken  posses- 
sion of  the  state.  They  considered  the  ground  public  land  and  subject 
to  settlement.  Moreover,  tliey  claimed  the  boimdaries  of  Sutter's 
grant,  as  defined,  did  not  cover  the  site  of  the  city,  but  ended  some 
distance  above  it.  Also  that  it  could  not  embrace  the  site  of  the  city, 
as  by  its  stipulations  it  should  not  be  subject  to  annual  inundations, 
and  that  by  improving  Hock  Farm  he  had  overstei)]>ed  the  boundaries 
of  his  possession  under  the  grant  either  to  the  north  or  the  south; 
his  engineer's  lines,  when  correctly  drawn,  placed  his  southern  liouud- 
ary  considerably  above  the  city.  These  claims  were  not  accorded 
nnich  attention  by  those  who  had  jturchased  from  Sutter. 

But  when  the  immigi'ants  across  the  plains  arrived  a  few  months 
later,  things  took  on  a  different  a])pearance.  Weary  with  the  long 
journey,  and  many  of  them  without  money  or  homes,  the  idea  that  they 
could  own  the  land  by  simply  taking  possession  of  it  was  an  alluring- 
one  and  the  ranks  of  the  "Sciuatters",  as  they  were  called,  increased 
rapidly.  Lots  were  staked  off  in  various  parts  of  the  city  and  those 
taking  ])ossession  boldly  declared  the  squatter  title  was  sujierior  to 
that  from  Sutter. 

An  association  was  formed,  and  the  first  meeting  was  called  by 
John  H.  Keyser,  and  held  at  the  house  of  a  man  named  Kelley.  on 
Front  street,  above  J.  A  number  of  meetings  were  held  there  ])rior 
to  the  flood  of  the  ensuing  winter.  At  first  the  members  of  the 
association  were  mostly  ignorant  and  uneducated  men,  but  later  men 
of  tact  and  talent  succeeded  them  and  their  addresses  began  to  be 
viewed  with  anxiety  by  those  holding  Sutter  titles.  Their  speeches 
were  incendiary  and  in  May  a  talented  engineer.  Col.  John  Plumbe, 
joined  them  and  became  their  surveyor  and  recorder.  After  the  floods 
of  January  and  March,  their  organization  was  made  more  thorough 
and  a  feeling  of  hostility  grew  up  between  them  and  the  holders  of 
Sutter  titles.     The  members  of  the  association  began  to  demonstrate 


their  views  by  taking  possession  of  lots  in  various  parts  of  the  city. 
Contests  ensued  and  removals  were  made  from  time  to  time. 

May  10,  1850,  John  P.  Rodgers  and  Dewitt  J.  Burnett  began 
action  in  the  Recorders  Court  against  James  J.  Madden,  B.  F.  Wash- 
ington presiding.  The  lot  settled  upon  and  claimed  by  Madden  was 
on  the  Southeast  corner  of  Second  and  N  streets.  The  defendant 
claimed  that  the  land  was  owned  by  the  United  States,  and  therefore 
subject  to  a  title  by  settlement  and  improvement.  The  case  was 
argued  and  the  recorder  decided  against  defendant,  finiug  him  $300 
and  costs,  and  ordering  restitution. 

The  defendant  appealed  to  the  county  court,  but  Judge  Willis 
sustained  the  lower  court.  The  defendant  asked  to  appeal  to  the 
supreme  court,  but  there  being  no  law  then  to  sustain  the  appeal,  the 
motion  was  denied.  Both  parties  grew  excited  during  the  trial,  and 
the  Squatters  as  a  body  declared  against  the  restitution  of  the 
property  pursuant  to  the  judgment  of  the  courts.  After  the  decision 
the  Squatters  issued  a  poster,  claiming  that  the  laws  passed  by  the 
Legislature  were  not  recognized  by  congress  and  not  binding  and 
that  the  settlers  would  resist  and  disregard  all  decisions  of  the  courts 
in  land  cases  and  also  all  summonses  or  execution  by  the  sheriff  or 
other  officers,  and  resolved  to  appeal  to  arms  on  the  first  show  of 
violence  to  their  persons  or  ]iroperty  by  the  sheriff.  The  card  caused 
great  excitement  and  inany  who  had  hitherto  passively  approved  of 
the  Squatters  enlisted  against  them.  On  August  11,  the  Squatters 
held,  a  meeting  on  the  levee  and  the  proceedings  were  reported  in  the 
Transcript  the  next  morning.  Dr.  Robinson  was  the  chairman 
and  the  meeting  was  much  excited,  both  sides  of  the  controversy  be- 
ing heatedly  debated.  J.  H.  McKune,  who  afterward  became  promi- 
nent in  county  affairs,  James  McClatchy,  afterward  editor  and  pro- 
prietor of  the  Bee,  and  others  spoke  in  defense  of  the  Squatters' 
action,  while  Samuel  Braunan  and  Col.  E.  J.  C.  Kewen  defended  the 
Sutter  titles.  Captain  Sutter  claimed  the  land  within  the  city  limits 
by  virtue  of  his  grant  from  the  Mexican  Grovernment,  and  through 
the  guarantee  of  the  treaty  between  the  United  States  and  Mexico. 
His  claim  was  sustained  by  the  settlement  at  Sutter's  Fort,  by  im- 
provements made,  by  occasional  occupation  and  use  made  of  the  site 
of  the  ctiy  and  by  a  map  of  the  survey  made  for  him  by  an  engineer 
whom  he  supposed  to  be  a  competent  one,  locating  him  on  the  land. 

As  the  meeting  progressed,  Dr.  Robinson  in  a  speech  defending 
the  Squatters'  resolutions,  said  that,  as  for  him,  he  meant  at  all 
hazards  to  defend  the  pro]ierty  he  had  settled  upon. 

Madden  retained  the  possession  of  the  ]n-operty  in  litigation  for 
some  time,  by  the  defense  of  the  members  of  the  association,  and  the 
house  itself  became  a  sort  of  garrison,  containing  a  A'ariety  of  weapons. 
In  his  endeavors  to  execute  the  writ  of  restitution,  the  sheriff  dis- 


covered  a  number  of  persons,  whom  be  knew,  among  the  party  who 
were  resisting  his  authority.  He  reported  the  names  of  James  Mc 
Clatchy,  Charles  Robinson  and  others  to  the  court  and  warrants  for 
their  arrest  were  issued  by  Justice  Sackett.  McClatchy  delivered 
himself  up  and  was  confined  in  jail  during  the  subsequent  conflicts. 
Madden  was  finally  ousted  from  the  house,  but  recovered  possession 
on  August  14. 

The  Times  of  August  15th  gives  an  account  of  the  fatal  riot  on 
the  preceding  day  as  follows: 

"At  two  o'clocli  a  body  of  Scpiatters  numbering  about  forty 
proceeded  to  the  foot  of  I  street,  on  the  levee,  and  undertook  to  re- 
gain possession  of  a  piece  of  ground  which  had  lately  been  in  the 
occupation  of  one  of  their  party.  They  were  fully  armed  and  a 
general  understanding  prevailed  that  their  object  included  the  liber- 
ation of  the  two  men  committed  the  day  before  to  the  prison  ship, 
upon  the  charge  of  being  concerned  in  a  riotous  assemblage  on  the 
morning  of  the  12th,  for  the  purpose  of  forcibly  resisting  the  process 
of  law.  After  the  displacement  of  some  of  the  hunber  on  the  ground 
the  i)arty  of  Squatters  were  deterred  from  proceeding  further  in  their 
intent.  The  mayor  had  meantime  requested  all  good  citizens  to  aid  in 
suppressing  the  threatened  riot,  and  very  large  numbers  had  gathered 
about  the  spot — several  citizens  also,  armed,  proceeded  to  the  prison 
ship,  but  no  demonstration  was  made  in  that  direction. 

"The  Squatters  retreated  in  martial  order,  and  passed  up  I  street 
to  Third,  thence  to  J  and  up  to  Fourth,  followed  by  a  crowd  of  pei'- 
sons.  Tliey  were  here  met  by  the  mayor,  who  ordered  them  to  de- 
liver up  their  arms  and  disperse.  This  they  refused  to  do,  and 
several  shots  were  fired  at  him,  four  of  which  took  effect.  He  fell 
from  his  horse,  and  was  carried  to  his  residence  dangerously,  if  not 
mortally,  wounded.  J.  W.  Woodland,  who,  unarmed,  stood  near  the 
mayor  at  the  time,  received  a  shot  in  the  groin,  which  he  survived 
but  a  few  minutes.  A  man  named  Jesse  Morgan,  said  to  be  from 
Millerville,  Ohio,  lately  arrived,  and  who  was  seen  to  aim  at  the 
mayor,  next  fell  dead,  from  the  effects  of  a  ball  which  passed  through 
his  neck.  James  Har]ier  was  very  severely,  but  not  dangerously, 
wounded,  in  supporting  the  sheriff.  It  is  difficult  to  give  an  exact 
detail  of  the  terrible  incidents  which  followed  in  such  rapid  succession. 
It  appeared  from  an  examination  before  the  coroner,  that  the  party 
of  Squatters  drew  up  in  regular  order,  on  arriving  at  the  corner  of 
Fourth  street,  and  that  the  sheriff  was  several  times  fired  on  before 
he  displayed  any  weapons.  Testimony  was  also  given  as  to  the  person 
who  was  seen  to  fire  upon  Mr.  Woodland.  The  mounted  leader  of 
the  Squatters,  an  Irishman  by  the  name  of  Maloney,  had  his  horse 
shot  imder  him;  he  endeavored  to  escape,  but  was  pursued  a  short 
distance  up  the  alley  and  shot  through  the  head,  falling  dead.     Dr. 


Robin.sou,  one  of  the  armed  party  imder  his  t'Oiumand,  was  wounded 
in  the  lower  part  of  the  body.  Mr.  Hale,  of  the  firm  of  Crowell  Hale 
&  Co.,  was  slightly  wounded  in  the  leg.  A  young  boy,  son  of  Mr. 
Rogers,  was  also  wounded.  We  have  heard  of  several  others,  but 
aie  not  assured  of  the  correctness  of  the  reports.  Upon  the  oath  of 
several  gentlemen,  that  they  saw  Dr.  Robinson  deliberately  aim  at 
the  mayor,  he  was  arrested  and  placed  in  confinement.  An  Irishman 
named  Caulfield,  accused  of  a  siniihr-'  act  with  regard  to  both  the 
mayor  and  Mr.  Woodland,  was  arrested  late  in  the  afternoon. 

"After  these  terrible  scenes,  which  occupied  less  time  than  we 
have  emi)loyed  to  describe  them,  had  jiassed,  a  meeting  of  the 
cDuncil  was  held,  the  ])roceedings  of  which  appear  in  another  column. 
The  citizens  gathered  at  the  corner  of  Second  and  J  streets  and 
other  jilaces  throughout  the  city,  and  proceeded  to  organize  parties 
to  prevent  further  outrage.  A  body  of  mounted  men  under  command 
of  the  sheriff,  hearing  the  rei)ort  that  the  Squatters  were  reinforcing 
at  the  Fort,  i)roceeded  thither.  The  lawless  mob  were  nowhere  to  be 
found;  scouts  were  dispatched  in  all  directions,  but  no  trace  of  them 
could  be  discovered.  Meanwhile  several  other  parties  had  formed  in 
rank  and  proceeded  to  different  parts  of  the  city,  establishing 
rendezvoux  at  different  points.  Brigadier-General  Winn  issued  a 
l)roc]amation  declaring  the  city  under  martial  law,  and  ordering  all 
law  abiding  citizens  to  form  themselves  into  volunteer  companies  and 
report  their  organization  to  headquarters  as  soon  as  possible.  At 
evening  (|uiet  was  fully  restored  throughout  the  city.  Lieutenant 
(iovernor  ]\IcDougal,  who  left  on  the  Senator,  and  exi)ects  to  meet 
the  (Jold  Hunter,  will  bring  up  tliis  morning  a  detachment  of  troops 
from  Benieia.  An.  extraordinary  i)olice  force  of  five-hundred  was 
sumr.ioned  for  duty  during  the  night." 

The  minutes  of  the  council  show  that  B.  F.  Washington  was 
a])))ointed  marshal  and  Capt.  J.  Sherwood  assistant,  to  whom  all 
])ersons  desiring'  to  make  arrests  were  requested  to  aii])ly  for  aid 
and  authority. 

A  letter  in  Dr.  Roljinson's  handwriting  was  found  in  his  tent 
after  the  riot,  detailing  wliat  he  had  done  and  the  ])lans  of  the 
Squatters  for  resisting  the  law. 

The  next  day  brought  other  developments  tliat  saddened  the 
conmmnity  and  were  detailed  in  the  Times  of  the  16th.  Sheriff  Jose]ih 
Mc  Kinney  was  shot  down  it  was  said  by  a  man  named  Allen,  who  kejit 
a  hotel  at  Brighton.  Mc  Kinney  had  gone  out  with  a  ])arty  of  alwut 
twenty  to  arrest  some  parties  said  to  have  been  concerned  in  the  riots. 
Mr.  McDowell,  of  Mormon  Island,  who  was  well  known  at  the  house, 
was  sent  to  make  observations  and  report,  but  the  Sheriff  did  not 
wait  for  him  to  return.  He  rode  up  to  the  door  and  demanded  that 
Alien  and  the  others  should  surrender.  Imt  thev  refused  and  several 



shots  were  fired  immediately,  mortally  wounding  McKinney.  Several 
of  the  sheriff's  party  entered  the  house,  where  about  a  dozen 
Squatters  were  and  killed  three  of  them.  Allen,  though  wounded, 
escaped,  and  a  number  of  prisoners  were  taken  to  the  city. 

When  Governor  Burnett  heard  of  the  trouble,  he  telegraphed  to 
Brig.-Gen.  A.  M.  Winn  to  proceed  to  Sacramento  with  his  whole 
force  and  aid  the  authorities  to  maintain  order.  On  the  17th  two 
military  companies,  composing  the  Second  Brigade,  arrived  on  the 
Senator  and  General  Winn  offered  their  services  to  the  mayor  and 
council,  but  was  informed  that  the  citizens '  orgauization  under  Wash- 
ington was  thought  to  be  able  to  sustain  the  law.  The  reports  that 
the  Squatters  had  enlisted  the  aid  of  the  miners  in  the  hills,  who  were 
coming  to  Sacramento  to  aid  them,  were  found  to  be  false,  and  quiet 
was  soon  restored.  The  funerals  of  Captain  Woodland  and  Sheriff 
McKinney  were  attended  by  almost  the  whole  city  and  such  was  the 
spirit  shown,  by  the  citizens  that  Squatterism  never  reared  its  head 
again,  although  disputes  over  land  titles  continued  for  many  years, 
making  costly  and  annoying  litigation  for  a  long  time. 

As  Mayor  Biglow  was  severely,  and  possibly  fatally,  wounded 
Demas  Strong  became  the  acting  mayor  for  the  remainder  of  his 
term.  B.  F.  Washington  was  appointed  marshal.  The  death  of 
Woodland,  who  was  city  assessor,  was  due  to  his  kindness  of  heart 
He  was  walking  up  the  street  with  a  friend  and  when  near  the  corner 
of  Fourth  and  J,  the  Squatters  ranged  themselves  diagonally  across 
Fourth  and  J  streets,  with  their  guns  presented  toward  the  mayor 
and  his  party,  who  were  approaching.  Woodland  saw  their  threaten- 
ing attitude  and  exclaimed  to  his  friend,  "Oh!  it  is  too  bad  for  thes 
men  to  take  sucli  a  stand,  for  they  will  certainly  be  shot  down.  I  will 
go  u]i  and  advise  them."  lie  went  forward  a  few  steps  to  attempt  to 
mediate,  when  a  liall  struck  him  and  killed  him  almost  instantly. 

Ben  McCulloch  succeeded  McKinney  as  sheriff  and  afterwards 
became  quite  a  noted  man  in  the  history  of  the  nation.  He  was  born 
in  Tennessee  in  1814  and  always  evinced  an  inclination  for  a  roving 
and  adventurous  life.  He  went  with  Davy  Crockett  to  Texas,  to  take 
part  in  the  revolution  that  freed  that  state  from  Mexican  rule.  In 
18.36  he  joined  the  Texan  army  under  Gen.  Sam  Houston  and  was 
assigned  to  the  artillery  service.  He  served  with  credit  at  the  battle 
of  San  Jacinto  and  was  employed  afterwards  on  the  frontier,  in  sur- 
veying and  locating  lands  in  Texas.  On  the  breaking  out  of  the 
Mexican  war  he  raised  a  company  of  Texan  Rangers  that  became 
famous  during  that  struggle.  It  was  accepted  by  General  Taylor  and 
took  a  prominent  part  in  the  battles  of  Monterey  and  Buena  Vista 
and  assisted  in  the  capture  of  the  city  of  Mexico.  After  the  war  was 
over  President  Pierce  appointed  McCulloch  United  States  marshal 
of  Texas  and  the  present  efficient  force  of  Rangers  in  that  state  is 


the  outcome  of  his  orgauization.  The  Rangers  of  to-day  are  picked 
men,  noted  for  their  iron  nerve,  and  are  the  terror  of  evil  doers, 
penetrating  where  tlie  other  officers  of  the  hiw  cannot  or  dare  not  go 
to  capture  criminals. 

In  1857  McCuUoch  was  appointed,  with  ex-Governor  Powell, 
a  commissioner  to  Utah.  It  was  believed  that  at  the  time  of  the 
inauguration  of  President  Lincoln  he  was  in  Washington  for  the 
puri)ose  of  taking  possession  of  the  city  at  the  head  of  a  band  of 
secessionists.  If  so,  the  plan  was  abandoned,  on  account  of  the 
l>recautions  taken  by  General  Scott.  Later  on,  he  was  commissioned 
l)rigadier-general  in  the  Confederate  army  and  assigned  to  the 
command  of  the  forces  in  Arkansas.  He  issued  a  proclamation  in 
June,  1861,  to  the  people  of  that  state,  calling  on  them  to  assemble  at 
Payetteville  to  defend  the  state  from  invasion.  He  was  in  command 
at  the  battle  of  Wilson's  Creek,  where  General  Lyon  was  killed,  and 
it  is  stated  that  he  surrendered  the  command  to  General  Sterling 
Price,  on  account  of  some  misunderstanding  with  him.  He  led  a 
corps  of  troops  from  Louisiana  and  Texas  at  the  battle  of  Pea  Ridge, 
and  fell  on  the  second  day  of  the  engagement,  March  7,  1862. 

Henry  A.  Caulfield,  who  was  arrested  and  charged  with  firing  on 
the  mayor  and  Woodland  during  the  riot,  led  a  stormy  career  in  this  city 
afterward.  He  was  a  man  of  violent  temper  and  often  became  involved 
in  trouble.  Born  in  Ireland,  he  came  to  the  United  States  and  in  1844 
was  a  member  of  the  Emmet  Guards  at  Albany,  N.  Y.  During  the  anti- 
rent  troubles  in  that  state,  his  company  was  ordered  to  Columbia 
county  to  assist  the  authorities  in  repressing  the  disorder,  the  anti- 
renters  having  killed  an  under-sheriff,  tarred  and  feathered  other  offi- 
cers and  committed  other  outrages.  He  came  to  Sacramento  in  1849 
worked  as  a  carpenter  and  joiner  and  became  active  in  Democratic  poli- 
tics. He  was  arrested  by  John  Cleal  between  here  and  Brighton  as  he 
was  fleeing  after  the  riot,  and  brought  to  this  city  stra])ped  to  a  horse's 
back  and  confined  on  board  the  prison  brig.  With  a  number  of  others 
he  was  indicted  by  the  next  grand  jury  on  a  charge  of  conspiracy  and 
murder.  They  were  never  punished,  as  Governor  McDougal  had  de- 
clared he  would  ])ardon  them  if  they  were  convicted,  and  a  nolle  prose- 
qui was  subsequently  entered  in  their  case.  He  was  afterwards  active 
in  the  squatter  troubles  that  followed.  He  settled  on  a  farm  on  the 
mound  north  of  the  American  river  about  1851  and  lived  there  till  the 
flood  of  1852,  when  he  sold  the  place  to  Patrick  Bannon,  and  removed 
to  a  ranch  south  of  the  R  street  levee,  out  of  which  arose  most  of  the 
sulisequent  troubles. 

George  Wilson  was  a  justice  of  the  peace  and  associate  justice  of 
the  court  of  sessions  and  had  made  some  remark  that  gave  offense  to 
one  of  the  attorneys.  June  19,  1851,  the  attorney  came  to  the  court 
room  and  demanded  a  retraction.    Wilson  refused  and  when  the  attor- 


ney  struck  at  him  drew  a  sword  cane  and  stabbed  him.  Caulfiekl  was 
entering  the  room  and  fired  se%'eral  shots  at  Wilson,  Init  did  not  hit 
him.  Wilson  seized  Caulfield  round  the  neck  and  was  about  to  send  a 
Imllet  through  his  head  when  R.  P.  J  acobs,  a  policeman,  rushed  in  and 
saved  Caulfield 's  life.  At  another  time  Caulfield  was  shot  several 
times  by  Thomas  0.  Shelby  over  land  matters  and  several  of  the  bul- 
lets he  carried  to  his  grave.  On  that  occasion  he  was  unarmed  and 
the  assault  was  unprovoked.  As  it  was  thought  he  would  die,  a  priest 
called  to  see  him.  ' '  I  am  told  you  have  been  a  very  bad  man, ' '  said  he. 
"It  is  a  dom  lie  and  you  are  no  doctor.  Get  out  of  here,"  was  the 

At  another  time,  in  185(i,  he  had  a  quarrel  with  a  man  named  Mil- 
ler about  politics  and  some  mules.  It  was  at  Miller's  house  and  he  at- 
tempted to  strike  him  with  a  flat  iron,  but  Miller  broke  a  cane  over  his 
head  and  was  about  to  throw  him  out  of  the  window.  Miller's  wife 
inter^'eued  and  Miller  let  go  and  Caulfield  fell  to  the  ground.  Miller 
sent  word  to  the  coroner  that  he  had  killed  Caulfield,  but  when  the 
dead  wagon  arrived  the  supposed  corpse  had  walked  to  the  county  hos- 
]3ital.  The  same  year  he  was  stabbed  by  a  man  named  Frank  Nolan 
on  Front  street,  and  wounded  so  severely  that  for  several  days  he 
breathed  through  the  knife  wounds  in  his  back.  August  15,  1878,  he 
had  a  dispute  with  William  G.  English,  over  a  lot  on  R  street,  and  shot 
English,  who  died  a  couple  of  days  later.  For  this  murder  he  was  sent 
to  the  state's  prison  for  six  years.  Caulfield  was  short  and  heavy  set, 
and  had  lost  an  eye  in  one  of  his  encounters,  giving  him  a  truculent 
appearance;  he  was  much  feared  by  many  citizens  on  account  of  the 
uglv  scrapes  in  which  he  engaged,  nearly  killing  some  or  being  almost 
killed  himself.  July  2,  1888,  while  walking  on  the  R  street  track  near 
Fourth  street,  he  was  struck  by  the  evening  train  from  Folsom,  evi- 
dently not  having  heard  the  whistle,  and  was  killed  instantly. 

Dr.  Robinson,  as  will  be  seen  elsewhere,  became  shortly  afterwards 
a  member  of  the  legislature  and  subsequently  governor  of  Kansas. 


The  first  mail  brought  to  Sacramento  came  on  the  schooner  John 
Dunlap,  owned  jointly  by  Simmons,  Hutchins  &  Co.,  and  E.  S.  Marsh, 
which  left  San  Francisco  on  her  first  trip  to  Sacramento,  May  18,  1849, 
and  brought  the  first  mail  on  her  second  trip,  June  27.  having  ))een 
forty-eight  hovirs  on  the  way. 

The  first  directory  of  Sacramento  City  was  published  in  1851,  by 
J.  Horace  Culver,  and  a  copy  of  it  is  in  the  state  lilirary.  It  was  print- 
ed by  the  Transcript  press,  and  has  ninety-six  ]iages,  with  a  large 
quantity  of  very  interesting  information.  The  names  of  citizens  occu- 
pied less  than  half  the  space. 


The  first  ship  ever  used  in  the  state  of  California  as  a  prison  brig 
was  the  bark  Strafford.  It  was  brought  here  from  New  York  in  1849, 
and  was  moored  in  the  Sacramento  river  opposite  the  foot  of  I  street. 
It  cost  $50,000,  but  while  lying  at  the  foot  of  0  street  it  was  sold  at 
auction  by  J.  B.  Starr  to  C.  C.  Hayden  for  $3,750.  Hayden  sold  three- 
quarters  of  his  interest  to  Charles  Morrill,  Captain  Isaac  Derby  and 
a  Mr.  Whitney,  and  in  March,  1850,  they  rented  the  vessel  to  the 
county  for  a  prison  brig.  Morrill  bought  out  the  interests  of  the  oth- 
ers in  May,  intending  to  trade  between  San  Francisco  and  Panama, 
and  loaded  it  at  the  levee  so  poorly  that  it  nearly  capsized  when  it 
reached  San  Francisco  bay.  The  cargo  was  readjusted  and  she  went 
to  sea,  but  never  came  back.  Soon  afterwards  the  county  purchased 
the  La  Grange,  of  Salem,  Mass.,  and  it  was  moored  opposite  H  street, 
but  when  the  big  freshet  of  1861-62  came  down,  it  strained  so  heavily 
at  its  moorings  that  the  seams  opened  and  the  water  came  in  so  fast 
that  the  prisoners  were  barely  saved  and  conveyed  to  the  city  jail,  and 
the  bark  filled  and  sank.  Since  then  Sacramento  county  has  had  its 
jail  on  land. 

The  first  house  in  Sutterville  was  erected  by  Sutter,  the  second  by 
one  Hadel,  and  the  third  by  George  Zins,  being  a  brick  building,  the 
first  of  the  kind  erected  in  California.  Zins  afterwards  manufactured 
the  bricks  in  Sacramento  from  which  the  first  brick  buildings  in  this 
city  were  erected.  He  stamped  each  brick  with  his  initials.  The 
Crocker  Art  Gallery  Museum  and  the  Museum  of  the  Pioneer  Asso- 
ciation each  contain  one  of  them. 

The  first  store  opened  in  Sacramento  was  at  Sutter's  Fort,  by 
C.  C.  Smith  &  Co.  (Sam  Brannan  being  the  Co.),  and  the  first  ex- 
changes of  American  goods  for  California  gold  were  made  over  its 
counters,  it  having  been  started  about  two  months  before  the  opening 
of  the  mines. 

The  first  projected  rival  of  Sacramento  was  Sutterville,  as  else- 
where related.  The  second  was  known  as  Hoboken,  north  of  the  pres- 
ent town  of  Brighton,  on  the  south  bank  of  the  American.  During  the 
flood  of  1853,  all  communication  with  the  mining  counties  was  cut  off 
and  some  enterprising  merchants  moved  their  goods  out  there  on  the 
high  ground  and  laid  out  a  town  with  wide  streets  and  a  steamboat 
landing,  the  American  being  at  that  time  navigable.  In  ten  days  a 
town  sprang  up,  with  three  steamers  making  daily  trips  to  Sacramento, 
and  an  express  office.  Many  firms  removed  there  and  trade  flourished, 
the  city  newspapers  devoting  a  page  to  Hoboken  news.  As  the  flood 
subsided,  however,  so  did  Hoboken,  and  its  site  is  now  occupied  by  a 
farm.  The  city  of  Boston  was  laid  out  on  paper,  at  the  junction  of  the 
Sacramento  and  American  rivers,  but  never  materialized. 

The  first  census  taken  in  the  state,  in  1851,  was  under  the  super- 
intendence of  J.  Neelv  Johnson,  afterwards  governor  of  the   state. 


The  census  credited  Sacramento  with  11,000,  the  state  census  being 
120,000.  The  Federal  census  of  1860  credited  tlie  cit}^  with  12,800;  of 
1870,  with  16,283 ;  of  1880,  with  21,420 ;  of  1890,  with  26,388 ;  of  1900, 
with  29,282;  of  1910,  with  44,696.  Since  that  time  a  phenomenal  in- 
crease has  been  made,  through  the  rapid  development  of  the  Sacra- 
mento valley,  and  the  annexation  of  Oak  Park  and  other  eastern  sub- 
urbs, and  predictions  are  made  that  by  the  next  cen.sus  the  population 
will  exceed  100,000. 

The  first  vessel  ever  used  to  carry  press  aud  type  into  interior 
California  was  the  Dice  me  Nana  (says  my  mamma),  which  brought 
an  old  press  and  type  to  Sacramento  in  order  to  start  the  Placer 
Times,  in  1849,  which  was  the  first  paper  published  in  Sacramento. 

The  first  public  reception  and  banquet  ever  given  in  Sacramento 
was  in  1849,  to  Gen.  P.  F.  Smith,  military  commander  on  the  coast, 
Commodore  Jones,  in  command  of  the  navy,  Hon.  T.  Butler  King, 
who  had  been  sent  out  by  the  government  to  reconnoiter  the  Sacra- 
mento valley  and  report  on  it  at  AVashington,  and  W.  M.  Siddons,  a 
pioneer  citizen  of  Sacramento,  who  accompanied  them.  They  were 
members  of  an  expedition  that  accompanied  Mr.  King  on  his  trip. 
Lieutenant  Stoneman,  aftei'wards  governor  of  this  state,  was  with  the 
expedition  but  was  left  in  charge  of  the  camp,  about  five  miles  from 
the  city.  They  were  met  bv  General  Sutter,  Sam  Brannan,  B.  F.  Gil- 
lespie,'J.  H.  Hyer,  P.  B.  Cornwall,  Col.  J.  B.  Starr,  W.  R.  Grimshaw, 
and  a  large  number  of  other  prominent  men,  and  were  given  a  ban- 
quet by  the  citizens.  General  Sutter  also  received  them  at  the  fort 
and  entertained  them  handsomely. 

The  first  grand  ball  was  given  on  July  4,  1849,  in  honor  of  the 
day,  at  the  City  Hotel.  The  young  men  were  sent  out  to  scour  the 
country  and  invite  all  the  members  of  the  gentler  sex  they  could  find 
to  attend.  From  among  the  immigrant  parties  and  others,  they  mus- 
tered eighteen  females,  more  or  less  handsome.  Tickets  of  admission 
were  only  thirty-two  dollars  and  champagne  flowed  freely  at  a  sump- 
tuous supper. 

The  first  railroad  built  was  the  Sacramento  Valley  railroad,  from 
this  city  to  Folsom,  in  1855-56. 

The  first  man  hung  in  Sacramento  was  a  gambler,  Frederick  J. 
Roe,  who  shot  a  man  named  Myers,  who  tried  to  stop  a  fight  between 
Roe  and  another  man.  A  jury  was  selected  by  the  people,  who  found 
Roe  guilty  and  a  mob  broke  open  the  jail,  took  him  out  and  hung  him. 

The  first  steamboat  explosion  was  that  of  the  steamer  Fawn, 
August  18,  1850. 

The  first  agricultural  association  in  the  state  met  in  this  city  in 
the  American  theatre,  October  8,  1852,  and  a  fair  was  held  for  a  week 
or  two  at  the  same  time. 

The  first  appearance  of  cholera  in  Sacramento  was  on  the  20th 


of  October,  1850,  wlien  an  immisrant  l)y  steamer  was  found  dying  on 
the  levee. 

The  first  case  of  smallpox  in  this  city  was  in  a  family  named 
Zumwalt,  during  the  flood  of  1850,  Daniel  Zumwalt,  now  a  resident  of 
Anderson,  Shasta  County,  being  the  first  to  suffer  an  attack  of  the 

The  first  steamboat  that  ever  came  u])  the  river  to  Sacramento 
was  the  Little  Sitka,  in  the  latter  part  of  November,  1847.  She  was 
packed  on  board  a  Russian  bark  from  Sitka  and  was  of  forty  tons 
burden.  She  was  put  together  at  Y^erba  Buena  island,  near  San  Fran- 
cisco, and  was  so  "cranky"  that  the  weight  of  a  person  on  her  guards 
would  throw  one  of  her  wheels  out  of  service. 

The  first  military  organization  in  Sacramento  was  the  Sutter 
Rifle  Corps,  June  27,"  1852. 

Ilensley  &  Reading  erected  the  first  frame  house  in  Sacramento, 
to  be  used  bj^  them  as  a  store.  It  stood  at  the  corner  of  Front  and  I 
streets,  and  was  built  before  McDougal  removed  to  Sutterville. 

The  first  brick  house  built  in  Sacramento,  the  Pioneer  Hotel,  was 
kept  for  years  by  Louis  Binninger. 

The  first  mail  for  Salt  Lake  left  Sacramento  on  May  1,  1850. 

The  first  fire  department  was  organized  in  Sacramento  February 
5,  1850,  and  was  known  as  Mutual  Hook  and  Ladder  Company  No.  1. 

The  first  street  cars  in  Sacramento  were  run  about  1860,  and 
were  used  chiefly  for  hauling  sand  from  the  river.  The  rails  were  of 
wood,  and  the  cars  ran  on  II  street  from  Front  to  Thirteenth.  They 
sometimes   carried  passengers. 

The  first  regular  street  cars  in  this  city  were  started  in  August, 
1870,  the  cars,  only  two  in  number,  being  built  by  the  Kimball  Manu- 
facturing Company  of  San  Francisco.  The  first  electric  car,  the 
motive  power  being  a  storage  battery,  was  run  in  1888,  but  the  power 
applied  in  that  manner  proving  too  expensive,  it  was  soon  temp- 
porarily  suspended  and  a  trolley  system,  as  at  present,  was  later 

The  first  Thanksgiving  day  ever  observed  in  California  was  on 
November  30,  1850.  On  that  day  J.  A.  Benton,  pastor  of  the  Congre- 
gational Church  (known  as  the  First  Church  of  Christ),  preached 
the  sermon  on  "California  as  she  was,  as  she  is,  and  as  she  is  to  be." 

At  that  time  agriculture  could  hardly  be  said  to  be  even  an  ex- 
periment, but  Mr.  Benton  uttered  this  remarkable  prophesy:  "A 
million  of  jieople  cannot  fail  to  thrive  ])y  cultivating  this  virgin  soil, 
and  in  fifty  years  they  will  be  here  to  make  the  demonstration;  farm 
houses  will  dot  thickly  every  valley;  niarshes  will  be  redeemed  from 
overflow  and  wastes  will  bloom  in  beauty  and  yield  harvests  of  joy. 
The  state  will  not  fall  behind  the  chiefest  in  arts  and  manufacturing 
and  in  commerce.     With  hundreds  of  miles  of  navigable  bays  and 


rivers,  with  seven  hundred  miles  of  sea  coast,  with  earth's  l>roadest 
ocean  at  her  feet,  gemmed  with  a  thousand  sea  isles,  and  having  the 
shore  of  a  continent,  California  is  to  be  the  Queen  of  the  Seas,  and 
within  tlie  Golden  Gates  are  to  be  the  docks  and  depots  of  a  steam 
and  electro-magnetic  marine,  of  which  all  the  steam  marine  that  now 
exists  is  but  the  minutest  embryo.  The  iron  horse  that  has  drunk 
the  waters  of  the  Mississippi  will  fly  over  mountain  and  plain  and 
river,  breathe  defiance  to  yonder  beetling  cliffs  and  towering  jieaks 
of  snow,  as  he  dashes  forward  through  the  tunneled  depths  l)eneath, 
and  comes  through  our  streets  to  slake  his  thirst  at  the  Sacramento." 

The  first  school  in  Sacramento  county  outside  of  the  city  was  kept 
by  a  Mr.  O'Brien,  at  the  house  of  Martin  Murphy,  in  San  Joaciuin 

The  first  ball  held  in  Sacramento  county  by  the  white  settlers  was 
at  Moi'mon  island,  in  1849. 

The  first  courthouse  erected  in  Sacramento,  at  Seventh  and  I 
streets,  was  begun  in  June,  185U,  and  completed  December  24,  1851. 
The  sessions  of  the  legislature  of  1852  and  1854  were  held  in  it.  It 
was  destroyed  in  the  great  fire  of  July  13,  1854,  which  consumed  a 
large  part  of  the  business  portion  of  the  city.  Immediately  after  the 
fire,  a  contract  was  entered  into  for  the  erection  of  the  one  on  the 
same  site  which  was  recently  demolished  to  make  room  for  the  new 
one  at  present  being  erected.  The  cost  in  toto  was  $240,000,  al- 
though the  original  contract  was  for  $100,000.  The  cornerstone  was 
laid  September  27,  1854,  with  Masonic  ceremonies,  and  the  building, 
which  was  of  lirick,  was  completed  January  1,  1855,  and  was  used  by 
the  state  as  a  capitol  from  1855  until  the  present  capitol  was  built. 
It  was  eighty  by  one  hundred  and  twenty  feet,  and  sixty  feet  high, 
and  the  style  of  architecture  was  Ionic.  The  portico  was  sui)])orted 
by  ten  pillars,  three  feet  six  inches  in  diameter  and  thirty-three  feet 
six  inches  in  height.  In  April,  1870,  it  was  raised  to  the  high  gi-ade, 
four  hundred  jack  screws  being  used  for  that  purpose. 

Gilbert  T.  Witham,  who  lives  in  Washington,  Yolo  county,  and 
who  conducted  the  Coleman  house  on  J  street  in  this  city  in  the  early 
days,  ran  the  first  hack  in  Sacramento.  It  was  bought  in  San  Fran- 
cisco for  $3000  cash,  and  his  stand  was  at  the  Orleans  hotel,  on  Sec- 
ond street.  In  1855.  he  entered  the  employ  of  Doughty  &  Co..  and 
for  that  firm  ran  the  first  steam  trading  and  produce  boat  on  the 
river.  He  was  the  first  conductor  on  the  first  train  out  of  Sacra- 
mento to  Chico,  Tehama  and  Red  Bluff.  Charles  Crocker  was  on  the 
train,  and  bossed  the  job.  Mr.  Witham  saw  Governor  Stanford  turn 
the  first  shovelful  of  dirt  on  J  street  for  the  building  of  the  Central 
Pacific  railroad. 

The  first  criminal  trial  in  Sacramento  occurred  in  Sutter's  Fort 
and  was  a  remarkable  one.     In  January,  1849,  Charles  E.  Pickett, 


afterwards  known  as  "Pliilosopher  Pickett,"  was  a  merchant  in  Sut- 
ter's Fort,  occupying  a  portion  of  the  northeast  bastion,  a  man  named 
Alderman,  from  Oregon,  occupying  the  rest  of  it.  During  a  dispute 
about  the  premises  Alderman  advanced  on  Pickett  with  an  ax  up- 
lifted. The  latter  was  armed  with  a  shotgun,  and  warned  Alderman 
not  to  come  farther,  Pickett  having  retreated  to  the  wall.  As  Alder- 
man continued  to  advance,  Pickett  fired  and  killed  him.  The  cir- 
cumstances being  well  known,  and  the  killing  clearly  in  self-defense, 
no  attention  would  have  been  paid  to  it,  had  not  Sam  Brannan,  who 
was  also  a  merchant  at  the  fort,  stirred  up  an  excitement.  He  ap- 
plied to  Frank  Bates,  who  held  the  office  of  first  alcalde,  and  then  to 
John  S.  Fowler,  second  alcalde,  for  a  warrant  for  Pickett's  arrest, 
and  both  refused  and  resigned.  The  sheriff  also  resigned.  There- 
upon Brannan  called  a  meeting  of  the  residents  of  the  fort  for  the  ap- 
pointment of  an  alcalde.  Everyone  declined,  until  it  came  to  Bran- 
nan, who  accepted.  The  nomination  of  a  prosecuting  attorney  next 
went  the  rounds  till  it  came  to  Brannan,  who  accepted  it  also.  A.  M. 
Tanner  was  appointed  sheriff  and  notified  Pickett  to  consider  liim- 
self  under  arrest.  The  court  convened,  Captain  Sutter,  John  Sinclair, 
Capt.  W.  H.  Warner,  James  H.  Toppens  and  Thomas  Murray  being 
among  the  members  of  the  jury. 

Pickett  appeared,  accompanied  by  his  attorney,  one  Payne,  also 
from  Oregon.  The  sheriff  was  ordered  to  bring  in  drinks  for  the 
court,  jury,  defendant  and  counsel.  Cigars  were  proposed,  in  addi- 
tion, but  an  objection  was  made  and  the  point  argued.  The  court 
decided  that  "Inasmuch  as  the  ladies  of  California  made  a  practice 
of  smoki7ig,  it  could  not  be  out  of  place  anywhere."  Every  time  the 
defendant  would  ask  a  witness  a  question,  his  counsel  would  tell  him 
to  be  silent,  and  these  altercations  became  frequent,  as  the  orders  on 
the  sheriff  for  refreshment  became  numerous.  Midnight  came,  and 
Sutter  and  Sinclair  were  asleep,  leaning  against  the  wall.  One  of 
the  witnesses  was  testifying  that  the  character  of  Alderman  was  bad, 
he  having  killed  two  men  in  Oregon,  and  Captain  Sutter  awoke,  lis 
tened  a  few  minutes  and  said :  ' '  Gentlemen,  the  man  is  dead,  he  has 
atoned  for  his  faults,  and  I  will  not  sit  here  and  hear  his  character 
traduced."  He  then  started  to  leave  the  court,  but  was  persuaded 
to  sta\-.  When  the  evidence  was  closed,  Brannan  started  to  sum  up 
for  the  prosecution.  "Hold  on,  Brannan,"  said  Pickett,  "you  are  the 
judge."  "I  know  I  am  judge,"  retorted  Brannan,  "but  I  am  prose- 
cuting too."  "All  right,  go  ahead  then,"  said  Pickett.  AVhen  he 
finished,  Pickett's  attorney  was  too  far  gone  to  talk,  and  Pickett 
summed  uji  for  himself.  Toward  morning  the  jury  announced  that 
they  could  not  agree,  and  were  discharged.  Brannan  told  the  sheriff 
that  he  lemanded  the  i)risoner  to  his  custody.  "What  am  I  to  do 
with  him,"  asked  the  shei'iff?     "Put  him  in  close  confinement,"  said 


Brannan.  "I  have  uo  place  to  put  him  in,"  said  the  sherifif.  "Then 
put  him  in  irons,"  was  the  reply.  "There  ain't  any  irons  about  the 
place,"  returned  the  officer.  After  deliberation  it  was  agreed  to  admit 
Pickett  to  bail,  which  was  readily  furnished.  At  a  subsequent  trial, 
with  a  sober  jury,  Pickett  was  acquitted. 



In  July,  1839,  when  Captain  Sutter  told  Governor  Alvarado  that 
he  desired  to  occupy  and  colonize  the  section  where  he  afterward 
erected  his  fort,  the  governor  warmly  approved  his  plan  and  gave 
him  authority  to  explore  and  occupy  any  teri'itory  he  found  suitable 
and  told  him  to  return  in  a  year  and  have  his  citizenship  acknowl- 
edged, when  he  should  receive  a  grant  of  such  lands  as  he  might  de- 
sire. This  was  done,  and  he  received  a  grant  of  eleven  leagTies.  At 
that  time  the  settlement  of  Am.ericans  in  the  country  was  encour- 
aged by  the  local  government. 

But  by  1844  the  situation  had  changed.  The  events  in  Texas  had 
aroused  the  Mexican  people  and  it  was  well  understood  in  the  United 
States  that  Polk's  election  to  the  presidency  in  1844  meant  the  an- 
nexation of  Mexican  territory,  and  that  hostilities  might  reasonably 
be  expected  soon.  At  about  the  same  time  feelings  of  animosity  be- 
gan to  spring  up  in  California  between  the  Americans  and  the  Mex- 
ican population  and  the  former  began  to  apprehend  that  the  latter 
Avould  attempt  to  drive  them  from  the  country.  True,  no  declara- 
tion of  war  had  yet  been'  made,  but  it  was  evident  that  both  the 
United  States  and  the  Mexican  government  were  preparing  for  a  hos- 
tile meeting.  Colonel  Fremont  had  reached  California,  ostensibly 
on  an  exploring  expedition,  he  having  led  several  exploring  expe- 
ditions in  the  western  part  of  the  continent.  The  existing  govern- 
ment in  the  southern  part  of  California  had  shown  some  opposition 
to  his  progress,  and  he  had  turned  northward  toward  Oregon. 

In  April,  1846,  Lieutenant  Gillespie  of  the  United  States  army 
arrived  in  California,  and  started  from  Monterey  in  pursuit  of  Fre- 
mont, and  overtook  him  in  Oregon,  on  May  9th.  Gillespie's  despatch 
to  Fremont  has  never  been  made  public,  but  it  is  generally  supposed 
that  it  contained  orders  for  Fremont  to  retrace  his  steps  and  hold 
himself  ready  to  assist  in  the  conquest  of  California  on  the  first  in- 
timation that  war  was  to  be  declared.  He  returned  and  encamped 
at  or  near  the  ]ilace  where  Sacramento  now  stands.  The  population 
of  California  was  estimated  at  that  time  to  be  about  ten  thousand, 
exclusive  of  Indians.  Of  this  number  probably  less  than  two  thou- 
sand were  foreigners.  General  Castro,  was  at  that  time  military 
commandant  of  California,  and  he  had  several  times  issued  jirocla- 


mations  ordering  all  foreigners  to  leave  the  country.  The  American 
settlers  therefore  determined  that  the  time  had  arrived  when  they 
must  ]n-otect  themselves,  and  that  some  decisive  movement  should 
be  made  by  them.  This  movement  was  precipitated  by  an  order  from 
Castro  to  Lieut.  Francisco  de  Arce  to  proceed  with  fourteen  men  as 
a  guard  to  the  mission  of  San  Rafael,  where  there  were  some  horses 
belonging  to  the  Mexican  government,  and  remove  them  to  the  mis- 
sion at  Santa  Clara.  As  New  Helvetia  (now  the  city  of  Sacramento) 
was  the  first  point  at  which  the  horses  could  swim  the  river,  de  Arce 
was  under  the  necessity  of  coming  to  that  point.  An  Indian  ob- 
served de  Arce's  party  in  its  movement,  and  reported  that  he  had  seen 
two  or  three  hundred  men  mounted  and  armed,  coming  up  the  Sac- 
ramento river.  The  settlers  believed  that  Castro  was  leading  a  large 
party  to  attack  Fremont.  The  news  spread  among  the  Americans 
by  means  of  couriers,  and  they  gathered  for  the  defense  at  Fre- 
mont's camp,  near  the  confluence  of  the  Feather  river  with  the  Sac- 
ramento. There  they  met  William  Knight,  who  told  them  that  he 
had  seen  the  party  of  Californians  in  charge  of  the  horses,  and 
that  de  Arce  had  told  that  Castro  had  sent  for  the  horses  for  the 
purpose  of  mounting  a  battalion  of  two  hundred  men  to  march 
against  the  Americans  settled  in  the  Sacramento  valley  and  to  expel 
them  from  the  country.  The  settlers  held  a  consultation  and  re- 
solved that  a  party  should  pursue  de  Arce,  and  capture  the  horses 
and  thus  defeat  Castro's  plans.  Twelve  men  volunteered  for  the 
duty,  and  chose  Ezekiel  Merritt,  the  oldest  of  the  party,  as  their 
captain.  At  daylight,  June  10,  1846,  they  surprised  the  C'alifornians, 
and  captured  the  horses  without  resistance.  De  Arce  and  liis  men 
were  allowed  to  go,  each  one  being  allowed  one  horse. 

This  was  the  first  overt  act  committed  by  the  foreig-ners  and 
made  it  necessary  that  all  in  the  country  should  take  one  side  or 
the  other  in  the  revolution  thus  i)recipitated.  It  was  followed  on 
the  morning  of  June  14.  by  the  taking  of  the  town  and  Mission  of 
Sonoma.  The  American  party,  increased  to  thirty-three,  was  led 
by  Ezekiel  Merritt  and  was  known  afterward  as  the  famous  Bear 
Flag  party.  It  was  composed  mostly  of  hunters  and  men  who  could 
leave  their  homes  on  short  notice.  They  were  roughly  dressed  and 
presented  a  formidable  appearance.  They  seized  the  town  and  mis- 
sion without  bloodshed  and  captured  Gen.  M.  G.  Vallejo,  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Prudon,  Don  Salvador  Vallejo  and  other  prominent  per- 
sons and  conveyed  them  to  Sutter's  Fort,  where  they  were  kept 
prisoners  for  about  two  months. 

As  nearly  as  can  be  ascertained,  the  names  of  the  members  of 
the  Bear  Flag  party  from  Sacramento  valley  were :  Ezekiel  Merritt, 
Robert  Semple,  Henry  L.  Ford,  Samuel  Gibson,  Granville  P.  Swift, 
William  Dickev,  Henrv  Booker,  John  Potter,  William  B.  Ide,  Will- 


iam  Fallon,  William  M.  Seott,  Henry  Beason,  William  Anderson, 
James  A.  Jones,  W.  Barti  (or  "Old  Red")  and  Sami;el  Neal.  The 
rest  of  the  party  was  from  Napa  valley. 

A  garrison  of  eighteen  men,  under  command  of  William  Ide, 
was  left  at  Sonoma  and  in  a  few  days  it  was  increased  to  about 
forty.  Ide  issued  a  proclamation  declaring  that  he  and  his  com- 
panions had  been  invited  to  come  into  the  country  and  had  been 
promised  protection  by  the  government,  but  that  they  had  been  sub- 
jected to  oppression  by  military  despotism;  that  threats  had  been 
made,  by  proclamation,  of  exterminating  them  if  the^^  did  not  leave 
the  country;  that  it  meant  they  must  either  abandon  their  property 
and  be  driven  through  deserts  inhabited  by  hostile  Indians,  or  must 
defend  themselves;  and  that  they  had  been  forced  to  inaugurate  a 
revolution  with  a  view  of  establishing  and  perj^etuating  a  repub- 
lican  government. 

The  party  obtained  its  name  by  adopting  what  was  known  as 
the  Bear  flag,  and  it  formed  a  partial  organization  under  the  name 
of  the  Republic  of  California.  The  flag  borne  by  them  was  a  piece 
of  cotton  cloth,  with  one  red  stripe  on  the  bottom,  and  on  the  white 
part  was  the  figure  of  a  grizzly  bear,  with  one  star  in  front  of  him. 
It  was  })ainted  or  stained  with  lampblack  and  poke  berries  and  on 
the  top  were  the  words,  "Republic  of  California."  According  to 
the  history  of  the  event  filed  in  the  office  of  the  Society  of  Califor- 
nia Pioneers,  the  flag  was  painted  with  paint  secured  from  a  wheel- 
right's  shop,  "and  the  execution  did  not  excel  in  artistic  merit." 

William  L.  Todd,  however,  in  a  letter  to  the  Los  Angeles  Express 
under  the  date  of  January  11,  1878,  makes  this  statement:  "I  have 
to  say  in  regard  to  the  making  of  the  original  Bear  flag  of  Califor- 
nia at  Sonoma  in  1846,  that  when  the  Americans  who  had  taken 
up  arms  against  the  Spanish  regime  had  determined  what  kind  of 
a  flag  should  be  adopted,  the  following  persons  performed  the  work: 
Granville  P.  Swift,  Peter  Storm,  Henry  L.  Ford,  and  myself.  We 
procured,  in  the  house  where  we  made  our  headquarters,  a  piece  of 
new,  unbleached  cotton  domestic,  not  quite  a  yard  wide,  with  stripes 
of  red  flannel  about  four  inches  wide,  furnished  by  Mrs.  John  Sears, 
on  the  lower  side  of  the  canvas.  On  the  upper  left-hand  corner  was 
a  star,  and  in  the  center  was  the  image  made  to  represent  a  grizzly 
bear,  so  common  in  this  country  at  that  time.  The  bear  and  star 
were  painted  with  paint  made  of  linseed  oil  and  Venetian  red  or 
Spanish  brown.  Underneath  the  bear  were  the  words,  'California 
Republic'  The  other  person  engaged  with  me  got  the  materials  to- 
gether, while  I  acted  as  artist.  The  forms  of  the  bear  and  star  and 
the  letters  were  first  lined  out  with  pen  and  ink  by  myself,  and  the 
two  forms  were  filled  in  with  the  red  paint,  but  the  letters  with 
ink.     The  flag  mentioned  by  Mr.  Hittel,  with  the  bear  rampant,  was 


made,  as  I  always  understood,  at  Santa  Barbara,  and  was  painted 
black.  Allow  me  to  say  tbat  at  that  time  there  was  no  wheelwright 
shop  in  California.  The  flag  I  painted  I  saw  in  the  rooms  of  the 
California  Pioneers  in  San  Francisco  in  1870,  and  the  secretary  will 
show  it  to  any  person  who  will  call  upon  him  at  any  time.  If  it  is 
the  one  that  I  painted,  it  will  be  known  by  a  mistake  in  tinting  out 
the  words  'California  Eepublic'  The  letters  were  first  lined  out 
with  a  pen  and  I  left  out  the  letter  'I'  and  lined  out  the  letter  "C" 
in  its  place.  But  afterward  I  lined  out  the  letter  'I'  over  the  'C 
so  that  the  last  sj'Uable  of  'Republic'  looks  as  if  the  last  two  let- 
ters were  blended."  The  giiidon  used  at  Sonoma  was  in  1874  pre- 
sented to  the  California  Pioneers  by  Brig.-Gen.  Joseph  Revere,  who 
in  1846,  as  lieutenant,  hauled  down  the  Bear  flag  and  substituted 
the  Stars  and  Stripes. 

There  has  been  considerable  dispute  as  to  the  causes  which  led 
to  the  revolution  in  California,  the  capture  of  Sonoma,  Ide's  procla- 
mation, the  raising  of  the  Bear  flag  and  its  design.  Reliance  is 
placed  on  the  accounts  which  were  published  in  the  Californian  in 
August  and  September,  1846.  This  was  a  few  months  after  the  oc- 
currence of  those  events  and  the  articles  were  written  by  Robert  Sem- 
ple,  the  editor,  who  distinctly  stated  in  them  that  he  wrote  them  as 
a  matter  of  history  and  for  the  benefit  of  future  historians. 

Commodore  John  D.  Sloat  arrived  at  Monterey  July  7,  1846,  with 
a  United  States  frigate.  Monterey  was  at  that  time  the  Mexican 
capital  of  California.  The  commodore  took  possession  of  the  town 
and  hoisted  the  American  flag  over  the  custom  house,  and  from  that 
day  dates  the  possession  of  California  by  the  United  States.  Sloat 's 
frigate  had  been  lying  at  Mazatlan  under  orders  to  seize  California 
on  the  first  intimation  that  war  had  been  declared  against  Mexico. 
The  first  American  flag  was  hoisted  in  the  Sacramento  valley  where 
Sacramento  City  now  stands.  Colonel  Fremont  being  encamped  there 
with  about  one  hundred  and  seventy  men.  William  Scott  arrived  in 
the  camp  on  the  evening  of  July  10,  with  the  news  of  the  hoisting 
of  the  flag  at  Monterey  by  Commodore  Sloat.  He  also  brought  with 
him  an  American  flag  sent  by  Capt.  John  B.  Montgomery,  of  the 
United  States  ship  Portsmouth.  The  Californian,  in  speaking  of  the 
first  receipt  of  the  news  at  Sacramento,  says :  "It  was  received  with 
universal  shouts  by  the  men,  and  our  gallant  leader,  surrounded  by 
a  number  of  officers  and  soldiers,  partook  of  a  cup  of  good  brandy, 
and  sang  some  national  airs.  The  Star  Spangled  Banner  was  re- 
ponded  to  with  warmth." 

With  the  raising  of  the  American  flag  the  Bear  flag  was  sup- 
planted, and  although  there  were  several  engagements  between  the 
United  States  troops  and  the  Mexican  forces  in  the  southern  part  of 
the  territory  of  California,  the  Mexicans  capitulated  early  in  1847,  and 


the  hostilities  ceased.  While  uiany  events  happened  during  the 
transition,  those  above  recorded  were  all  that  directly  affected  this 
county  and  the  territory  surrounding  it. 


The  first  survey  of  the  plat  of  Sacramento  was  made  in  Decem- 
ber, 1848,  by  Capt.  William  H.  Warner  of  the  United  States  Army. 
Previous  to  184-1:  Sutter's  Fort  was  the  principal  trading  post  in 
Upper  California.  In  that  year  Captain  Sutter  and  some  others  at 
the  fort  determined  to  hiy  out  and  build  a  town  on  the  river  bank 
three  miles  below,  which  they  called  Sutter,  now  spoken  of  as  Sutter- 
ville.  A  survey  was  made  by  Capt.  William  Tecumseh  Sherman 
(afterwards  famous  during  the  Civil  war  as  General  Sherman),  and 
building  was  begun.  The  first  house  was  erected  by  Captain  Sutter 
himself;  the  second  by  a  Mr.  Hadel  and  a  third,  a  brick  structure, 
said  to  be  the  first  of  its  kind  erected  in  California,  by  Mr.  Zius. 
The  city  began  to  flourish  unrivaled  and  continued  to  do  so  until  the 
discovery  of  gold.  Soon  after  that  time,  however,  it  came  into  a 
disastrous  rivalry  with  Sacramento.  Dr.  Morse,  the  earliest  historian 
of  those  times  and  a  warm  partisan  of  Sacramento,  gives  many  in- 
teresting particulars  of  the  struggle  for  supremacy  between  the  two 
budding  cities,  which  resulted  in  the  ultimate  downfall  of  the  city  on 
the  high  grounds  back  from  the  river  and  the  success  of  the  city  on 
the  lower  level,  .that  was  doomed  in  a  few  years  to  be  inundated  by 
the  rising  waters,  although  one  of  the  principal  arguments  used  by 
the  traders  and  speculators  in  their  arguments  for  the  support  of 
this  city  was  that  the  ground  where  it  stands  had  never  been  over- 
flowed within  the  memory  of  the  white  man,  and  never  would  be. 

P>ayard  Taylor  says  in  his  "Eldorado,"  of  his  first  visit  to  Sac- 
ramento in  October,  1849 :  ' '  The  limits  of  the  town  extended  to  nearly 
one  square  mile  and  the  number  of  inhabitants,  in  tents  and  houses, 
fell  little  short  of  ten  thousand.  The  iirevious  April  there  were  just 
four  houses  in  place.  Can  the  world  match  a  growth  like  tliis?  .  .  . 
The  value  of  real  estate  in  Sacramento  is  only  exceeded  by  that  in 
San  Francisco.  Lots  20x75  feet,  in  the  best  locations,  brought  from 
$3,000  to  $.3,500.  Rents  were  on  a  scale  equally  enormous.  The  City 
hotel,  which  was  formerly  a  sawmill  erected  by  Captain  Sutter,  paid 
$30,000  per  annum.  A  new  hotel,  going  up  on  the  levee,  was  already 
rented  for  $35,000.  Two  drinking  and  gaming  rooms  on  a  business 
street  paid  each  $1,000  monthly,  invariably  in  advance.  The  value 
of  all  the  houses  in  the  city,  frail  and  perishable  as  many  of  them 
were,  could  not  have  been  less  than  $2,000,000.  .  .  .  The  inhabi- 
tants had  elected  a  town  council,  adopted  a  city  charter  and  were 


making  exertions  to  have  the  place  declared  a  port  of  entry.  The 
political  waters  were  being  stirred  a  little,  in  anticipation  of  the  ap- 
proaching election.  Mr.  Gilbert,  of  the  Alta  California,  and  Colonel 
Stewart,  candidate  for  governor,  were  in  the  city.  A  political  meet- 
ing which  had  been  held  a  few  nights  before,  in  front  of  the  City 
hotel,  passed  off  as  uproariously  and  with  as  zealous  a  sentiment 
of  patriotism  as  such  meetings  are  wont  to  at  home." 

Shortly  after  the  great  discovery  that  was  to  so  influence  the  for- 
tunes of  the  world  and  to  become  the  ruin  of  General  Sutter,  a  num- 
ber of  stores  were  located  at  the  fort  and  an  immense  business  was 
soon  created  there.  The  first  of  these  was  the  establishment  of  C. 
C.  Smith  &  Co.,  in  which  Sam  Brannan  was  a  partner.  It  was  started 
a  few  months  before  the  opening  of  the  mines  and  the  first  exchange 
of  gold  dust  for  store  goods  took  place  over  its  counters.  Brannan 
afterwards  bought  his  partners  out  and  continued  the  business  in 
the  old  adobe  building  which  was  subsequently  used  as  a  hospital. 
In  1849  the  building  on  the  inside  of  Sutter's  Fort  was  occupied  by 
Rufus  Hitchcock,  the  upper  story  being  used  as  a  boarding  house. 
The  front  room  below  was  used  as  a  barroom  and  gambling  house 
and  the  bar  was  kept  open  night  and  day.  If  a  customer  had  coin, 
his  drink  cost  him  fifty  cents,  but  he  generally  opened  his  sack  and  the 
barkeeper  took  out  a  pinch  of  gold  dust,  to  be  regulated  by  size  or 
amount  of  drink  consumed,  and  in  those  days  very  few  drank  alone. 
The  cost  of  board  at  this  ])la('e  was  $40  per  week. 

Hitchcock  soon  left  the  fort  and  went  to  the  mines  on  the  Stan- 
islaus. In  passing  it  may  lie  stated  that  old  residents  say  that  in 
the  '50s  Capt.  (afterwards  Gen.)  Ulysses  S.  Grant,  owned  a  ferry 
on  the  Stanislaus  and  they  often  saw  him,  dressed  in  red  shirt  and 
overalls,  h'ing  under  a  shady  tree  on  the  bank,  contentedly  waiting 
for  a  foot  passenger  to  come  along  who  wanted  to  be  ferried  over. 
In  those  days,  in  fact,  many  a  man  who  afterwards  became  prominent 
in  the  history  of  his  country,  was  a  resident  of  California.  Hitch- 
cock subsequently  became  the  owner  of  the  Green  Springs  ranch  in 
Fldorado  county  and  died  there  in  1851.  He  was  succeeded  in  the 
boarding  liouse  by  M.  F.  McClellan  of  San  Francisco.  By  summer 
all  the  business  had  become  transferred  to  the  Embarcadero  or  land- 
ing place  on  the  Sacramento  river,  now  known  as  Front  street,  which 
became  a  lively  place.  The  blacksmith  shop  at  the  fort  was  carried 
on  by  a  Mr.  Fairchild,  who  paid  an  assistant  $16  a  day  and  charged 
$64  for  shoeing  a  horse  all  round,  or  $16  for  a  single  shoe. 

In  the  freighting  to  the  mines,  which  was  done  by  means  of  ox 
teams,  John  S.  Fowler  had  a  virtual' monopoly  and  paid  his  team- 
sters from  $200  to  $250  per  month.  The  rate  for  freighting  was  enor- 
mous. In  the  winter  of  1848-49  the  roads  to  the  mines  were  almost 
impassable.    Freight  from  the  fort  to  Coloma  was  one  dollar  a  ]iound 


— $2,000  a  ton.  Even  at  that  price  it  was  impossible  to  transport 
the  necessaries  of  life  fast  enough  to  prevent  serious  apprehensions 
of  famine  in  the  more  distant  mining  districts. 

The  firm  of  S.  Brannan  &  Co.  consisted  of  Sam  Brannan,  Will- 
iam Stone,  W.  D.  Howard,  Henrj-  Melhas  and  Talbot  H.  Green.  The 
stores  of  Priest,  Lee  &  Co.,  Hensley,  Reading  &  Co.,  Captain  Dring, 
C.  E.  Pickett,  Von  Pfister  &  Vaughn,  and  the  drug  store  of  Drs. 
Frank  Bates  and  AVard  were  inside  of  the  fort.  The  prices  de- 
manded were  enormous.  One  evening  John  S.  Fowler,  wishing  to 
give  a  supper  to  his  teamsters,  saw  on  the  shelf  in  Brannan 's  store 
a  dozen  two-pound  cans  of  oysters  and  asked  the  clerk  the  price. 
"Twelve  dollars  each,"  replied  the  clerk.  "How  much  if  I  take  the 
lot?"  asked  Fowler.  "One  hundred  and  forty- four  dollars,"  was 
the  reply.  "Well,  I'll  take  them  all,"  said  Fowler,  and  he  carried 
off    his    costly   prize. 

Brannan 's  employes  were:  Jeremiah  Sherwood,  of  New  York; 
Tallman  H.  Ralfe,  afterwards  editor  of  the  Democrat  in  Nevada 
City;  J.  Harris  Trowbridge,  afterwards  of  Newburg,  N.  Y. ;  George 
M.  Robertson,  afterwards  supreme  judge  of  Oahu,  Sandwich  Islands; 
James  B.  Mitchell,  subsequently  public  administrator  of  Sacramento 
county,  who  died  in  1857  in  Benicia;  W.  R.  Grimshaw,  a  well-known 
resident  for  many  years  on  the  Cosumnes  river ;  and  James  Queen. 

The  pioneers  did  not  leave  their  patriotism  behind  them  when  they 
came  here.  The  4th  of  July,  1849,  was  celebrated  in  the  shade  of  a 
grove  of  oak  trees,  the  last  survivor  of  which,  hoary  with  age  and 
covered  with  mistletoe,  stood  for  many  years  in  front  of  the  old  build- 
ing on  L  street  which  was  used  as  a  hospital.  The  orators  of  the 
day  were  William  M.  Gwin  and  Thomas  Butler  King,  who  after- 
wards served  the  state  in  the  United  States  senate. 

Shortly  afterward  came  the  struggle  for  supremacy  with  Sut- 
terville.  As  soon  as  the  survey  of  Sacramento  City  had  been  made 
George  McDougall  obtained  a  lease  of  the  ferry  at  a  jwint  below 
the  entrance  of  Sutter  Lake,  and  located  a  store-ship  on  ^\e  river 
bank  opposite  I  street,  and  in  company  with  Judge  Blackburn,  opened 
it  with  a  large  stock  of  goods.  When  John  A.  Sutter,  Jr.,  arrived, 
his  father,  the  ca])tain,  transferred  to  him  all  the  proprietary  rights 
in  the  city  of  Sacramento.  McDougall  declared  that  his  lease  gave 
him  control  of  six  hundred  feet  along  the  river  front,  and  a  dispute 
arose  which  was  carried  into  the  courts.  Being  defeated,  McDougall 
in  a  rage  determined  to  destroy  the  prospects  of  the  city,  and  re- 
moved his  goods  to  Sutterville.  He  then  came  out  with  immense 
placards  stating  that  he  would  sell  goods  at  cost  and  freight,  and 
made  a  verbal  declaration  that  if  necessary  he  would  sell  goods  at 
cost.  This  produced  a  lively  agitation  among  the  traders  and  they 
patched  up  a  scheme  of  purchase  which  broke  up  many  lines  of  Mc- 


Dougall's  stock  aud,  as  it  was  no  easy  task  in  those  days  to  replenish 
it,  effectually  extinguished  McDougall's  enterprise  and  put  an  end  to 
the  budding  hopes  of  Sutterville  as  well. 

The  latter  end  was  accomplished  largely  by  a  shrewd  specu- 
lative move  on  the  part  of  Sam  Brannan,  Judge  Bui'nett  and  Priest, 
Lee  &  Co.  The  Sutterville  proprietors  had  offered  to  donate  to 
these  traders  eighty  lots  in  Sutterville  if  they  would  transfer  their 
stocks  and  business  to  Svitterville.  They  informed  young  Sutter 
of  the  offer  and  persuaded  him  that  it  would  be  for  his  interest  to 
give  them  about  five  hundred  lots  in  Sacramento  to  induce  them  to 
sta>-  here,  aud  he  did  so.  Such  was  the  passing  of  Sutterville,  and 
today  the  old  brick  brewery  stands  as  a  monument  of  its  decease, 
while  the  ))ig  brick  stores  whicli  stood  there  until  later  years  have 

Sacramento  grew  apace.  Ajjril  1,  184!),  the  number  of  inhabi- 
tants of  the  fort  aud  city  did  not  exceed  one  hundred  and  ten.  An 
election  had  been  held  the  preceding  fall  for  first  and  second  alcaldes, 
resulting  in  the  election  of  Frank  Bates  and  John  S.  Fowler,  re- 
spectively. Fowler  resigned  in  the  spring  and  Henry  A.  Schoolcraft 
was  appointed  in  his  place.  Early  in  the  spring  a  board  of  commis- 
sioners consisting  of  Messrs.  Brannan,  Snyder,  Slater,  Hensley, 
King,  Cheever,  McCoover,  McDougall,  Barton  Lee,  Feete,  Dr.  Car- 
penter, Fowler  and  Southard  was  elected  to  frame  a  code  of  laws  for 
the  district.  The  committee  met  under  an  oak  tree  at  the  foot  of  T 
street  and  submitted  a  report  which  recommended  the  election  of  one 
alcalde  and  one  sheriff,  who  should  have  jurisdiction  from  the  Coast 
Range  to  the  Sierra  Nevada  and  throughout  the  length  of  the  Sac- 
ramento valley.  H.  A.  Schoolcraft  was  elected  alcalde  and  A.  M. 
Turner,  sheriff,  aud  thus  was  laid  the  foundation  of  the  judicial  and 
political  system  in  Northern  California,  under  a  sturdy  oak  on  the 
banks   of   the    Sacramento. 

Immigration  was  coming  liy  sea,  although  as  yet  in  not  very 
great  nipnbers  between  February  to  June,  but  improvement  went 
steadily  on.  The  condition  was  anomalous.  There  was  no  law  or 
system  of  government,  yet  there  was  no  discord  or  disorder.  There 
was  no  legal  restraint  imposed  on  citizens,  yet  during  these  months 
the  community  was  exempt  from  violence,  and  all  seemed  imbued 
with  a  feeling  of  forbearance  and  accommodation.  The  craze  for 
gold  had  not  yet  fastened  its  deleterious  influence  on  men,  and  right 
and  a  feeling  of  equality  and  independtoce  seemed  to  guide  their 

Trading  \aelded  an  enormous  profit  and  everyone  was  absorbed 
in  it.  Two  hundred  per  cent  was  the  profit  on  goods  procured  from 
San  Francisco  and  trading  in  gold  dust  was  very  profitable.  At 
first  the  scale  of  payment  for  goods  with  dust  ranged  from  $8  to 


$16  an  ouuee.  Clerks  could  liartlly  be  retained  in  the  stores  at  from 
$200  to  $300  i^er  month.  The  trade  between  the  mines  and  Sacra- 
mento was  immense.  Such  was  the  prevailing  feeling  of  honesty  and 
security  that  neither  goods  nor  gold  dust  were  watched  with  anxiety 
for  their  safety.  Miners  came  to  town  with  bags  of  gold  dust  which 
they  took  no  more  care  of  than  their  hats  and  boots.  Money  was 
so  ])lentiful  that  there  was  no  temptation  to  steal.  By  the  first  of 
May  there  were  about  thirtj^  stores,  and  two  barks  and  a  brig  were 
moored  along  the  shore.  The  Whiton,  one  of  the  former,  had  as- 
tonished the  residents  by  coming  up  from  San  Francisco  in  three 
days,  from  five  to  ten  days  having  been  consumed  before  then  by 
small  boats  and  launches. 

lu'  June  there  came  a  change.  Immigrants  began  to  arrive  by 
thousands  and  to  outfit'  for  the  mines,  Sacramento  being  the  point  of 
departure  for  the  northern  mines.  The  American,  Yuba,  Bear  and 
Feather  rivers  were  the  points  of  attraction  and  Sacramento  was 
the  place  for  outfitting.  Business  became  a  rush  in  which  the  cal- 
culation was  only  for  today.  Transportation  from  San  Francisco  was 
the  source  of  enormous  profits  and  every  craft  that  could  be  procured 
was  pressed  into  service.  The  cost  of  passage  from  San  Francisco 
to  Sacramento  was  from  $16  to  $25  and  the  freight  rate  was  cor- 
respondingly high.  On  June  26th  the  city  numbered  a  hundred  houses 
"and  the  City  Hotel,  on  Front  street  between  I  and  J,  35x53  feet  and 
of  three  stories,  originally  framed  for  a  saw  and  grist  mill  for  Cap- 
tain Sutter,  was  said  to  have  cost  $100,000.  It  was  headquarters 
for  the  aristocracy  of  the  times  and  the  scene  of  many  town-meetings. 

Every  sort  of  material  from  which  tents,  store ;  and  houses  could 
be  constructed  rose  to  enormous  prices.  Muslin,  calico,  canvas,  old 
sails,  logs,  boards,  zinc  and  tin  were  priceless  po'ssessions.  The  hun- 
dreds of  immigTants  coming  in  were  lucky  if  they  could  have  the 
shade  of  the  trees  to  protect  them  from  the  noonday  sun  or  the  night. 
Gambling  was  everywhere  carried  on  and  magnificent  saloons  were 
built  at  enormous  cost,  the  first  place  of  public  gaming  being  on  J 
street,  between  Second  and 'Third,  kept  by  James  Lee,  an<l  euphoni- 
ously named  "The  Stinking  Tent."  Others  followed,  and  a  demo- 
cratic and  cosmopolitan  crowd  composed  their  patrons.  Coin  was 
scarce  and  the  miners  brought  their  bags  of  gold  dust,  de])ositing 
them  with  the  game  keepers  and  drawing  from  them  as  the  game  pro- 
gressed, generally  till  all  was  gone,  and  then  went  back  to  the  mines 
for  more.  Not  one  person  in  ten,  either  by  absence  or  condemnation, 
tried  to  discountenance  gaming.  Indeed,  it  is  narrated  by  Dr.  Morse 
that  two  exclergyTnen  were  conspicuous  among  the  gamesters,  one 
dealing  monte  and  the  other  playing  faro.  Poker  was  played  by  the 
larger  capitalists  on  a  magnificent  scale,  the  ante  being  often  $100 
and  $3,000  being  frequently  bet  on  a   single  hand.     One  individual 


is  said  to  Jiave  staked  a  thousand  ounces  on  a  hand  and  won,  after 
ba\'ing  Jest  nearly  that  much  previously.  Many  men  who  had  been 
brought  up  to  regard  gambling  as  a  stain  on  a  man's  character  and 
who  had  left  their  wives  and  children  in  straightened  circumstances, 
says  Morse,  hastened  to  hazard  and  lose  the  first  few  hundred  or 
thousand  dollars  they  had  made. 

But  a  moral  wave  soon  swept  over  the  community.  In  Api-il, 
1849,  Rev.  Dr.  Woodbridge  preached  the  first  sermon  ever  heard  in 
Sacramento.  In  May  Dr.  Deal,  a  practicing  physician,  undertook  to 
establish  regular  religious  services  and  in  July  Rev.  J.  A.  Benton 
began  his  long  and  beneficent  services  in  the  citJ^  "His  course,"  tes- 
tifies Dr.  Morse,  "was  from  the  first  consistent.  He  was  essentially 
a  minister  of  the  gospel — a  seven-days  advocate  of  the  Christian  re- 
ligion." He  extended  his  influence  by  a  pure  life,  winning  the  re- 
spect and  confidence  of  the  people,  instead  of  making  an  onslaught 
on  the  tide  of  vice,  and  soon  acquired  great  influence  in  the  com- 
munity. At  this  late  day  many  of  the  pioneer  Sacramentans  who  knew 
him  speak  in  the  highest  terms  of  his  character.  He  sometimes  made 
missionary  excursions  of  two  or  three  weeks  duration,  sleeping  on 
the  ground  nnder  the  trees  and  living  like  the  primitive  Apostles. 

Before  the  removal  of  McDougall's  store,  Hensley  and  Read- 
ing had  erected  a  frame  building  in  Sacramento,  on  the  corner  of  I 
and  Front  streets,  the  first  frame  house  in  the  new  city.  Soon  after 
that  a  Mr.  Ingersoll  erected  a  building  half  canvas  and  half  frame, 
between  J  and  K  on  Front  street  and  Mr.  Stewart  4iad  put  up  a 
canvas  house  on  the  bank  of  the  river,  which  was  opened  as  a  tavern. 
In  February,  1849,  Sam  Brannan  erected  a  frame  storehouse  on  the 
corner  of  J  and  Front  streets,  and  this  was  soon  succeeded  by  an- 
other belonging  to  Priest,  Lee  &  Co.,  on  the  corner  of  Second  and  J 
and  directly  afterwards  two  substantial  log  houses  were  erected  by 
Mr.   Gillespie  and  Dr.   Carpenter. 

For  a  time  the  chief  place  for  business  was  on  First  or  Front 
street  between  J  and  K,  but  soon  it  began  to  extend  up  J  and  K 
streets  to  Third.  The  river  bank  was  piled  with  the  goods  of  immi- 
grants and  merchandise,  and  storage  facilities  were  entirely  in- 
adequate. The  chief  business  was  in  miners'  supplies.  Lumber  was 
from  fifty  cents  to  a  dollar  per  square  foot,  and  hard  to  get  at  that. 
Teaming  and  packing  earned  enormous  revenue.  In  December  $50 
a  hundred  was  charged  for  hauling  goods  from  Sacramento  to 
Mormon  Island  and  Auburn.  In  July  fresh  beef  sold  for  fifteen 
cents  a  pound;  bread  fifty  cents  a  loaf;  butter  from  $2  to  $3  a  poimd; 
milk  $1  a  quart ;  dried  apples  $1  to  $2  a  pound ;  saleratus  $6  a  pound, 
and  pickles  whatever  their  owner  chose  to  ask.  Carpenters  were 
paid  $16  a  day;  laborers  $1.50  an  liour;  board  without  lodging 
$16  to  $49  a  week;  washing  $6  to  $12  a  dozen;  doctor's  fees  $16  to 


$32  a  visit.  A  glass  of  liquor  at  a  first-class  bar  cost  $1,  ami  a  cigar 
fifty  cents.     Everything  was   high  in  proportion. 

But  business  did  not  entirely  engross  the  attention  of  the  citi- 
zens. There  were  some  votaries  of  pleasure,  and  on  July  4,  1849, 
a  grand  ball  was  given  at  the  City  hotel,  at  that  time  the  headquar- 
ters of  Sacramento  fashion  and  aristocracy.  Money  was  spent  with- 
out stint  to  enhance  the  success  and  dignity  of  the  occasion,  and  the 
affair  was  on  a  magnificent  scale.  There  was  a  dearth  in  the  com- 
munity of  feminine  attractions  and  the  surrounding  country  was 
scoured  thoroughly  by  a  committee  of  young  men  to  gather  in  all 
the  ladies  that  could  be  obtained  to  grace  the  occasion.  Every  min- 
ing camp,  ranch,  wagon,  tent  and  log  cabin  was  canvassed,  with  such 
success  that  eighteen  of  the  fair  sex  were  secured.  To  quote  Dr. 
Morse  again.  "Not  all  Amazons,  but  replete  with  all  the  adornments 
and  graces  that  belong  to  bold  and  enterprising  pioneers  of  a  new 
country.  Tickets  to  the  ball  were  fixed  at  the  moderate  price  of  thir- 
ty-two dollars ;  gentlemen  were  requested  to  have  swallow-tail  coats 
and  white  vests.  The  supper  was,  of  course,  a  profusion  of  all  that 
money  could  obtain,"  and  champagne  flowed  freely,  despite  its  cost. 
Thus  was  the  pace  set  for  future  occasions  in  the  new  city. 

In  July,  1849,  a  movement  was  set  on  foot  to  organize  a  city 
government.  An  election  for  councilmen  was  held  at  the  St.  Louis 
Exchange  on  Second  street  between  I  and  J,  and  the  first  council- 
men  for  the  city  of  Sacramento  were  chosen  as  follows:  John  P. 
Rodgers,  H.  E.  Robinson,  P.  B.  Cornwall,  William  Stout,  E.  F.  Gil- 
lespie, Thomas  F.  Chapman,  M.  T.  McClelland,  A.  M.  Winn  and  B. 
Jennings.  The  new  council  was  organized  on  August  1st,  with  Will- 
iam Stout  as  president  and  J.  H.  Harper  as  clerk.  The  first  busi- 
ness transacted  was  the  preparation  of  a  constitution  for  local  gov- 
ernment. A.  M.  Winn  was  afterwards  made  president  in  place  of 
Stout,  who  had  left  the  city.  On  September  20th  an  election  was  held 
to  decide  on  a  city  charter.  A  draft  had  been  prepared  by  the  coun- 
cil but  the  citizens  did  not  turn  out  well  to  vote,  and  it  was  defeated 
by  a  majority  of  one  hundred  and  forty-six  votes.  Its  rejection  was 
charged  to  the  gamblers,  who  opposed  a  change  and  worked  hard 
and  spent  much  money  to  defeat  it.  Up  to  this  time  there  had  been 
no  law  or  government  that  was  more  than  nominal,  as  there  was  no 
court  except  that  of  the  alcalde,  which,  while  expeditious,  was  costly 
in  dispensing  justice.  The  people  therefore  shunned  litigation  and 
this  lawless  state  just  suited  the  gamblers.  This  was  a  great  morti- 
fication to  the  council,  and  the  president  issued  a  proclamation  stat- 
ing that  the  council  was  unalile  to  determine  what  the  citizens  wanted, 
and  as  the  powers  and  duties  of  the  council  were  not  defined,  they 
desired  to  know  whether  the  citizens  desired  still  to  act  under  the 
Mexican  laws  at  present  in  force,  although  ina"pplicable  to  the  pres- 


ent  conditions,  or  to  adopt  a  charter,  striking  out  sucli  features  as 
were  objectionable.  Immediate  action  was  necessary  if  the  council 
was  to  be  of  any  use.  It  therefore  asked  the  citizens  to  meet  Octo- 
ber 10,  1849,  and  declare  what  they  wished  the  council  to  do.  The 
people,  who  had  paid  no  attention  hitherto  to  local  government, 
awoke  from  their  apathy.  A  Law  and  Order  party  was  formed. 
The  gamblers  were  defeated  and  the  charter  adopted  by  a  majority 
of  two  hundred  ninety-six.  The  charter  adapted,  however,  contained 
matter  relative  to  taxation  which  rendered  it  unpopular,  and  it  was 
soon  amended. 

The  council  soon  had  a  burden  of  troubles  of  its  own.  The  com- 
munity had  enjoyed  robust  health  during  the  spring  and  summer 
months,  but  with  the  fall  a  terrible  change  came.  Many  of  the  ed- 
venturous  immigrants  had  seemed  to  think  that  nothing  was  neces- 
sary to  their  success  except  to  reach  California.  Many  of  them  were 
destitute  on  their  arrival.  Not  one  in  a  hundred  had  money  to  buy 
an  outfit  for  the  mines  at  the  ruinous  prices  asked.  Many  were  suf- 
fering from  hardships  and  privations  endured  on  the  overland  jour- 
ney, or  as  steerage  passengers  saturated  with  scorbutic  diseases  or 
so  dejDressed  or  despondent  that  they  became  an  easy  prey  for  dis- 
ease. Nine-tenths  of  these  adventurers  poured  into  Sacramento, 
the  nearest  point  for  outfitting  for  the  mines.  Here  they  met  another 
train  of  scorbutic  sufferers  straggling  in  from  the  east,  debilitated 
and  worn  out  by  the  hardships  encountered. 

From  these  causes  Sacramento  had  become  one  vast  lazar  house 
long  before  the  city  government  was  organized  and  the  council  im- 
mediately found  a  serious  condition  confronting  it.  This  was  in- 
tensified by  the  fact  that  as  men  became  accustomed  to  these  scenes 
of  suffering,  familiarity  with  them  hardened  their  hearts,  and  cupid- 
ity took  possession  of  them.  The  lure  of  gold  beckoned  them  away. 
They  could  not  spare  time  to  relieve  the  distress  of  their  fellows, 
They  must  press  on  to  the  diggings  and  begin  to  acquire  their  for- 
tunes. Fathers  abandoned  their  sons,  and  sons  abandoned  their 
fathers  when  they  required  a  little  troublesome  care.  When  they 
could  be  of  no  further  iise  to  each  other  friendship  and  kinship  be- 
came mere  words.  One  flagrant  case  was  that  of  an  old  father,  who 
had  furnished  the  means  for  his  son  and  other  relatives  to  come  to 
the  new  Eldorado,  but  was  deserted  by  them  as  he  lay  dying  with 
scurvy  on  the  levee,  where  he  soon  passed  away.  The  sick  and  suf- 
fering accumulated  so  fast  that  by  July  means  of  caring  for  them 
were  entirely  inadequate.  Creigan's  Hospital  at  the  fort  and  the 
one  opened  by  Dr.  Deal  and  Dr.  Martin  were  filled,  but  the  prices 
for  nursing  and  board  were  prohibitive  to  four-fifths  of  those  need- 
ing care.  Miasmatic  fevers  added  to  the  misery  and  distress  of  the 


But  charity  had  not  departed,  and  compassion  and  help  were  at 
hand  in  a  limited  degree.  Two  great  fraternal  orders  were  represented 
among  the  community,  not  organized  into  lodges,  but  nviml)ering  many 
individual  members.  The  feeling  of  brotherhood  that  had  bound  them 
together,  also  bound  them  to  relieve  distress  as  far  as  lay  in  their 
power,  and  nobly  did  they  come  to  the  front  and  face  the  stupendou.5 
task.  The  first  effective  efforts  for  relief  came  from  members  of  the 
fraternity  of  the  Odd  Fellows.  They  came  together  and  bound  them 
selves  into  an  informal  organization  and  devoted  themselves  with 
earnest  zeal  to  the  relief  of  the  distressed.  A.  M.  Winn  was  elected 
president  of  the  association,  a  Mr.  McLaren  secretary  and  Captain 
Gallup,  treasurer.  Every  member  of  this  body  became  a  visiting  com 
raittee  and  an  immense  amount  of  relief  was  dispensed. 

They  were  joined  by  the  members  of  the  Masonic  fraternity  in 
their  eiforts  to  take  care  of  the  sick  and  destitute.  "Tlie  two  noble 
orders  contributed  inoney  and  exertions  as  freely  as  if  their  lives 
had  been  devoted  to  the  exclusive  function  of  human  kindness,"  says 
Dr.  Morse,  "and  their  fair  names  are  inscribed  in  indelible  and  liv- 
ing characters  upon  those  pages  of  history  which  California 
ought  to  and  must  preserve."  But  their  combined  efforts,  assisted 
by  those  of  the  council,  could  not  do  all  that  there  was  to  do.  The 
people  were  appealed  to  in  a  public  meeting. to  come  forward  and 
assist  in  the  general  effort  for  relief.  The  president  of  the  council 
was  dispatched  to  Monterey  for  the  purpose  of  laying  the  case  be- 
fore General  Riley  and  procuring  from  him  some  of  the  public  funds 
then  in  his  possession.  But  their  mission  was  a  failure,  as  General 
Riley,  the  military  governor  of  the  territory,  did  not  consider  he  had 
the  right  thus  to  use  the  national  funds. 

Sacramento  was  then  thrown  u])on  her  own  resources,  and  with 
her  treasury  empty  and  low  credit,  she  did  all  that  was  possible  and 
by  co-operation  with  individual  effort  and  the  two  fraternities  she 
succeeded  in  furnishing  a  tolerable  shelter  and  medical  attendance 
for  the  sick.  Rough  pine  coffins  had  ranged  from  $60  to  $150,  and 
even  then  the  supply  was  far  from  sufficient,  so  hundreds  had  been 
buried  without  coffins  and  even  without  being  wrapped  up  in  a  blan- 
ket. The  Odd  Fellows  spent  thousands  of  dollars  for  coffins  and 
when  General  Winn  became  the  executive  officer  of  the  city,  no  man 
was  refused  a  coffiu  burial.  The  scenes  of  those  days  were  terrible 
and  the  description  of  their  horrors  is  almost  unreadable. 

When  the  rains  set  in  the. misery  was  increased.  Many  of  the  sick, 
with  typhus  and  other  fevers,  lay  without  shelter  from  the  pitiless 
storms.  Finally  Drs.  Morse  and  Stillman  aroused  the  sympathies  of 
Barton  Lee,  whose  name  should  occupy  an  honored  place  in  the 
City's  history,  and  induced  him  to  erect  a  story  and  a  half  hospital, 
40x50  feet,  at  the  corner  of  Third  and  K  streets.     The  city  deter- 


mined  also  to  erect  a  two  story  hospital,  20x60  feet  between  I  and 
J,  Ninth  and  Tenth  streets,  and  $7000  was  expended  for  lumber, 
but  when  it  was  partially  erected  it  was  prostrated  to  the  gTOund  by 
a  rain  and  wind  storm,  and  the  timber  so  injured  as  to  make  it  al- 
most useless  for  building  purposes. 

But  the  future  city  was  doomed  to  pass  through  a  yet  more  try- 
ing period.  An  enemy  came  like  a  thief  in  the  night,  for  which  she 
had  made  no  provision.  The  reckless  speculators  had  declared  there 
was  no  danger  of  inundation  and  the  people  had  been  credulous 
enough  to  believe  them  when  they  declared  that  the  city's  site  had 
remained  free  from  flood  during  the  sojourn  of  the  oldest  Californians. 
The  })eople  had  not  raised  their  buildings,  but  had  built  on  the  ground 
wherever  their  lots  happened  to  be.  The  rains  through  the  latter 
part  of  December  and  the  first  part  of  January  had  awakaned  anx- 
iety. The  Sacramento  and  American  rivers  were  rising  rapidly  and 
the  back  country  seemed  to  be  filling  up  and  cutting  off  communi- 
cation with  the  higher  lands.  But  the  citizens,  with  fatuous  confi- 
dence in  the  assertions  that  a  flood  could  not  harm  them,  made  no 
preparations  for  the  deluge.  Hence,  when  it  came,  there  was  no 
adequate  protection  for  life  or  property.  Many  were  drowned,  some 
in  their  beds,  some  in  trying  to  escape,  and  many  from  the  terrible 
exposure.  The  few  boats  belonging  to  the  shipping  at  the  Embarca- 
dero  were  pressed  into  service  to  rescue  the  women  and  children  and 
the  sick,  that  were  scattered  over  the  city  in  tents  and  canvas  houses. 
Some  of  the  women  were  found  standing  upon  beds  or  boxes,  in  water 
a  foot  or  two  deep.  Sick  men  on  cots  were  found  floating  about  help- 
lessly. By  mere  accident  a  boat  in  which  Capt.  J.  Sherwood  was 
manager  passed  the  hospital  and  was  attracted  by  the  cries  of  the 
sick  for  help.  He  immediately  proceeded  to  rescue  them  and  took 
them  to  safety  in  Mr.  Brannan's  house. 

Most  of  these  poor  sufferers  died  and  after  being  placed  in  coffins, 
were  buried  across  the  river.  One  of  the  men  detailed  for  this  duty 
was  a  Dutchman  who  was  very  suspicious  of  everyone  so  far  as  his 
money  was  concerned,  and  having  accumulated  about  $2,000  in  gold 
dust  carried  it  in  a  belt  around  his  waist.  They  placed  the  coffin 
across  a  small  boat,  and  when  they  had  reached  some  distance  the 
boat  careened  and  sank.  The  Dutchman,  who  was  a  good  swimmer, 
called  to  his  companion  that  he  would  swim  ashore  and  get  a  boat, 
but  weighted  down  with  the  gold  that  he  loved  better  than  his  life, 
he  sank.  His  companion  hung  on  to  the  coffin  and  reached  shore 
safely.  The  description  given  by  Dr.  Morse  of  the  neglect  of  the  sick 
and  their  condition  is  almost  beyond  belief. 

After  the  January  flood  in  1850,  prices  of  everything  rose  enor- 
mously and  continued  high  for  a  long  time.     But  the  high  prices  of 


real  estate  did  not  shrink  on  account  of  the  flood  and  destruction. 
Here  are  some  of  the  current  prices  in  the  city  in  April  and  May: 

Filtered  water,  per  barrel,  $1.50;  washing  and  ironing,  per  dozen, 
$7.00;  private  boxes  at  the  theater,  $4.00;  ordinary  boxes  at  the 
theater,  $3.00;  pit  seats  at  the  theater,  $2.00;  musicians  in  gambling 
houses,  by  the  day,  $16.00;  hauling  lumber  from  First  to  Second 
street,  per  thousand,  $3.00;  hair  cutting,  $1.50;  shaving,  $1.00;  bil- 
liards, per  game,  $1.00;  saddle  horses,  per  day,  $10.00;  lodging, 
without  blankets,  per  night,  $1.00;  celery,  per  head,  20  cents;  peas  in 
the  pod,  per  gallon,  $2.00;  radishes,  every  size,  per  bunch,  $1.00; 
turkeys,  per  pair,  $16.00;  apples,  small,  but  good,  each,  50  cents; 
specked  apples,  each  25  cents;  Colt's  pistols,  medium  .size,  $75.00. 

Up  to  the  6th  of  August  the  amount  of  $100,000  had  been  issued 
by  warrants  to  meet  the  expenditures  for  the  city  government,  as 
shown  by  the  mayor's  statement.  The  estimated  sum  to  be  expended 
for  the  construction  of  the  levee'  and  the  city  government  inclusive 
footed  up  $300,000.  Sacramento  endured  grievous  troubles  in  August 
and  September.  The  contests  about  titles,  the  breaking  up  of  confi- 
dence in  the  general  value  of  property  thus  situated,  the  pecuniary 
embarrassments  that  were  plunging  men  into  bankruptcy  and  ruin, 
and  the  heavy  taxation  necessary  to  sustain  the  city  government  and 
complete  the  public  works  necessary  to  protect  the  city  from  floods, 
were  enough  to  utterly  discourage  the  citizens  and  destroy  their  confi- 
dence in  the  city's  future.  But  the  community  was  composed  of  men 
of  iron;  men  who  had  come  thousands  of  miles  through  all  sorts  of 
dangers  and  perils  to  found  on  the  shores  of  the  Pacific  a  great 
empire,  although  they  were  at  that  time  unconscious  of  the  fact  and 
looked  not  far  beyond  the  present.  Their  energy  was  unconquerable 
and  inextinguishable,  and  the  greater  the  burdens  imposed  by  fate,  the 
more  manfully  and  determinedly  they  strove  to  overthrow  them. 
That  this  city  exists  to-day,  large  and  prosperous,  is  indisinitable 
evidence  that  they  succeeded. 

In  August  the  council  made  itself  decidedly  unpo])nlar  by  "one 
or  two  of  its  acts.  The  members  appropriated  to  themselves  a  salary 
of  $200  a  month  each.  In  addition  to  this,  the  taxpayers  saw  the 
appointment  of  various  committees  to  duties  that  were  but  little 
more  than  nominal,  and  who  drew  $25  a  day  for  their  services,  in 
addition  to  their  regular  salary  voted. 

After  the  bankruptcies  of  September  and  the  squatter  riots  of 
August  affairs  settled  down  to  a  degree  of  quiet  and  the  people 
began  to  engage  more  systematically  and  soundly  in  business,  which 
was  augmented  extraordinarily  by  the  heavy  demand  for  goods  and 
their  transportation  to  the  mines.  During  the  previous  winter  the 
people  in  the  mines  had  suffered  greatly  from  ])rivations  and  were 
thrown    into   a    desperate    and   almost    starving    condition    from    the 


scarcity  of  provisions  and  the  cutting  off  of  communication  with  the 
city  by  the  floods.  As  a  natural  consequence,  in  tlie  fall  soon  after 
the  revulsion  in  finance,  there  sprang  up  a  brisk  demand  and  an 
immense  and  profitable  trade  was  inaugurated  and  carried  on  between 
the  merchants  and  jniners.  The  situation  being  thus  relieved,  the 
effect  upon  the  city  was  such  as  almost  to  restore  its  former  pros- 

At  this  time  a  public  question  began  to  awaken  interest  in  the 
men's  minds  and  to  cause  them  to  watch  every  arrival  from  Wash- 
ington and  the  news  brought,  with  intense  anxiety.  This  was  the 
question  of  admission  as  a  state  to  the  Union.  The  constitution 
had  been  adopted,  the  application  made,  but  congress  still  delayed 
action  and  the  community  was  in  a  state  of  painful  suspense  as  to 
what  the  outcome  would  be.  One  can  readily  imagine,  then,  the  relief 
to  the  tension  when  the  news  came  that  California  was  a  member  of 
the  great  Union  of  states.  Early  in  the  morning  of  October  15th, 
it  is  stated,  the  rapid  firing  of  cannon  upon  the  levee  awakened  the 
citizens  to  the  fact  that  the  news  had  arrived  and  that  our  admission 
was  an  assured  fact.  It  was  a  season  of  rejoicing  that  for  the  moment 
almost  obliterated  the  memory  of  the  i^ast  misfortunes.  In  addition 
to  the  news  it  was  ascertained  that  a  number  of  Sacrainento's  citizens 
had  returned  by  the  steamer  that  brought  the  news. 

But  Sacramento's  cup  of  sorrow  was  not  yet  full  and  a  lu^avier 
calamity  than  any  that  had  gone  before,  was,  even  in  this  season 
of  rejoicing,  hovering  over  the  devoted  city.  The  same  fostering 
breezes  that  had  borne  on  the  steamer  bringing  the  news  of  admission 
had  also  borne  on  their  wings  a  ghastly  pestilence  and  on  the  steamer 
itself  many  of  the  passengers  had  fallen  victims  to  the  dread  scourge. 
A  most  maligTiant  cholera  was  sweeping  on  toward  California  and 
many  were  the  imknown  graves  that  it  was  to  fill  in  the  new  state 
ere  its  violence  should  be  abated.  City  and  country  were  alike  to  it 
and  the  urban  dweller  and  the  miner  in  his  cabin  were  alike  to  pay 
toll  to  the  dread  Reaper.  The  tale  that  is  told  by  the  pioneers  who 
escaped  with  life  the  pestilence  harrows  the  soul  of  the  listener  with 
the  vivid  pictures  of  distress  and  destruction.  Each  successive  day 
brought  news  from  San  Francisco  that  the  passengers  on  the  ill- 
fated  steamer  were  still  being  decimated  by  the  terrible  scourge.  Not 
only  this,  but  the  accounts  of  the  visit  of  the  disease  to  Sandusky. 
Rochester,  St.  Louis  and  other  places  began  to  fill  the  hearts  of  the 
])eople  with  a  dread  of  im))ending  disaster.  The  stories  of  its  relent- 
less malignity  and  the  wide-spread  destruction  that  accompanied  its 
progress  fell  like  a  ])all  on  the  conmumity,  and  terror  fell  on  all. 
It  is  dou))tfnl  if  history  records  a  jiarallel  of  the  destructive  panic 
that  followed  its  aii])earance  on  this  coast  and  in  this  city.  The  hard- 
ships and  disease  that  had  i)i-evailed  during  the  suninier  and  which 


were  sufficient  to  crush  all  progress  and  energy  in  a  less  buoyant  and 
determined  people,  had  been  too  recent  to  allow  of  a  recuperation  of 
their  health  and  strength  and  rendered  them  an  easy  prey  for  the 
insidious  disease. 

As  is  well  known,  in  cases  of  epidemics,  the  mass  of  the  people  is 
filled  with  fear  and  dread,  and  in  the  fevered  state  of  mind  prevailing 
it  was  easy  for  the  disease  to  develop  to  terrific  proportions.  Panic 
predisposed  the  people  to  receive  its  attacks,  and  it  hardly  needed 
an  imported  case  to  spread  the  disease.  Early  in  the  morning  of 
October  20  a  person  was  found  on  the  levee  in  the  collapsing  stage 
of  the  dread  disease.  Medical  aid  was  summoned,  but  he  was  too 
far  gone  and  soon  died.  Tlie  cholera  was  in  the  city.  The  news 
spread  as  if  by  magic,  the  circumstances  grew  in  horror  with  repeti- 
tion and  the  pall  of  despair  seemed  to  settle  down  like  a  black  cloud, 
over  the  city.  It  is  well  known  bv  experience  that  the  fear  of  disease 
and  the  dwelling  on  its  symptoms  are  very  often  followed  by  its 
appearance  and  so  it  was  largely  in  this  case.  The  next  day  several 
more  fatal  cases  were  reported  and  as  the  stories  spread  and  were 
constantly  auginented  in  their  description,  it  is  not  to  be  wondered  at 
that  fear  should  have  become  an  auxiliary  to  the  disease  and  that 
the  epidemic  was  soon  in  full  progress. 

In  six  days  from  its  inception,  the  disease  had  made  such  progress 
that  regular  burials  were  but  slightly  attended  to  and  nursing  and 
attention  were  frequently  wanting.  Money,  so  powerful  an  agent 
in  most  cases,  could  scarcely  purchase  the  offices  of  common  kindness 
and  charity.  Affection  seemed  blunted  and  the  fear  of  death  seemed 
to  sever  all  ties  and  develop  elements  of  selfishness.  But  little  could 
be  done  under  these  conditions  to  arrest  the  course  of  the  disease, 
and  it  swept  through  the  community  with  irresistible  force.  In  many 
such  epidemics  the  personal  ]ial)its  of  in(li\i(luals  have  a  strong  influ- 
ence in  resisting  disease  or  inviting  it,  but  the  case  was  different  here. 
Men  of  the  most  reg-ular,  careful  and  industrious  habits  were  its 
\-ictims  equally  with  those  who  were  intemperate  and  irregular.  In 
a  few  days  many  of  the  most  ]irominent  and  substantial  citizens  fell 
before  the  pestilence.    None  seemed  immune. 

It  was  reported  that  a  hundred  and  fifty  cases  occurred  in  one 
day,  but  such  was  the  confusion  and  the  panic  in  the  community 
that  no  records  were  kept,  nor  can  any  accurate  data  be  found  in 
regard  to  the  havoc  made  by  this  epidemic.  As  the  number  of  deaths 
increased  and  men  were  kept  constantly  employed  in  the  removal 
of  the  dead,  the  citizens  began  to  leave  the  city  in  every  direction 
and  the  numlier  increased  so  rapidly  that  in  a  short  time  not  more 
than  one-fifth  of  the  residents  remained.  The  most  heartrending 
abandonment  of  relatives  and  friends  took  place  during  the  reign 
of  terror.     But  a  very  small  remnant  resisted  the  instinct  of  self- 


})reservation  and  remained  to  minister  to  tlie  sick  and  dying.  A  few 
noble  men,  moved  ])y  sympathy,  the  divine  attribute  of  onr  nature, 
remained  to  do  what  they  could  for  the  relief  of  suffering  humanity, 
and  their  humane  ministrations,  regardless  of  danger  and  death,  did 
much  to  ameliorate  the  situation.  Their  names  should  be  written  in 
letters  of  gold  in  the  history  of  Sacramento  and  California,  but 
alas,  they  were  lost  to  us  and  their  only  reward  was  the  consciousness 
of  having  done  their  duty.  One  name,  however,  has  been  preserved, 
that  of  John  Bigler,  afterwards  governor  of  California,  whom  Dr. 
Morse  describes  as  moving  among  the  dead  and  dying,  with  a  large 
lump  of  camphor  in  one  hand,  which  he  frequently  applied  to  his 
nostrils,  as  an  antidote  to  the  disease.  No  danger  of  infection  daunted 
him,  however,  and  where  misery,  death  and  destitution  abounded,  he 
•was  ever  to  be  found  in  its  midst,  proffering  aid  and  sympathy. 

The  physicians  of  the  city  did  noble  work.  No  danger  appalled 
them.  Night  and  day  they  responded  to  the  call  of  distress,  scarcely 
pausing  to  snatch  a  few  hours  of  needed  sleep  and  rest.  Before 
the  epidemic  subsided  seventeen  of  them  were  deposited  in  the 
sand  hill  cemetery  of  the  city — an  almost  unexampled  mortality  in 
the  profession  in  a  season  of  epidemic.  Not  one  in  ten  escaped 
the  disease  and  not  a  single  educated  physician  turned  his  back  on  the 
city  in  its  extremity.  In  such  a  time  of  delirium  and  terror  it  is 
no  wonder  that  no  systematic  records  were  kept.  In  fact  it  was 
impossible.  Not  only  in  the  city,  but  on  the  roads,  and  even  in  the 
mines,  many  who  were  fleeing  from  the  pestilence  were  stricken  down 
by  the  awful  malady  and  perished,  unknown  and  unaided  in  many 
cases.  In  the  latter  part  of  the  epidemic,  the  city  authorities,  who 
had  from  the  first  done  all  they  could  to  relieve  the  suffering, 
obtained  the  use  of  a  large  frame  building  on  L  street,  where  the 
destitute  victims  were  taken  and  cared  for. 

"From  the  beginning,  the  local  pai)ers  had  endeavored,  as 
usual  in  such  cases,  to  conceal  the  extent  of  mortality,  and  their 
files  of  that  date  give  no  adequate  idea  of  the  fearful  scourge,"  say 
Thompson  and  West  in  their  history.  On  the  24th  of  October  the 
city  ])hysieian  reported  seven  cases  of  cholera  to  the  council,  five 
of  whicii  were  fatal.  Some  of  the  doctors  endeavored  to  quiet  public 
apprehension  by  giving  the  opinion  that  the  disease  was  only  a  violent 
form  of  cholera  morbus.  The  Times  "felt  confident  that  there  was 
very  little  danger,  and  had  not  heard  of  a  single  case  where  the 
patient  had  not  been  previously  reduced  by  diarrhoea."  On  the 
27th,  six  cases  were  reported,  and  the  Ti))U's  "hoped  that  some  pre- 
cautionary measures  would  be  taken."  On  the  29th  twelve  cases 
appeared;  on  the  30th,  nineteen,  and  it  was  no  longer  possible  to 
conceal  the  fact  that  a  terrible  epidemic  had  attacked  the  com- 
munity.   A  Sacramento  correspondent  of  the  Alia  says  on  November 


4:  "The  daily  mortality  is  about  sixty.  Many  deaths  are  concealed, 
and  many  others  are  not  rejiorted.  Deaths  durinfi:  the  past  week, 
so  far  as  known,  188."  On  November  14,  the  daily  mortality  had 
decreased  to  twelve  and  on  the  17th,  the  pestilence  was  reported  as 
having  entirely  disappeared.  But  the  jirecise  number  of  fatal  cases 
can  never  be  known,  as  a  great  number  were  reported  to  have  died 
of  dysentery,  fevers,  and  other  diseases,  for  the  purpose  of  quieting 
the  public  anxiety  and  restoring  the  confidence  of  the  people.  Many 
of  the  victims  were  buried  in  unknown  graves  and  their  very  location 
was  soon  forgotten.  Many  a  wife  or  mother  or  sister  waited  in 
vain  for  tidings  of  the  loved  ones  that  never  came,  and  never  knew 
when  or  how  they  had  passed  away. 

A  writer  who  was  one  of  the  survivors  of  that  terrible  time  says : 
"What  with  floods  and  fires,  insurrection  and  the  plague,  the  very 
stars  seemed  to  fight  against  Sacramento  in  her  infancy,  and  the 
foundation  of  her  later  prosperity  was  laid  upon  the  ashes  of  her 
pioneers."  Before  the  disastrous  visitation  of  the  cholera.  Dr.  Still- 
man  walked  through  the  sandhill  cemetery  and  counted  eight  hundred 
graves  that  had  not  yet  been  sodded  over,  and  how  many  more 
were  added  by  the  still  more  terrible  destroyer  is  not  found  recorded 
in  the  history  of  the  time.  Of  a  company  of  forty  men  who  came 
out  on  the  infected  schooner  Montague,  more  than  half  died  after  her 
arrival;  and  after  her  departure  from  Sacramento  for  Panama,  the 
captain,  second  mate  and  six  passengers  died  of  cholera  before  leaving 
San  Francisco  bay. 

This  terrible  calamity  lasted  in  its  malignant  form  only  about 
twenty  days,  but  under  the  circumstances  and  from  lack  of  systematic 
records,  the  number  of  deaths  will  never  be  known.  Its  abatement 
lasted  much  longer  than  its  period  of  beginning  and  virulence,  and 
began  just  as  soon  as  the  people  became  familiarized  with  its  features 
and  the  terrible  scenes  in  their  midst,  thus  rendering  them  less  liable 
to  be  attacked  through  a  paralyzing  fear.  By  the  time  it  ceased,  the 
city  had  become  nearly  depopulated  and  many  thought  it  would 
never  rise  again  from  the  disaster.  But  such  prophecies  did  not  take 
into  account  the  sturdy  perseverance  of  a  strong  people.  Just  as 
soon  as  the  mortality  began  to  obviously  decrease,  the  fugitives  began 
to  return,  and  those  who  had  remained  to  help  their  fellow  man  and 
to  abide  by  the  fortunes  of  the  city  recovered  their  elasticity  of  mind 
and  energy.  A  transformation  immediately  commenced  to  take  place 
in  the  appearance  of  the  city.  Confidence  in  its  healthfulness  re- 
turned; men  grew  cheerful  and  hopeful  and  business  communication 
with  the  mines  was  reopened.  The  previous  prosperous  conditions 
were  restored  and  for  several  weeks  business  was  good  once  more,  and 
the  beautiful  winter  that  followed  stimulated  the  community  to  ener- 
getic efforts. 


But  the  inerchauts  and  traders  had  unfortunately  calculated  too 
much  upon  a  winter  like  those  of  1848  and  1849.  This  induced  them 
to  transport  at  high  prices  large  stores  of  goods  into  the  mining 
regions,  trusting  that  communication  would  be  difficult,  as  it  was 
in  the  former  year.  But  these  goods,  in  consequence  of  the  lack  of 
water  in  dry  diggings  and  the  roads  that  offered  immediate  communi- 
cation with  the  mines  all  winter,  were  sold  at  ruinous  sacrifices. 

A  synopsis  of  events  in  the  spring  and  summer  shows  that  the 
city  was  divided  into  wards,  April  15 ;  the  first  mail  left  for  Salt 
Lake,  May  1 ;  a  city  election  May  5  polled  2482  A'otes  and  James  R. 
Hardenbergh  was  elected  mayor;  the  treasurer's  report.  May  6,  showed 
the  city's  receipts  for  the  fiscal  year  to  have  been  $214,939.86  and 
the  mayor's  report  showed  the  indebtedness  to  be  $368,551.29  and 
that  $80,000  of  this  was  drawing  interest  at  ten  to  twenty  per  cent 
per  month,  the  balance  from  three  to  eight  per  cent  per  month. 
In  June  the  city  debt  was  funded  at  ten  per  cent  per  annum  in  New 
York  and  twelve  yer  cent  in  Sacramento.  In  September  the  popular 
vote  of  the  county  was  4115.  The  Tehama  Theater  burned  August  13 
and  Dr.  Volney  Spalding  opened  the  American  Theater  September  9. 
On  December  24  the  courthouse  was  finished  and  January  14,  1852, 
the  state  offices  and  legislature  moved  to  Sacramento  and  the 
first  legislative  session  opened  January  16.  One  thousand  persons 
arrived  by  steamer  January  20  and  on  the  23d,  a  brick  building  now 
on  K  street  was  begun.    March  7  the  city  was  overflowed  again. 

At  the  municipal  election,  April  5,  twenty-eight  hundred  two 
votes  were  east,  C.  I.  Hvitchinson  being  elected  mayor.  The  debt  had 
increased  to  $449,105.32  and  the  estimated  revenue  to  $200,000.  At  an 
election  July  17  the  people  voted  for  a  wide  levee  through  I  street, 
and  also  to  erect  a  city  hall  and  prison.  October  8  there  was  an 
agricultural  fair.  The  population  at  this  time  was  between  ten 
thousand  and  twelve  thousand.  On  November  2  there  was  a  terrible 
conflagration.  December  17  there  was  a  storm  of  four  days  duration 
and  on  the  25th  the  upper  part  of  the  city  was  flooded.  By  January 
1,  1853,  the  water  was  higher  than  ever  before  known.  January  13 
the  people  voted  for  water-works,  fire  department,  loan  and  three- 
quarters  per  cent  additional  taxation.  Many  mercantile  houses  this 
month  established  branches  at  Hoboken,  trade  being  entirely  cut  off 
from  the  city  by  reason  of  high  water  and  impassable  roads. 

The  Golden  Eagle,  at  the  corner  of  Seventh  and  K  streets, 
was  for  more  than  half  a  century  considered  the  hotel  par  excellence 
of  the  city,  and  dates  back  in  a  much  cruder  form  to  the  early  days 
of  Sacramento.  For  many  years  it  was  a  headquarters  for  the 
Repulilican  politicians,  while  the  Cajiital  hotel,  on  the  corner  opposite, 
was  considered  the  Democratic  headquarters.  Many  a  state  campaign 
and  legislative  session  were  engineered  and  directed  from  these  two 


Where  the  Golden  Eagle  now  stands,  in  1851,  "Dan"  Callahan, 
for  many  years  the  proprietor  of  that  hotel,  erected  his  frame  lodging 
house,  which  he  had  purchased  for  a  span  of  horses,  and  added  to 
it  a  canvas  annex,  upon  the  flaps  of  which  a  joker  named  Wrightmire, 
with  artistic  talent,  drew  with  charcoal  the  figure  of  an  eagle,  with 
outspread  wings  and  a  pensive  air,  and  named  the  structure  the 
Golden  Eagle,  and  the  name  clung  to  it  through  the  pioneer  days  with 
the  tenacity  of  an  inspired  title. 


In  1854  the  old  Whig  party  was  passing  away  and  the  anti-slavery 
party  was  pushing  its  way  to  the  front.  The  exciting  struggle  in 
"bleeding"  Kansas  was  attracting  widespread  attention  and  becom- 
ing a  lively  political  issue  and  a  fruitful  subject  for  discussion.  On 
Tuesday,  July  18,  a  Democratic  convention  met  in  the  Fourth  Street 
Baptist  Church  in  this  city,  at  3  P.  M.  Disturbance  was  in  the  air, 
and  long  before  the  hour  for  opening  the  convention,  the  doors  of 
the  church  were  surrounded  by  people,  a  great  many  of  whom  were 
not  delegates.  The  church  would  hold  about  four  hundred,  and  as 
soon  as  the  doors  were  opened  the  people  crowded  in  and  filled  it  to 
its  utmost  capacity. 

D.  C.  Broderick  was  chairman  of  the  state  central  committee, 
and  when  he  ascended  the  platform  he  was  received  with  continued 
cheers.  As  soon  as  he  called  the  convention  to  order  a  number  of 
delegates  sprang  to  their  feet,  in  order  to  make  nominations  for 
temporary  chairman.  He  recognized  T.  L.  Vermule  as  having  the 
floor,  but  before  he  could  make  the  announcement,  John  O'Meara 
nominated  ex-Governor  Jolm  McDougal  for  temporary  chairman. 
Vermule  nominated  Edward  McGowan  for  chairman  pro  tem,  and 
Broderick  announced  that  he  could  not  recognize  O'Meara 's  nomina- 
tion, and  put  the  question  on  McGowan 's  election  and  declared  him 
elected.  McGowan  mounted  the  platform  immediately,  followed  closely 
by  McDougal,  whose  friends  insisted  that  he  had  been  elected,  although 
his  name  had  not  been  submitted  to  the  convention  in  regular  form. 

The  convention  thus  had  two  chairmen,  who  took  seats  side  by 
side  and  pandemonium  reigned  for  a  time.  Finally  a  semblance  of 
order  was  restored,  and  McDougal  announced  the  names  of  Major 
G.  W.  Hook  and  John  Bidwell  as  vice-presidents  and  McGowan 
announced  J.  T.  Hall  and  A.  L.  Laird  as  appointed  by  him  to  those 
offices.  A  scene  of  noise  and  confusion  again  followed,  but  the  gen- 
tlemen named  took  their  seats  with  their  respective  leaders.  The 
appointment  of  two  sets  of  secretaries  and  committees  followed  and 
reports  were  made  to  each  side,  recommending  that  the  temporary 


officers  be  made  the  permanent  ones.  Motions  were  made  to  adopt 
the  respective  reports,  and  were  declared  carried,,  amid  great  excite- 

The  convention  transacted  no  other  business,  but  sat  as  a  double- 
header  until  nine  o'clock  that  night,  each  side  endeavoring  to  outstay 
the  other.  One  sickly  tallow  candle  in  front  of  each  president,  illum- 
inated the  scene,  or  rather  made  darkness  visible.  The  situation 
lasted  Imtil  the  trustees  of  the  church  notified  the  convention  that 
they  would  no  longer  tolerate  the  riotous  assemblage  in  the  church, 
and  the  delegates  departed  without  attending  to  the  formality  of 
an  adjournment. 

Pandemonium  had  reigned  throughout  the  session  and  soon  after 
the  organization  was  completed  a  crowd  made  a  mad  rush  for  the 
platform.  One  of  the  officers  was  seized  and  just  then  a  pistol 
exploded  in  the  crowded  room.  The  direction  of  the  rush  was  imme- 
diately changed  toward  the  doors  and  windows,  a  number  of  the  dele- 
gates jumping  through  the  latter  to  the  ground,  a  distance  of  about 
fifteen  feet.    This  ended  the  exciting  events  of  the  day. 

The  next  morning  the  "chivalry,"  or  southern  element  of  the 
party,  the  wing  presided  over  by  McDougal,  met  at  Musical  Hall,  while 
the  McGowan,  or  Tammany  faction,  representing  the  northern  ele- 
ment, met  in  Carpenter's  building.  The  officers  of  the  chivalry  wing- 
tendered  their  resignations  and  Major  Hook  was  elected  president 
and  H.  P.  Barber,  William  A.  Mannerly,  A.  W.  Taliafero,  and  J.  G. 
Downey  were  elected  \ace-presidents.  The  other  convention  sent  a 
message  asking  that  a  committee  on  conference  be  appointed  in  order 
to  endeavor  to  settle  the  ditferenees.  As  the  language  of  the  com- 
munication was  considered  offensive,  it  was  withdrawn  for  the  pur- 
pose of  modifying  the  phraseology.  A  second  note  was  afterward 
sent  in,  but  as  it  was  quite  similar  to  the  first,  it  met  with  a  flat 
rejection.  The  convention  then  nominated  candidates  for  congress 
and  for  clerk  of  the  supreme  court;  passed  resolutions  favoring  the 
construction  of  the  Atlantic  and  Pacific  /Railroad  under  the  auspices 
of  congress,  and  endorsing  the  Nebraska  Bill,  etc.  It  also  elected  a 
state  central  committee  and  levied  an  assessment  of  five  dollars  on 
each  delegate,  to  pay  for  the  damage  done  to  church  building. 

The  McGowan  wing  met  at  9 :30  on  the  morning  of  the  19th,  that 
gentleman  continuing  to  act  as  chairman.  They  appointed  a  committee 
of  seven  to  invite  the  McDougal  convention  to  attend  their  session 
and  also  empowered  the  committee  to  heal  the  difficulties.  When  the 
convention  re-assembled  the  committee  reported  that  they  had  sent 
a  communication  to  the  McDougal  convention,  but  that  the  proposition 
embraced  in  it  had  been  rejected.  The  communication  sent  was  as 
follows : 

"John  McDougal,  Esq.,  Chairman  of  Democratic  delegates  con- 


vened  at  Musical  Hall:  Sir — The  undersigned  have  been  this  morn- 
ing constituted  a  committee,  with  full  powers,  by  and  on  behalf  of  the 
Democratic  state  convention  at  Carpenter's  Hall,  for  a  conference 
with  our  fellow  Democrats  at  Musical  Hall,  for  the  purpose  of  harmon- 
izing and  uniting  the  Democrats  of  California.  You  will  be  pleased 
to  announce  this  to  your  body;  and  any  communication  may  be  ad- 
dressed to  the  chairman  of  this  committee,  at  Jones'  hotel." 

The  report  was  accepted  and  the  committee  was  discharged.  The 
couvention  then  proceeded  to  nominate  a  ticket  entirely  different 
from  that  nominated  by  the  McDougal  convention.  It  also  adopted 
a  series  of  resolutions  alluding  to  the  heterogeneous  condition  of  the 
party  in  the  state,  and  to  the  differences  of  the  convention  in  this 
city.  They  urged  the  people  of  the  state  to  accept  their  ticket  as  most 
likely  to  effect  conciliation.  They  also  appointed  a  state  central  com- 
mittee and  took  up  a  collection  of  four  hundred  dollars  to  reimburse 
the  Baptist  church  for  the  damage  done  to  it,  a  committee  having 
reported  that  the  injury  to  the  building  would  amount  to  that  sum. 
Several  of  the  nominees  withdrew  from  the  ticket  after  the  convention 
adjourned,  and  the  Tammany  wing,  after  the  election,  ascribed  its 
defeat  to  the  withdrawal  of  Milton  S.  Latham,  who  afterwards  became 
governor,  from  the  congressional  ticket. 

The  time  had  arrived  when  a  new  party  was  to  spring  up  and 
enter  the  field  of  politics  and  later  to  attain  a  dominating  influence 
in  the  state.  The  first  mass  meeting  of  Republicans  in  California 
was  held  in  Sacramento,  April  19,  1856.  E.  B.  Crocker  was  the  leader 
of  the  new  party  in  Sacramento  county,  and  opened  the  meeting  with 
an  address  that  was  listened  to  attentively.  George  C.  Bates  was 
introduced  and  attempted  to  make  a  speech,  but  so  much  noise  and 
confusion  ensued  in  a  disturbance  raised  by  Democrats  and  Americans 
that  his  voice  could  not  be  heard.  Henry  S.  Foote,  who  had  been 
governor  of  Mississippi,  begged  the  turbulent  crowd  to  desist  from 
disturbing  the  meeting  and  allow  it  to  proceed,  but  no  attention  was 
paid  to  his  protest.  When  the  Republican  speakers  again  attempted 
to  proceed,  the  crowd  made  a  rush  for  the  stand,  overturned  it  and 
broke  the  meeting  up. 

April  30.  1856,  the  first  state  convention  of  the  Republicans  was 
held  in  the  Congregational  Church  in  this  city.  E.  B.  Crocker  pre- 
sided as  temporary  chairman.  Only  thirteen  counties  were  represented 
in  the  convention  and  of  the  one  hundred  and  twenty-five  delegates 
composing  it,  sixty-five  were  from  Sacramento  and  San  Francisco. 
Resolutions  were  adopted  opposing  the  further  extension  of  slave  ter- 
ritory and  of  slave  power;  welcoming  honest  and  industrious  im- 
migrants; deprecating  all  attempts  to  prejudice  immigrants  against 
our  free  institutions;  favoring  the  speedy  construction  of  a  trans- 
continental railroad  bv  aid  from  congress;  favoring  the  speedy  set- 


tlement  of  land  titles  in  this  state;  and  the  election  of  onlj'  bona  fide 
permanent  settlers  to  office. 

A  public  discussion  was  announced  to  take  place  early  in  May 
in  Sacramento,  between  George  C.  Bates,  Eepublican,  and  J.  C.  Za- 
briskie.  Democrat,  but  when  the  time  appointed  arrived,  no  location 
could  be  procured,  on  account  of  the  anticipated  disturbance.  The 
meeting  was  therefore  postponed  until  the  evening  of  the  10th  of 
that  month,  and  when  the  time  arrived  the  disturbance  commenced. 
Rotten  eggs  were  thrown  and  firecrackers  were  exploded  to  create 
a  turmoil,  but  the  police  made  several  arrests  and  restored  order. 
Outsiders  took  possession  of  the  stand  after  the  meeting  closed  and 
a  resolution  was  adopted  declaring  "that  the  people  of  this  city  have 
been  outraged  by  the  discussion  of  treasonable  doctrines  by  a  public 
felon;  and  that  we  will  not  submit  to  such  an  outrage  in  the  future." 

Looking  back  at  this  day  one  naturally  wonders  that  such  intoler- 
ance should  be  shown  in  a  free  state,  but  "history  repeats  itself," 
and  there  are  many  similar  instances  of  narrow-mindedness  and  in- 
tolerance in  the  world's  history,  not  only  in  political,  but  in  religious, 
scientific  and  other  matters.  But  for  the  evolution  of  new  ideas  and 
doctrines  there  would  be  no  progress  in  the  world,  and  today  it 
would  be  hard  to  find  one  to  contradict  Galileo's  murmured  protest, 
"but  it  does  move."  The  doctrines  advocated  in  1856  have  long 
ago  worked  out  their  own  solution,  through  much  bloodshed  and  de- 
vastation and  the  whole  fair  domain  of  our  great  republic  acknowledge 
that  the  destruction  of  slavery  was  a  blessing  to  our  country. 

A  few  days  after  the  meeting  the  Sacramento  Tribune  (Amer- 
ican), referring  to  the  meeting,  said:  "The  fact  that  a  public  dis- 
cussion was  permitted  to  take  place  in  a  public  street  in  the  heart 
of  oui'  city,  in  the  presence  of  a  large  concourse  of  our  citizens, 
almost  all  of  whom  disapprove  the  doctrine  advocated  by  the  speaker, 
and  this  too,  when  it  is  the  firm  conviction  of  a  large  majority  of 
the  ])ersons  assembled  that  the  agitation  of  the  slavery  question  as 
the  basis  of  political  organization  is  against  the  true  interest  of  the 
state  and  nation,  speaks  volumes  in  favor  of  the  public  morals  of 
Sacramento."  The  extract  indicates  the  bitterness  of  feeling  that 
had  already  begim  to  grow  up  against  the  agitation  for  the  abolition 
of  slavery,  or  its  restriction  to  limits  where  it  already  existed. 


A  remarkable  political  clash  took  place  July  25,  1865,  at  a  county 
convention  held  in  Sacramento.  Through  dissention  in  the  Union 
party  two  factions  had  arisen.  Governor  Frederick  F.  Low  was  a 
candidate  for  the  United  States  senatorship,  and  was  the  choice  of 
one  wing  of  the  party,  but  there  was  strong  opposition  to  Ms  nomina- 
tion. The  Low  and  anti-Low  delegates  in  the  convention  were  about 
equal  in  numbers  and  the  convention  met  in  the  Assembly  Chamber 


of  what  was  tlien  the  State  Capitol,  afterwards,  and  until  latelj'  de- 
molished, the  Sacramento  county  courthouse.  The  desks  which  or- 
dinarily occupied  the  chaniher  had  heen  removed,  and  replaced  by 
chairs  to  accommodate  the  convention  of  one  hundred  and  six  dele- 
gates who  were  exjjected  to  be  present.  It  was  a  noticeable  fact,  that 
almost  without  exception  the  Low  delegates,  dubbed  the  short-hairs, 
occupied  the  seats  on  the  speaker's  right  hand,  while  the  anti-Lows, 
known  as  the  long-hairs,  occupied  the  seats  on  his  left. 

As  soon  as  the  convention  had  been  called  to  order,  two  per- 
sons were  nominated  for  temporary  secretary,  and  voted  for.  The 
chairman  of  the  county  central  committee  announced  that  AV.  H. 
Barton,  the  long-hair  candidate,  had  been  elected  to  the  position  by 
a  viva-voce  vote.  At  once  the  convention  was  a  scene  of  confusion, 
and  the  Low  delegates  insisted  on  a  count  of  the  vote.  As  Barton 
advanced  from  the  left  toward  the  secretary's  table,  the  delegates 
from  the  right  made  a  rush  to  the  left  side  of  the  chamber. 

So  sudden  was  the  outbreak  that  it  is  hard  to  describe  the  ter- 
rible scene  that  followed  and  that  has  never  before  or  since  been  wit- 
nessed in  any  political  convention  in  this  state.  Barton  was  inter- 
eejited  1>.\-  his  ojaponents  before  he  could  reach  the  secretary's  table 
and  was  told  that  he  should  not  serve  in  that  position.  The  dele- 
gates on  the  long-hair  side  of  the  house  hastened  to  his  support, 
while  the  l^ow  men  presented  a  solid  front  to  bar  his  way  to  the 
desk,  and  instantly  the  battle  was  on,  the  opposing  wings  joining  in 
a  hand  to  hand  conflict.  Weapons  for  the  combatants  appeared  as 
if  by  magic,  and  solid  hickory  canes,  which  ajipeared  to  be  abundant 
on  both  sides,  were  vigorously  used.  It  was  a  reproduction  of  Don- 
nybrook  fair  and  the  battle  waged  hot  and  furious.  Spittoons  were 
numerous  and  flew  through  the  air  like  bombshells.  Inkstands  sup- 
plied the  place  of  cannon  balls  and  the  artillery  was  in  full  action. 
Pistols  were  drawn  and  used  freely  as  clubs,  but  no  firearms  were 
discharged  or  knives  used.  The  principal  weapons  of  warfare  in  use 
on  both  sides  were  the  chairs,  which  had  not  been  furnished  with  the 
idea  of  their  being  applied  to  the  heads  of  the  delegates,  and  which 
were  not  very  well  adapted  for  that  purpose,  but  were  swimg  in  the 
air  by  vigorous  arms  and  used  with  telling  effect,  being  broken  over 
the  heads  of  the  contending  parties.  In  many  instances  they  were 
broken  u})  in  order  that  the  legs  might  be  used  as  clubs.  No  Homer 
has  as  yet  sung  the  doughty  deeds  performed  on  that  occasion,  and 
the  names  of  the  heroes  have  passed  into  oblivion.  The  battle,  while 
furious,  did  not  last  over  about  five  minutes,  and  when  the  artillery 
fire  had  ceased,  the  long-hairs,  who  had  rallied  to  Barton's  support, 
had  al)andoned  the  field.  Some  had  jumped  through  the  windows,  and 
others,  who  had  been  badly  hurt,  were  assisted  from  the  scene.  The 
greater  number  had  passed  out  into  the  ante-room  and  the  main  hall, 


leaving  the  scene  of  conflict.  Thus  ended  this  episode  of  what  has 
passed  into  history  as  the  ' '  Spittoon  Convention. ' ' 

The  long-hairs  retired  in  a  body  after  the  battle  was  over,  and 
organized  in  another  hall,  while  the  short-hairs,  as  victors,  occupied 
the  battle-field  and  proceeded  with  business.  Each  convention  nom- 
inated a  full  local  ticket  and  elected  a  set  of  delegates  to  the  state  con- 
vention. The  long-hairs  nominated  Newton  Booth  for  state  senator, 
while  E.  H.  Heaton  was  the  nominee  of  the  short-hairs.  The  shorts 
claimed  that  the  trouble  in  the  convention  was  caused  by  a  partial 
ruling  by  the  chairman  of  the  committee  in  favor  of  Barton,  and  by 
the  determination  of  the  long-hairs  to  run  the  convention,  regardless 
of  the  rights  or  wishes  of  their  opponents.  The  short-hair  convention 
instructed  its  nominees  for  the  legislature  to  vote  for  Low  for  United 
States  senator,  but  he  aftej-wards  declined.  The  breach  in  the  party 
was  not  healed  by  his  withdrawal,  however,  and  the  opposition  lasted 
until  August,  when  the  short-hairs  gradually  transferred  their  sup- 
port to  John  E.  Felton  for  United  States  senator.  When  the  state 
convention  met,  however,  Cornelius  Cole  was  elected,  December  16, 
as  the  agreed  candidate  of  both  wings. 

Ex-Governor  H.  S.  Foote,  referred  to  in  relation  to  the  first  Ee- 
publican  meeting,  was  well-known  on  this  coast.  Born  in  Virginia 
in  1800,  he  graduated  at  Washington  College  in  1819,  commenced  the 
practice  of  law  in  1822,  edited  a  Democratic  paper  in  Alabama,  1824-32, 
and  resided  in  Mississippi  for  a  number  of  years,  being  elected  by  the 
legislature  of  that  state  to  the  United  States  senate.  He  resigned  his 
senatorshi])  and  was  elected  governor  of  the  state  in  1852.  In  1854  he 
came  to  (California  and  joined  the  Native  American  party  and  was  its 
candidate  for  United  States  senator  in  1856,  being  defeated  by  David 
C.  Broderick.  He  returned  to  Mississippi  in  1858  and  took  an  active 
part  in  politics.  He  represented  Tennessee  in  the  Confederate  con- 
gress. During  his  life  he  was  engaged  in  three  duels  and  was  wounded 
in  two  of  them.  One  of  his  daughters  became  the  wife  of  Senator  W. 
M.  Stewart,  and  the  other  two  married  and  reside  in  California,  while 
his  two  sons  became  practicing  lawyers  on  the  Pacific  coast.  Mr.  Foote 
possessed  considerable  ability  as  a  writer.  In  1866  he  published  "The 
War  of  the  Eebellion,"  and  "Scylla  and  Charybdis."  In  1871  he  |nib- 
lished  a  volume  of  reminiscences  and  was  also  the  author  of  "Texas 
and  the  Texans,"  published  in  1847.  He  died  near  Nashville,  at  his 
residence.  May  20,  1880. 



Sacramento  county  was  formallj^  organized  in  1850,  when  the  legis- 
lature passed  "An  act  subdividing  the  state  into  counties  and  estab- 
lishiug  the  seats  of  justice  therein,"  February  18,  1850.  Section  17 
of  that  act  defined  the  boundaries  of  Sacramento  coimty  as  follows: 
"Beginning  at  a  point  ten  miles  due  nortli  of  the  mouth  of  the  Ameri- 
can river,  and  running  thence  in  an  easterly  direction  to  the  junction 
of  the  north  and  south  forks  of  said  river;  thence  up  the  middle  of 
the  principal  channel  of  the  south  fork  to  a  point  one  mile  above  the 
head  of  Mormon  island,  so  as  to  include  said  island  in  Sacramento 
county;  thence  in  a  southerly  direction  to  a  point  on  the  Cosuranes 
river  eight  miles  above  the  house  of  William  Daylor ;  thence  due  soutli 
to  Dry  creek ;  thence  down  the  middle  of  said  creek  to  its  entrance 
into  the  Moquelumne  river,  or  into  a  large  slough  in  the  tule  marsh; 
thence  down  the  middle  of  said  slough  to  its  junction  with  the  San 
Joaquin  river;  thence  down  the  middle  of  said  river  to  the  mouth  of 
the  Sacramento  river,  at  the  head  of  Suisun  bay;  thence  up  the  mid- 
dle of  the  Sacramento  river  to  the  mouth  of  Merritt's  slough;  tlience 
up  the  middle  of  said  slough  to  its  head;  thence  up  the  middle  of  the 
Sacramento  river  to  a  point  due  west  of  the  place  of  beginning,  and 
then  east  to  the  place  of  beginning.  The  seat  of  justice  shall  be  Sacra- 
mento City." 

In  the  "History  of  Sacramento,"  published  in  1853  by  Dr.  John 
I.  Morse,  who  was  the  earliest  historian  of  the  embryo  city  and  county, 
he  alludes  to  what  was  probably  the  first  election  held  in  what  was  then 
known  as  Sacramento  District,  as  follows:  "In  the  fall  of  1848,  an 
election  was  held  at  the  fort  (Sutter's)  for  first  and  second  alcaldes, 
and  resulted  in  the  selection  of  Frank  Bates  and  John  S.  Fowler. 
Fowler  resigned  in  the  spring  following,  and  H.  A.  Schoolcraft  was 
elected  to  fill  the  vacancy.  In  the  spring  of  1849,  Brannan,  Snyder, 
Slater,  Hensley,  King,  Cheever,  McCarver,  McDougal,  Barton-  Lee, 
Dr.  Carpenter,  Southard,  and  Fowler  were  elected  a  board  of  com- 
missioners to  frame  a  code  of  laws  for  the  district.  Pursuant  to  the 
wish  of  this  legislating  committee,  the  people  convened  under  a  broad- 
spreading  oak  at  the  foot  of  I  street.  The  report,  which  was  then  of- 
ficially submitted  and  which  was  duly  accepted  by  the  sovereigns  as- 
sembled, provided  the  following  offices  of  a  jurisdiction  extending  from 
the  Coast  Range  to  the  Sierra  Nevada,  and  throughout  the  length  of 
the  Sacramento  Valley,  to  wit: — One  alcalde  and  one  sheriff.  H.  A. 
Schoolcraft  was  then  elected  alcalde,  and  A.  M.  Turner,  sheriff.  This 
constituted  the  judiciary  of  Northern  California  up  to  the  time  that 
those  changes  took  place  in  very  rapid  succession  after  the  immigration 
of  1849  began  to  concentrate  at  Sacramento." 


In  1871  a  history  of  Sacramento  was  published  in  Crocker's  direc- 
tory, which  was  written  by  D.  J.  Thomas,  and  aUudes  in  part  to  the 
same  event,  but  as  will  be  seen,  the  list  of  the  legislative  committee 
differs  somewhat,  and  as  to  which  is  correct,  there  is  no  means  of  de- 
ciding.   Mr.  Thomas  says: 

"The  first  attempt  to  establish  a  civil  government  under  American 
ideas  of  government  was  made  on  April  30,  1849,  when  a  mass  meeting 
of  the  then  residents  of  Sacramento  City  and  other  portions  of  Sacra- 
mento district  was  held  at  the  Embarcadero  to  devise  a  means  for  the 
government  of  the  city  and  district.  At  this  meeting  Henry  A.  School- 
craft presided,  Peter  Slater  was  vice-president  and  James  King  of 
William  and  E.  J.  Brooks  secretaries.  Samuel  Brannan  explained 
the  object  of  the  meeting,  and  it  was  resolved  that  a  kgislature  of 
eleven  members  should  be  elected,  with  full  powers  to  enact  laws  for 
the  government  of  the  city  and  district.  It  was  also  determined  to  hold 
the  election  forthwith,  and  Henry  Bates,  M.  D.,  M.  F.  McClellan,  Mark 
Stewart,  Ed.  H.  Von  Pfister  and  Eugene  I.  Gillespie  were  appointed 
judges.  The  vote  resulted  in  the  election  of  John  McDougal,  Peter 
Slater,  Barton  Lee,  John  S.  Fowler,  J.  S.  Robb,  William  Pettit,  Wm. 
M.  Carpenter,  M.  D.,  Charles  D.  Southard,  M.  M.  McCarver,  James 
King  of  William  and  Sanmel  Brannan,  but  u])on  tlie  announcement  of 
the  result,  Robb  declined  to  accept,  and  Henry  Cheever  was  chosen. 
The  eleven  were  immediately  swoi'n  in,  and  some  time  afterward  adopt- 
ed a  code  that  no  laws  were  wanted,  and  that  all  the  officers  necessary 
for  the  district  of  Sacramento,  bounded  on  the  north  and  west  by  the 
Sacramento  river,  on  the  east  by  the  Sierra  Nevada s,  and  on  the  south 
by  the  Cosumnes  river,  were  one  alcalde  and  one  sheriff.  They  then 
submitted  the  code  to  the  people  for  adoption  or  rejection,  and  asked 
them  at  the  same  time  to  vote  for  officers.    The  code  was  adopted. 

"Nothing  further  toward  adopting  a  local  government  was  at- 
tempted until  after  the  proclamation  by  General  Riley  (the  military 
governor)  was  issued  at  Monterey  on  June  3rd.  In  fact,  nothing 
seemed  necessary,  if  theft  was  by  common  consent  punished,  as  the 
Times  says,  'by  giving  the  offender  thirty  or  forty  rawhide  lashes, 
and  then  ordering  him  off,  not  to  return  under  penalty  of  death. '  ' ' 

The  proclamation  of  General  Riley  called  for  an  election  to  be 
lield  August  1,  1849,  to  elect  delegates  to  a  general  convention  and 
for  filling  necessary  offices.  A  meeting  was  held  on  July  5th,  and  a 
committee  was  appointed  to  organize  the  district  into  precincts,  ap- 
portion the  representation,  and  nominate  the  candidates  to  be  voted 
for.  The  committee  consisted  of  R.  B.  Cornwall  C.  E.  Pickett,  Will- 
iam M.  Carpenter,  Samuel  Brannan,  John  McDougal,  W.  Blackburn, 
J.  S.  Robb,  Samuel  J.  Hensley,  Mark  Stewart,  M.  M.  McCarver,  John 
S.  Fowler  and  A.  M.  Winn. 

On  the  14th  the  committee  reported,  recommending  the  places  for 


polls,  etc.  At  the  election  the  vote  stood:  For  delegates  to  the  con- 
stitutioual  convention:  Jacob  R.  Snyder,  469;  John  A.  Sutter,  468; 
John  Bidwell,  462;  W.  E.  Shannon,  458;  L.  W.  Hastings,  450;  W.  S. 
Sherwood,  446;  M.  M.  McCarver,  296;  Jolm  S.  Fowler,  289;  John  Mc- 
Dougal,  281 ;  Charles  E.  Pickett,  193 ;  W.  Blacklnirn,  192 ;  E.  0.  Crosby, 
189 ;  R.  M.  Jones,  179 ;  W.  Lacey,  123 ;  James  Qneen,  130. 

For  local  offices :  William  Stout,  Henry  E.  Robinson,  R.  B.  Corn- 
wall, Eugene  I.  Gillispie,  T.  L.  Chapman,  Berryman  Jennings,  John 
P.  Rodgers,  A.  M.  Winn,  and  M.  F.  McClellan  were  elected  as  mem- 
bers of  the  city  council  without  opposition,  by  an  average  vote  of  424. 
James  S.  Thomas  was  elected  .first  magistrate  by  three  hundred  ninety- 
three  votes,  against  twenty-two  for  S.  S.  White  and  five  for  J.  S. 
Fowler.  J.  C.  Zabriskie  was  elected  second  magistrate;  H.  A.  School- 
craft, recorder,  and  D.  B.  Hanner,  sheriff. 

Under  the  call  for  the  constitutional  convention  the  district  was 
entitled  to  but  four  delegates,  and  J.  R.  Snyder,  W.  E.  Shannon,  W. 
S.  Sherwood  and  John  A.  Sutter  were  certified  by  General  Riley  as 
elected  representatives.  Afterwards  the  representation  was  increased 
to  fifteen,  and  in  addition  to  the  original  four,  eleven  others  were  ap- 
pointed, as  follows:  L.  W.  Hastings,  John  Bidwell,  John  S.  Fowler, 
M.  M.  McCarver,  John  McDougal,  E.  0.  Crosby,  W.  Blackburn,  James 
Queen,  R.  M.  Jones,  W.  Lacey  and  C.  E.  Pickett. 

The  convention  adjourned  in  October  and  an  election  was  called 
for  November  12,  1849,  to  vote  on  the  constitution,  for  state  officers, 
and  for  representatives  in  the  legislature.  At  that  election  the  vote 
of  Sacramento  district  was  declared  to  be  as  follows:  For  the  Con- 
stitution, 4317 ;  against  the  Constitution,  643 ;  for  Governor,  P.  H. 
Burnett,  2409 ;  J.  A.  Sutter,  856 ;  W.  S.  Sherwood,  1929 ;  Thomas  Mc- 
Dowell, 87;  William  M.  Stewart,  448. 

For  State  Senators:  John  Bidwell,  3474;  Elisha  0.  Crosby,  2610; 
Thomas  J.  Green,  2516;  Henry  E.  Robinson,  2328;  Murray  Morrison, 
2171 ;  Gilbert  A.  Grant,  1687 ;  Hardin  Biglow,  1407 ;  Charles  E.  Pickett, 
905.  The  first  four  were  declared  elected  and  at  the  ensuing  session 
the  county  boundaries  were  fixed. 

The  first  Monday  of  October  was  fixed  in  the  first  election  law  as 
the  day  for  electing  state  officers  and  was  denominated  the  general 
election.  The  first  Monday  in  April  was  designated  as  the  day  for 
the  election  of  county  officers  and  was  called  the  county  election.  The 
legislature  of  1851  repealed  the  clause  fixing  the  time  for  the  county 
election  and  provided  that  it  should  be  held  at  the  same  time  as  the 
state  election,  and  the  time  for  that  election  was  changed  to  the  first 
Wednesday  in  September,  where  it  remained  for  a  number  of  years. 
Originally,  the  terms  of  the  county  officers  commenced  on  the  first 
Monday  in  May,  1850,  but  the  le.gislature  of  1851  changed  it  so  that 
the  term  commenced  on  the  first  Monday  in  October  following  the  elec- 


tion.  The  legislature  in  1863  changed  it  again  so  that  the  official  terms 
commenced  on  the  first  Monday  in  March  following  the  election.  The 
new  constitution,  adoj^ted  in  1879,  fixed  the  time  for  all  state  and 
county  officers  commencing  their  terms  of  office  on  the  first  Monday 
in  January. 

The  first  county  officers,  elected  April  1,  1850,  to  serve  until  April, 
1852,  were  as  follows :  County  judge,  E.  J.  Willis ;  sheritf ,  Joseph 
McKinney ;  clerk,  Preslej^  Dunlap ;  recorder,  L.  A.  Birdsall ;  district 
attorney,  William  C.  Wallace;  county  attorney,  John  H.  McKune; 
treasurer,  William  Glaskin;  assessor,  David  W.  Thorpe;  surveyor,  J. 
G.  Cleal ;  coroner,  P.  F.  Ewer ;  J.  S.  Thomas  was  elected  district  judge 
by  the  legislature  of  1849-50,  and  he  resigned,  January  1,  1851.  Tod 
Robinson  was  appointed  January  2,  1851,  and  served  until  the  first 
part  of  August,  when  Ferris  Forman,  who  was  secretary  of  state  dur- 
ing the  administration  of  John  B.  Weller,  succeeded  him  on  the  14th 
of  August,  and  presided  one  month.  Lewis  Aldrich  became  district 
judge  September  15,  1851.  Joseph  McKinney,  sheriff,  was  killed  near 
Brighton,  on  the  evening  of  August  15,  1850,  the  day  after  the  Squat- 
ter riot,  and  Ben  McCuUoch  was  elected  at  a  special  election  to  fill 
the  vacancy,  on  the  first  Monday  in  September.  The  office  of  county 
attorney  was  abolished  by  the  legislature  of  1851,  the  duties  of  the 
office  being  assigned  to  the  district  attorney.  Wallace  resigned  in  the 
meantime,  and  was  succeeded  October  18,  1850,  by  Milton  S.  Latham, 
afterward  governor.  William  Glaskin  resigned  the  office  of  treasurer, 
August  22,  1850,  and  John  W.  Peyton  was  appointed  to  fill  the  vacancy. 
He  in  turn  resigned  November  29,  1850,  and  Charles  H.  Swift  was  ap- 
jiointed  treasurer  and  collector  by  the  court  of  sessions,  of  which  he 
was  a  member. 

The  court  of  sessions  was  composed  of  the  county  judge  and  two 
associates  and  was  the  court  of  criminal  jurisdiction.  The  associates 
were  elected  by  a  convention  of  justices  of  the  peace,  held  the  first 
Mondav  in  October  of  each  year,  except  the  first  convention,  which  was 
held  May  20, 1850,  when  Charles  F.  Swift  and  C.  C.  Sackett  were  elected 
associates.  This  court  filled  vacancies  in  office  in  the  county  and  at- 
tended to  the  financial  affairs  of  the  county  in  early  times.  When 
Swift  was  appointed  treasurer  he  was  succeeded  by  James  Brown  as 
an  associate,  who  assumed  his  duties  February  7.  1851,  and  was  suc- 
ceeded August  14  by  D.  D.  Bullock. 

County  officers  to  serve  from  October,  1851,  to  October  5,  1853,  were 
elected  September  3.  1851,  as  follows:  County  judge,  E.  J.  Willis; 
sheriff,  A.  D.  Patterson;  clerk,  L.  B.  Harris;  recorder  and  auditor, 
W.  S.  Long;  district  attorney,  George  H.  Carter;  treasurer,  Cyrus 
Rowe;  assessor,  W.  A.  Selkirk;  surveyor,  John  G.  Cleal;  coroner. 
S.  J.  May;  public  administrator,  John  T.  Brown;  associate  justices, 
George  Wilson  and  James  B.  Gates. 


A  board  of  supervisors  in  the  several  counties  to  transact  the 
financial  business  in  their  counties  was  provided  for  by  the  legis- 
lature of  1852,  and  a  special  election  was  held  on  June  14  of  that 
year.  John  Noyes,  Louis  Z.  Hagen,  James  S.  Meredith,  James  Mar- 
tin, and  E.  M.  Pitcher  were  elected,  Meredith  being  elected  chairman 
when  the  board  was  organized.  At  the  general  election  held  Septem- 
ber, 1852,  the  following  were  elected :  William  McNulty,  Luther  Cur- 
tis, John  A.  Watson,  H.  H.  Lewis  and  H.  B.  Waddilove.  Watson  was 
elected  chairman  and  the  board  conducted  the  county  business  until 
May  16,  1853.  After  that  time  the  court  of  sessions  assumed  control 
of  the  civil  business  of  the  county. 

At  the  election  September  7,  1853,  the  following  county  officers 
were  elected,  and  served  until  October,  1855 :  County  judge,  Jolin 
Heard;  sheriff,  D.  N.  Hunt;  clerk,  Abner  C.  Hunter;  recorder  and 
auditor,  John  L.  Craig;  district  attorney,  James  H.  Hardy;  treas- 
urer, J.  Griswold;  assessor,  H.  J.  Bidleman;  surveyor,  W.  L.  De- 
Witt;  coroner,  Ephraim  Smith;  public  administrator,  James  B. 

The  legislature  passed  another  act  in  1855,  relative  to  boards  of 
supervisors,  and  as  the  sui)reme  court  had  decided  that  it  was  con- 
templated by  the  constitution  that  the  business  interests  of  the  vari- 
ous counties  should  be  managed  by  the  boards,  the  court  of  sessions 
was  not  eligible  to  act,  and  the  counties  again  elected  boards  of  super- 
visors. The  first  election  under  this  act  was  held  April  2,  with  the 
result  that  J.  L.  Howard,  L.  P.  Ormsby  and  F.  S.  Munford  constituted 
the  board,  which  commenced  its  sessions  early  in  May.  In  September, 
1855,  L.  R.  Bickley,  Josiah  Johnson  and  S.  E.  Caldwell  were  elected  to 
the  board  and  Johnson  was  chosen  chairman. 

September  5,  1855,  county  officers  were  elected  as.  follows,  serv- 
ing from  October,  1855,  to  October  1,  1857:  County  judge,  John 
Heard;  sheriff,  W.  S.  AVliite;  clerk,  C.  H.  Bradford;  recorder  and 
auditor,  John  L.  Brown;  district  attorney,  Frank  Hereford;  treas- 
urer, David  Maddux;  coroner,  E.  Bell;  public  administrator,  Gordon 
Backus;  superintendent  of  common  schools,  F.  W.  Hatch  (the  first 
school  superintendent  elected  by  the  people).  Up  to  the  time  Mr. 
Hatch  assumed  the  office  its  duties  were  performed  by  the  county  as- 
sessor; the  board  of  1856  was  composed  of  L.  E.  Beckley,  A.  Spinks 
and  Julius  Wetzlar,  and  Beckley  was  chairman.  In  1857  the  mem- 
bers of  the  board  were  Jared  Irwin,  C.  C.  Harrington  and  Frank  Hast- 
ings, the  latter  being  chairman. 

September  2,  1857,  the  county  officers  elected  were :  County  judge, 
E.  Eobinson;  sheriff,  W.  S.  Manlove;  clerk,  J.  B.  Dayton;  recorder 
and  auditor,  Jerome  Madden;  district  attorney,  Eobert  F.  Morrison; 
treasurer,  Morgan  Miller;  assessor,  E.  Black  Eyan;  surveyor,  John 
G.  Cleal;  coroner,  J.  P.  Counts;  public  administrator,  L.  E.  Beckley; 


school  superintendent,  N.  Slater.  The  legislature  of  1858  passed  a  law 
consolidating-  the  government  of  the  city  and  county  and  increased  the 
board  of  supervisors  five  members,  making  the  president  of  the  board 
a  separate  office.  A  special  election  was  held  in  April,  at  which  H. 
L.  Nichols  was  elected  president  and  Mark  Hopkins,  J.  A.  Carroll, 
S.  C.  Fogus,  E.  Stockton  and  W.  K.  Lindsay  the  new  members.  These, 
with  the  old  members,  met  May  8,  1858.  In  September,  1858,  a  lioard 
was  elected,  consisting  of  the  following:  E.  Granger,  John  Leavitt, 
Sylvester  Marshall,  H.  T.  Holmes,  I.  N.  Babcock,  John  B.  Taylor,  L. 

C.  Goodman  and  W.  K.  Lindsay,  and  the  president  was  continued 
another  year.  August  4,  1859,  B.  H.  Hereford  was  elected  in  place  of 
Lindsay,  resigned. 

The  members  in  1859  were :  President,  William  Shattuck ;  mem- 
bers, E.  Granger,  John  Leavitt,  E.  L.  Eobertson,  A.  Henley,  I.  N. 
Babcock,  A.  M.  Green,  L.  C.  Goodman  and  Larkin  Lamb.  S.  Marshall 
served  until  October  11,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  Mr.  Eobertson. 
Thomas  Letson  was  clerk,  being  the  first  elected  under  the  consolida- 
tion act.  October  V2.  1859,  Thomas  Hunt  was  elected,  vice  Goodman, 

County  officers  elected  Se])tember,  1859,  and  serving  until  October, 
1861,  were:  County  judge,  Roliert  Robertson;  sheritf,  Sylvester  Mar- 
shall; clerk  and  recorder,  Jerome  Madden;  district  attorney,  Cornelius 
Cole;  treasurer,  C.  L.  Bird;  assessor,  E.  B.  Evan;  surveyor,  J.  G. 
Cleal;  coroner,  D.  Murray;  public  administrator,  Jared  Irwin;  school 
superintendent,  F.  W.  Hatch;  clerk  of  board  and  auditor,  Thomas  Let- 
son.  Leu  Harris  was  elected  county  warden  in  1861,  but  the  office  was 
abolished.  The  l)oard  in  1860  was  composed  of  ?].  Granger,  Thomas 
Hansbrow,  P.  H.  Eussell,  A.  Henlej^  J.  S.  Woods,  A.  M.  Green,  S. 
Waterman  and  Larkin  Lamb.  Shattuck,  the  president,  was  continued. 
The  members  of  the  l)oard  in  1861  were:  President,  William  Shattuck, 
E.  Granger,  Thomas  Hansbrow,  P.  H.  Eussell,  S.  Hite,  J.  S.  Woods, 
Jacob  Dickerson,  S.  Waterman  and  John  Hall. 

September  4,  1861,  the  election  for  county  officers  resulted  as  fol- 
lows:  County  .judge,  Eo1)ert  C.  Clark;  sheriff,  Benjamin  N.  Bugby; 
clerk  and  recorder,  Jared  Irwin;  district  attorney,  W.  W.  Upton; 
treasurer,  C.  L.  Bird;  assessor,  E.  B.  Eyan;  surveyor,  G.  W.  Colby; 
coroner,  J.  W.  Eeeves;  jniblic  administrator,  F.  McComber;  school 
superintendent,  F.  W.  Hatch;  clerk  of  board  and  auditor,  Josiah 
Howell.  Bird  absconded  and  James  C.  McDonough  was  ajipointed 
treasurer  by  the  board.  The  board  in  1862  was  composed  of  E.  Gran- 
ger, N.  L.  Drew,  Thomas  Eoss,  S.  Hite,  J.  L.  Graves,  Jacob  Dickerson, 

D.  L.  Williams  and  J.  Hall,  with  Shattuck  as  president.  They  served 
until  March  7,  1864.  In  1863  the  legislature  divided  the  city  and  counts- 
government  and  reduced  the  board  of  supervisors  for  the  county  to 
five  membei-s.     The  new  organization  took  place  in  the  spring  and  the 


following  composed  the  board:     A.  C.  Bidwell,  Thomas  Ross,  Joseph 
Hull,  H.  A.  Thompson  and  Dwight  Hollister,  Ross  being  chairman. 

At  the  election  of  September  2,  1863,  the  following  county  officers 
were  elected  to  serve  until  March,  1866:  County  judge,  R.  C.  Clark; 
sheriff,  James  McClatchy;  clerk  and  recorder,  A.  C.  Bidwell;  dis- 
trict attorney,  M.  M.  Estee;  treasurer,  F.  S.  Lardner;  assessor  P.  R. 
Beckley;  surveyor,  G.  W.  Colby;  coroner,  J.  W.  Reeves;  public  ad- 
ministrator, J.  E.  Miller;  school  superintendent,  Sparrow  Smith;  clerk 
of  the  board  of  supervisors  and  auditor,  Josiah  Howell.  At  the  gen- 
eral election  in  September,  186.3,  the  members  of  the  board  elected  were 
as  follows:  D.  W.  Clark,  Thomas  Ross,  Joseph  Hull,  H.  A.  Thomp- 
son and  Dwight  Hollister.  Thompson  failed  to  qualify  and  on  No- 
vember 16  Jesse  Couch  was  elected  in  his  place.  This  board  was  elect- 
ed to  serve  two  vears  and  took  their  seats  the  first  Mondav  in  October, 

An  election  was  held  September  6,  1865,  and  county  officers 
elected  as  follows  to  serve  from  March  5,  1866,  to  March  5,  1868: 
County  judge,  Robert  C.  Clark;  sheriff,  James  Lansing;  clerk  and 
recorder,  E.  D.  Shirland ;  district  attorney,  James  C.  Goods ;  treasurer, 
Ezra  Woolson;  assessor,  E.  Black  Ryan;  surveyor,  A.  G.  Winn; 
coroner,  Joseph  A.  Conboie;  public  administrator,  Findley  R.  Dray; 
school  superintendent,  F.  W.  Hatch;  clerk  of  board  and  auditor, 
W.  A.  Anderson;  members  of  the  board:  D.  W.  Clark,  M.  McManus, 
Joseph  Hull,  Jesse  Couch,  and  William  Beckman;  Hull  was  chairman. 

An  election  was  held  September  4,  1867,  and  the  following  ]iersons 
were  elected  to  the  county  offices,  serving  from  March,  1868,  to  March, 
1870 :— sheriff,  Edward  F.  White  (contested  by  Hugh  M.  LaRue)  ; 
clerk.  W.  B.  C.  Brown;  district  attorney,  James  C.  Goods;  treasurer, 
A.  Spinks;  assessor,  F.  R.  Dray;  surveyor,  John  Doherty;  coroner,  J. 
P.  Counts;  public  administrator,  William  Shattuck;  school  superin- 
tendent, Augustus  Trafton;  clerk  of  board  and  auditor,  W.  A.  Mc- 
Williams ;  board :  John  Domingos,  C.  H.  Ross,  Benjamin  Bailey,  James 
S.  Meredith  and  William  Beckman;  Meredith  was  president.  These 
members  were  elected  for  two  years,  and  under  the  provision  of  the 
statute  which  was  in  force  at  the  time  of  their  election,  their  terms 
would  have  ex]:>ired  in  October,  1869,  but  the  legislature  of  1867-68 
extended  the  term  of  the  members  from  the  Third,  Fourth  and  Fifth 
districts  (Bailey,  Meredith,  and  Beckman)  to  1871,  and  they  ser\ed 
four  years.  Judge  Clark  was  successively  re-elected  each  time  until 
the  county  judgeship  was  abolished  in  1879  by  the  new  constitution. 

At  the  election  September  1,  1869,  the  following  county  officers 
were  elected,  and  served  until  March,  1872: — sheriff,  J.  S.  Wood; 
clerk,  W.  B.  C.  Brown;  treasurer,  Alfred  Spinks;  recorder  and  ex- 
officio  auditor,  W.  A.  McWilliams;  assessor,  F.  R.  Dray;  district 
attorney,  John  K.  Alexander ;  surveyor,  A.  G.  Winn ;  coroner,  J.  P. 


Counts ;  school  superintendent,  Augustus  Trafton ;  public  adminis- 
trator, William  Shattuck;  supervisors: — John  Domingos,  James  H. 
Groth,  Benjamin  Bailey,  James  S.  Meredith  and  William  Beckman. 

At  the  general  election  of  September  6,  1871,  the  officers  elected 
were  as  follows,  to  serve  until  March,  1874: — sheritf,  Mike  Bryte; 
clerk,  Lauren  Upson;  treasurer,  John  Bellmer;  recorder  and  auditor, 
Jesse  A.  Stewart ;  assessor,  F.  E.  Dray ;  district  attorney,  Henry 
Starr;  surveyor,  John  Prentice;  coroner,  J.  W.  Wilson;  school 
superintendent,  S.  H.  Jackman ;  public  administrator,  N.  Q.  Feldheim ; 
board  of  supervisors: — John  Domingos,  James  H.  Groth,  James  S. 
Meredith,  S.  B.  Moore  and  J.  W.  Sims.  September  2,  3873,  Daniel 
Brown,  J.  J.  Bauer,  L.  Elkus  and  H.  0.  Seymour  were  elected. 

At  the  same  election  the  following  were  elected  county  officers : — 
sheriff,  Hiigh  LaEue;  collector  of  taxes,  Joseph  W.  Houston;  clerk, 
Ham  C.  Harrison;  treasurer,  John  Bellmer;  district  attorney,  Charles 
T.  Jones;  recorder,  Matthew  darken;  auditor,  Jesse  A.  Stewart; 
public  administrator,  H.  S.  Beals;  superintendent  of  schools,  George 
H.  Kelly;  surveyor,  Ed.  Murray;  coroner,  J.  P.  Counts;  commissioner 
of  liighways,  H.  D.  Johnson.  The  supervisors  who  served  in  1874-75 
were:  James  S.  Meredith,  S.  B.  Moore,  Daniel  Brown,  J.  V.  Sims, 
H.  0.  Seymour,  L.  Elkus  and  J.  A.  Mason,  the  legislature  having 
increased  the  number  of  districts  to  seven. 

The  officers  elected  in  September,  1877,  were  as  follows : —  sheriff, 
M.  M.  Drew;  clerk,  Thomas  H.  Berkey;  treasurer,  D.  E.  Callahan; 
auditor,  W.  E.  Gerber;  district  attorney,  George  A.  Blanchard; 
superintendent  of  schools,  F.  L.  Landes;  public  administrator,  Troy 
Dye;  surveyor,  John  Prentice;  coroner,  A.  J.  Vermilya.  The  super- 
visors serving  from  October,  1877,  to  October,  1878,  were :  S.  B.  Moore, 
J.  W.  Wilson,  J.  J.  Bauer,  P.  E.  Beckley,  Samuel  Blair,  Daniel  Brown, 
and  Edward  Christy.  In  1878-79,  Benjamin  Bailev  served  in  place 
of  S.  B.  Moore. 

The  county  officers  elected  in  September,  1879,  were: —  sheriff, 
Adolph  Heilbron;  clerk,  Thomas  H.  Berkey;  assessor,  Joseph  W. 
Houston;  auditor,  William  E.  Gerber;  treasurer,  Ezra  Woolson; 
public  administrator,  George  F.  Bronner;  district  attorney,  Henry  L. 
Buckley;  superintendent  of  schools,  Charles  E.  Bishop;  coroner,  A. 
J.  Vermilya;  surveyor,  James  C.  Pierson.  Supervisors,  1880-81: — J. 
W.  Wilson,  Benjamin  Bailey,  P.  E.  Beckley,  Edward  Christy,  Stephen 
W.  Butler,  Samuel  Blair  and  John  F.  Dreman. 

The  legislature  of  1882  changed  the  time  of  elections  to  November, 
to  correspond  with  the  election  of  president  of  the  United  States.  In 
November  of  that  year  the  officers  elected  were :  sheriff,  A.  H.  Estill ; 
clerk,  C.  M.  Coglan;  assessor,  John  T.  Griffitts;  treasurer,  A.  S.  Green- 
law; district  attorney,  John  T.  Carey;  auditor  and  recorder,  W.  E. 
Gerber;  public  administrator,  George  F.  Bronner;  superintendent  of 


schools,  Charles  E.  Bishop;  coroner,  J.  Frank  Clark;  surveyor,  J.  C. 
Pierson ;  supervisors :  J.  F.  Dreman,  J.  W.  Wilson,  Samuel  Blair,  S.  W. 
Butler,  Edward  Christy,  P.  R.  Beckley  and  Benjamin  Bailey.     ' 

At  the  election  on  November  4,  1884,  the  county  officers  were  elected 
as  follows :  sheriff,  J.  W.  Wilson ;  clerk,  W.  B.  Hamilton ;  auditor  and 
recorder,  J.  Henry  Miller;  district  attorney,  Henry  L.  Buckley;  treas- 
urer, George  E.  Kuchler;  public  administrator,  F.  H.  Russell;  coroner, 
J.  Frank  Clark ;  surveyor,  J.  C.  Pierson ;  supervisors :  B.  U.  Steinman, 
George  O.  Bates,  George  C.  McMullen,  S.  J.  Jackson  and  L.  H.  Fassett. 
The  number  of  districts  had  been  changed  from  seven  to  five. 

The  following  were  elected  November  2,  1886:  County  clerk,  W. 
B.  Hamilton;  sheriff,  M.  M.  Drew;  assessor,  A.  L.  Frost;  treasurer, 
John  L.  Huntoon;  district  attorney,  Elwood  Bruner;  auditor  and  re- 
corder, J.  H.  Miller;  superintendent  of  schools,  Benjamin  F.  Howard; 
public  administrator,  S.  B.  Smith;  coroner,  J.  Frank  Clark;  surveyor, 
J.  C.  Pierson;  supervisors:  H.  C.  Ross  and  F.  F.  Tebbets.  Steinman, 
Bates  and  McMullen  held  over.  During  the  year  Miller  resigned  as 
auditor  and  recorder,  and  Frank  T.  Johnson  was  elected  to  succeed 
him.  Mr.  Howard  made  a  most  efficient  superintendent  of  schools;  so 
much  so  indeed  that  he  was  re-elected  term  after  term  and  served  in 
that  capacity  for  twenty  years,  during  which  time  he  lifted  the  schools 
to  a  high  degree  of  excellence,  making  them  the  peer  of  any  in  the  state. 

November  6,  1888,  the  following  were  elected:  sheriff,  George  C. 
McMullen;  clerk,  W.  B.  Hamilton;  auditor  and  recorder,  Frank  T.  John- 
son; district  attorney,  Elwood  Bruner;  treasurer,  John  L.  Himtoon; 
public  administrator,  G.  W.  Harlow ;  coroner,  J.  Frank  Clark ;  surveyor, 
J.  C.  Boyd ;  supervisors :  Andrew  Black  and  George  0.  Bates.  Erskine 
Greer,  H.  C.  Ross  and  F.  F.  Tebbets  held  over. 

In  1890  the  officers  elected  were :  sheriff  and  tax  collector,  Thomas 
W.  O'Neil;  clerk,  W.  B.  Hamilton;  treasurer,  Edward  Lyon;  auditor 
and  recorder,  F.  T.  Johnson;  district  attorney,  Frank  D.  Ryan;  assessor, 
R.  D.  Irvine;  coroner,  George  H.  Clark;  public  administrator,  George 
F.  Bronner ;  surveyor,  A.  M.  Winn ;  supervisors :  M.  Miller,  George  0. 
Bates;  Andrew  Black,  Erskine  Greer  and  Thomas  Jenkins.  In  1892 
the  supervisors  were  J.  M.  Morrison,  J.  W.  Todd,  M.  Miller,  William 
Curtis  and  Thomas  Jenkins. 

County  officers  in  1894  were  as  follows:  sheriff  and  tax  collector, 
Frank  T.  Jolmson;  clerk,  W.  B.  Hamilton;  treasurer,  E.  Lyon;  auditor 
and  recorder,  R.  T.  Cohn;  district  attorney,  Frank  D.  Ryan;  assessor, 
Thomas  H.  Berkey ;  coroner,  George  H.  Clark ;  public  administrator,  W. 
B.  Miller ;  surveyor,  J.  C.  Boyd ;  supervisors :  John  F.  Dreman,  J.  W. 
Todd,  J.  M.  Morrison,  William  Curtis  and  Thomas  Jenkins.  In  1896  the 
board  was :  J.  F.  Dreman,  J.  M.  Morrison,  William  McLaughlin,  Thomas 
Jenkins  and  William  Curtis.  Treasurer  Lyon  died  during  his  term  of 
office,  and  A.  S.  Greenlaw,  his  deputy,  was  elected  by  the  supervisors 


to  fill  the  vacancy.  Public  Administrator  Miller  also  died  during  his 

In  1898  the  officers  elected  were:  sheriff,  Frank  T.  Johnson;  clerk, 
W.  B.  Hamilton;  license  and  tax  collector,  B.  N.  Bugbey;  treasurer, 
A.  S.  Greenlaw;  auditor  and  recorder,  R.  T.  Cohn;  district  attorney, 

C.  W.  Baker;  assessor,  T.  H.  Berkey;  coroner,  Q.  C.  McMullen;  public 
administrator,  S.  B.  Smith;  surveyor,  J.  C.  Boyd;  supervisors:  Dugald 
Gillis,  William  McLaughlin,  J.  M.  Morrison,  William  Curtis  and  Thomas 
Jenkins.  In  1900  the  board  was :  D.  Gillis,  William  McLaughlin,  M.  J. 
Dillman,  Morris  Brooke  and  Thomas  Jenkins. 

The  legislature  had  previously  separated  the  offices  of  sheriff  and 
tax  collector,  and  Bugbey  took  advantage  of  the  fact  that  the  convention 
had  neglected  to  nominate  a  tax  collector.  He  announced  himself  as 
a  candidate  for  the  office,  and  as  Johnson  neglected  to  announce  himself, 
Bugbey  was  elected.  Sheriff  Johnson  died  during  his  term  and  the 
supervisors  ai)pointed  David  Reese  to  fill  the  vacancy. 

In  1902  the  officers  elected  were:  clerk,  W.  B.  Hamilton;  sheriff, 
David  Reese;  license  and  tax  collector,  Charles  E.  Trainor;  treasurer, 
A.  S.  Greenlaw ;  auditor,  L.  P.  Williams ;  recorder,  R.  T.  Cohn ;  district 
attorney,  A.  M.  Seymour;  assessor,  T.  H.  Berkey;  coroner,  W.  F. 
Gormley;  public  administrator,  S.  B.  Smith;  surveyor,  J.  C.  Boyd; 
supervisors :  E.  A.  Meister,  William  McLaughlin,  M.  J.  Dillman,  Morris 
Brooke  and  T.  Jenkins.  In  1904  the  board  was :  C.  W.  McKillip,  James 
H.  Donnelly,  H.  K.  Johnson,  E.  A.  Meister  and  Gillis  Doty. 

Treasurer  Greenlaw  died  during  his  incumbency,  and  D.  W.  Car- 
michael  was  elected  by  the  supervisors  to  fill  the  vacancy.  Mr.  (^ar- 
michael  appointed  M.  J.  Curtis  as  his  depiity,  the  legislature  having 
provided  for  a  deputy  at  the  i)revious  session. 

The  officers  elected  for  1906  were  as  follows :  clerk,  W.  B.  Hamilton ; 
sheriff,  D.  Reese ;  license  and  tax  collector,  Charles  E.  Trainor ;  district 
attorney,  E.  S.  Wachorst ;  coroner,  W.  F.  Gormley;  public  administrator, 

D.  McDougall;  superintendent  of  schools,  Mrs.  Minnie  R.  O'Neil;  sur- 
veyor, C.  M.  Phinney;  recorder,  C.  A.  Root;  supervisors:  Howard  K. 
Johnson,  David  Ahern,  Charles  W.  McKillip,  J.  H.  Donnelly  and  L. 
C.  Thisby.  In  1908  the  board  was :  Robert  Callahan,  J.  H.  Donnelly, 
L.  C.  Thisby,  C.  W.  McKillip  and  Da\'id  Ahern. 

Sheriff  Reese  died  during  his  term  of  office,  and  the  board  of  su))er- 
visors  elected  his  son,  Edward  E.  Reese,  to  fill  the  unexjiircl  tenii. 
Assessor  Berkey  also  died  and  the  suiiervisors  elected  E.  J.  Kay,  liis 
deputy,  to  the  position.  Mr.  Kay  had  l)&en  Berkey 's  right  hand  man- 
for  several  years,  and  was  thoroughly  comjietent  to  fill  the  ]iosition, 
being  well  accpiainted  witli  tlie  values  of  i-eal  estate  and  ])erson;il 

The  officers  elected  for  1910  were:  clerk,  W.  B.  Hamilton;  sheriff, 
David  Ahern;  license  and  tax  collector,  Charles  E.  Trainor;  auditor, 


L.  P.  Williams;  recorder,  C.  A.  Root;  assessor,  Ed.  J.  Kay;  super- 
intendent of  schools,  Mrs.  Minnie  R.  O'Neil;  treasurer,  M.  J.  Curtis; 
district  attorney,  E.  S.  Wachliorst;  coroner,  W.  F.  Gormley;  i)ul)lic 
administrator,  D.  McDougall;  surveyor,  P"'rank  C'.  Miller;  supervisors: 
J.  H.  Donnelly,  Charles  H.  McKillip,  Robert  E.  Callahan,  James  P. 
Kelly  and  Thomas  Jenkins. 

County  Clerk  Hamilton  died  in  the  spring  of  1911,  and  th(!  board 
of  supervisors  elected  Ed.  F.  Pfund,  who  had  for  many  years  been  his 
deputy  and  was  thoroughly  conversant  with  the  affairs  of  the  office, 
to  fill  out  the  unexpired  term.  The  apjjointment  of  Mr.  Pfund  gave 
universal  satisfaction,  both  to  the  bar  and  the  people,  as  his  perennial 
courtesy  and  painstaking  performance  of  his  duties  had  gained  liim 
a  host  of  friends. 

No  man  in  the  county  was  more  universally  liked  and  respected 
than  "Billy"  Hamilton,  as  he  was  always  called.  Genial  and  affable, 
he  was  the  friend  of  all,  and  all  were  his  friends.  As  was  once  said 
of  him,  "Billy  Hamilton  is  the  same  man  the  week  after  election 
that  he  was  a  week  before  he  was  elected."  An  ardent  hunter  and 
fisherman,  he  had  a  fund  of  sporting  and  other  anecdotes,  and  was 
so  happy  in  his  methods  as  a  raconteur  that  the  most  astounding  ex- 
periences issuing  from  his  lips  took  on  the  appearance  of  verity.  His 
death  was  mourned  by  a  host  of  friends.  It  was  said  of  him  that  he 
never  forgot  a  face,  and  could  call  every  resident  of  the  county  by 
name, — a  most  valuable  accomplishment  for  a  politician.  Peace  to 
his  manes.    "AVe  ne'er  shall  look  upon  his  like  again." 


A  list  of  the  officers  of  the  city  of  Sacramento  from  1849  follows : 

1849 — A.  M.  Winn,  mayor;  the  alcalde  was  recorder;  N.  C.  Cun- 
ningham, marshal;  William  Glaskin,  city  clerk  and  auditor;  J.  A.  Tutt, 
assessor;  S.  C.  Hastings,  treasurer;  B.  Brown,  collector;  Murray  Mor- 
rison, city  attorney;  R.  J.  Watson,  harbormaster. 

1850 — Hardin  Biglow,  mayor  (died  in  office) ;  Horace  Smith, 
mayor  (to  fill  vacancy)  ;  B.  F.  Washington,  recorder;  N.  C.  Cunning- 
ham, marshal ;  J.  B.  Mitchell,  city  clerk  and  auditor ;  J.  W.  Woodland, 
assessor;  Barton  Lee,  treasurer;  E.  B.  Pratt,  collector;  J.  Neely  John- 
son, city  attorney;  George  W.  Hammersley,  harbormaster. 

Hardin  Biglow,  the  mayor,  was  severely  wounded  in  the  Squatter 
riot  and  died  in  San  Francisco  of  cholera  ])efore  recovering  from  his 
wounds.  Horace  Smith  was  elected  to  succeed  him.  J.  W.  Woodland, 
the  assessor,  was  also  killed  in  the  Squatter  riot,  but  his  place  does 


not  seem  to  have  been  filled,  the  elections  at  that  time  being  for  only 
one  year. 

1851 — James  R.  Hardenbergh,  mayor;  W.  H.  McGrew,  recorder; 
W.  S.  White,  marshal;  L.  Curtis,  clerk  and  auditor;  Samuel  McKee, 
assessor;  W.  E.  MeCracken,  treasurer;  W.  S.  White,  collector;  J. 
Neely  Johnson,  city  attorney;  John  Eequa,  harbormaster. 

1852 — C.  I.  Hutchinson,  mayor;  W.  H.  McGrew,  recorder;  David 
McDowell,  marshal;  Wasliington  Meeks,  city  clerk  and  auditor;  Wil- 
liam Lewis,  assessor;  E.  Chenery,  treasurer;  D.  McDowell,  collector; 
John  G.  Ayer,  city  attorney;  John  Eequa,  harbormaster;  W.  A.  Sel- 
kirk, superintendent  of  schools. 

1853 — J.  E.  Hardenbergh,  mayor;  N.  Greene  Curtis,  recorder; 
W.  S.  White,  marshal ;  John  A.  Fowler,  city  clerk  and  auditor ;  Samuel 
T.  Clymer,  assessor;  C.  J.  Torbert,  treasurer;  W.  S.  White,  collector; 
L.  Landus,  Jr.,  city  attorney;  Gordon  Backus,  harbormaster;  PI.  J. 
Bidleman,  superintendent  of  schools. 

1854 — E.  P.  Johnson,  mayor;  N.  Greene  Curtis,  recorder;  W.  S. 
White,  marshal ;  T.  A.  Thomas,  city  clerk  and  auditor ;  E.  C.  Winehell, 
assessor;  W.  E.  Chamberlain,  treasurer;  N.  A.  H.  Ball,  collector; 
W.  Cyrus  Wallace,  city  attorney;  Frank  Harney,  harbormaster;  H.  W. 
Harkness,  superintendent  of  schools. 

1855 — James  Lawrence  English,  mayor;  N.  Greene  Curtis,  re- 
corder ;  James  W.  Haines,  marshal ;  W.  E.  Chamberlain,  city  clerk  and 
auditor;  Preseott  Eobinson,  assessor;  John  C.  Barr,  treasurer;  J.  T. 
Knox,  collector;  Horace  Smith,  city  attorney;  James  W.  Haines,  har- 
bormaster; Frank  Tukey,  superintendent  of  schools  (resigned),  F.  W. 
Hatch  (to  fill  vacancy). 

1856— B.  B.  Eedding,  mayor;  W.  W.  Price,  recorder;  Thomas  Mc- 
Alpin,  marshal;  John  F.  Madden,  city  clerk  and  auditor;  W.  C.  Felch, 
assessor;  W.  M.  Brainerd,  treasurer;  John  H.  Houseman,  collector; 
Henry  Starr,  city  attorney;  George  C.  Haswell,  harbormaster;  F.  W. 
Hatch,  superintendent  of  schools. 

1857 — J.  P.  Dyer,  mayor;  Presley  Dunlap,  recorder;  James  Lan- 
sing, marshal;  John  F.  Madden,  city  clerk  and  auditor;  Alex.  Mont- 
gomery, assessor;  James  H.  Sullivan,  treasurer;  John  H.  Houseman, 
collector ;  George  E.  Moore,  city  attorney ;  George  C.  Haswell,  harbor- 
master; J.  G.  Lawton,  superintendent  of  schools. 

1858 — H.  L.  Nichols,  president  of  the  board,  justice  of  the  peace, 
police  .iudge ;  J.  P.  Hardy,  marshal ;  J.  B.  Dayton,  city  clerk  and 
auditor;  E.  B.  Eyan,  assessor;  Morgan  Miller,  treasurer;  W.  T.  Man- 
love,  collector;  E.  F.  Morrison,  city  attorney;  Daniel  H.  Whepley, 
harbormaster;  G.  L.  Simmons,  superintendent  of  schools. 

1859 — W.  Shattuck,  president  of  the  board,  justice  of  the  peace, 
police  judge;  J.  J.  Watson,  marshal;  J.  B.  Dayton,  city  clerk  and 
auditor ;  E.  B.  Eyan,  assessor ;  Morg.  Miller,  treasurer ;  W.  S.  Manlove, 


collector;  R.  F.  Morrison,  city  attornej^;  G.  L.  Simmons,  superintendent 
of  schools.  From  1858  to  1862  the  city  and  county  were  consolidated 
and  managed  by  a  board  of  supervisors,  one  of  which  was  president 
of  the  board.  During  this  period  the  three  city  justices  of  the  peace 
were,  in  rotation  of  a  week  each,  police  judge. 

1860 — W.  Shattuck,  i^resident  of  the  board;  justice  of  the  peace, 
police  judge;  J.  J.  Watson,  marshal;  Thomas  Letson,  city  clerk  and 
auditor;  E.  B.  Ryan,  assessor;  C.  L.  Bird,  treasurer;  Sylvester  Mar- 
shall, collector;  Cornelius  Cole,  city  attorney;  F.  W.  Hatch,  superin- 
tendent of  schools. 

1861 — W.  Shattuck,  president  of  the  board,  justice  of  the  peace, 
police  judge;  J.  J.  Watson,  marshal;  Thomas  Letson,  city  clerk  and 
auditor;  E.  B.  Ryan,  assessor;  C.  L.  Bird,  treasurer;  Sylvester  Mar- 
shall, collector;  Cornelius  Cole,  city  attorney;  G.  Taylor,  superintend- 
ent of  schools. 

1862— W.  Shattuck,  president  of  the  board;  Thomas  W.  Gilmer, 
police  judge;  J.  J.  Watson,  marshal;  Josiah  Howell,  city  clerk  and 
auditor;  E.  B.  Ryan,  assessor;  C.  L.  Bird,  treasurer;  James  McDonald, 
treasurer  (appointed  to  fill  vacancy)  ;  B.  N.  Bugbey,  collector;  Samuel 
Smith,  collector  (appointed  to  fill  vacancy)  ;  W.  W.  Upton,  city 
attorney;  G.  Taylor,  superintendent  of  schools. 

The  city  government  was  changed  April  25,  1863;  the  new  board 
met  and  held  its  first  session  May  1,  1863,  and  after  that  the  city 
was  governed  by  three  trustees  until  January  8,  1894,  the  first  trustee 
being  the  president  of  the  board  and  mayor ;  the  second  trustee  street 
commissioner,  and  the  third  trustee  superintendent  of  the  waterworks. 

1863— C.  H.  Swift,  first  trustee  and  mayor;  H.  T.  Holmes,  second 
trustee;  Josiah  Johnson,  third  trustee;  S.  S.  Holl,  police  judge;  J.  T. 
Clark,  chief  of  police  (removed  October  7,  1863,  and  D.  H.  Lowry 
appointed) ;  Benjamin  Peart,  city  auditor  and  clerk;  James  E.  Smith, 
assessor;  W.  E.  Chamberlain,  treasurer;  James  E.  Smith,  collector; 

E.  H.  Heacock,  city  attorney;  W.  H.  Hill,  superintendent  of  schools. 

1865- C.  H.  Swift,  first  trustee  and  mayor;  S.  D.  Smith,  second 
trustee;  Josiah  Johnson,  third  trustee;  S.  S.  Holl,  police  judge;  F.  T. 
Burke,  chief  of  police;  C.  C.  Jenks,  city  auditor  and  clerk;  John  C. 
Halley,  assessor;  Harvey  Coswell,  treasurer;  D.  A.  DeMerritt,  col- 
lector; E.  H.  Heacock,  city  attorney;  S.  C.  Hall,  harbormaster;  W.  H. 
Hill,  superintendent  of  schools. 

1866— C.  H.  Swift,  first  trustee  and  mayor;  S.  D.  Smith,  second 
trustee;   Josiah  Johnson,   third   trustee;   L.   H.   Foote,   police   judge; 

F.  T.  Burke,  chief  of  police;  C.  C.  Jenks,  city  auditor  and  clerk;  John 
C.  Halley,  assessor;  Harvey  Caswell,  treasurer;  D.  A.  DeMerritt, 
collector;  E.  H.  Heacock,  city  attorney;  N.  A.  Kidder,  harbor  master; 
W.  H.  Hill,  superintendent  of  schools. 

1867— C.  H.  Swift,  first  trustee  and  mayor ;  S.  D.  Smith,  second 


trustee;  David  Kendall,  third  trustee;  L.  H.  Foote,  police  judge;  F.  T. 
Burke,  chief  of  police ;  John  McClintock,  city  auditor  and  clerk ;  E.  R. 
Hamilton,  assessor;  W.  E.  Chamberlain,  treasurer;  D.  A.  DeMerritt. 
collector;  M.  C.  Tilden,  city  attorney;  W.  H.  Hill,  superintendent  of 

1868 — C.  H.  Swift,  first  trustee  and  mayor;  John  Rider,  second 
trustee;  David  Kendall,  third  trustee;  L.  H.  Foote,  police  judge;  B. 
W.  Martz,  chief  of  police;  John  McClintock,  city  auditor  and  clerk; 
E.  R.  Hamilton,  assessor ;  W.  E.  Chamberlain,  treasurer ;  D.  A.  DeMer- 
ritt, collector;  M.  C.  Tilden,  city  attorney;  W.  H.  Hill,  superintendent 
of  schools. 

1809 — C.  11.  Swift,  first  trustee  and  mayor;  John  Rider,  second 
trustee;  David  Kendall,  third  trustee  (died  in  office);  L.  H.  Foote, 
police  judge;  B.  W.  Martz,  chief  of  police;  John  McClintock,  city 
auditor  and  clerk;  W.  T.  Crowell,  assessor;  W.  E.  Chamberlain,  treas- 
urer; A.  Leonard,  collector;  S.  S.  Holl,  city  attorney;  W.  H.  Hill, 
superintendent  of  schools. 

1870 — C.  H.  Swift,  first  trustee  and  mayor;  John  Rider,  second 
trustee;  James  McCleery,  third  trustee;  A.  Henley,  police  judge; 
George  Smith,  chief  of  police ;  John  McClintock,  city  auditor  and  clerk ; 
W.  T.  Crowell,  assessor;  W.  E.  Chamberlain,  treasurer;  A.  Leonard, 
collector;  J.  K.  Alexander,  city  attorney;  W.  H.  Hill,  superintendent 
of  schools. 

1871 — C.  H.  Swift,  first  trustee  and  mayor;  John  Rider,  second 
trustee;  James  McCleery,  third  trustee;  A.  Henley,  police  judge; 
George  Smith,  chief  of  police ;  John  McClintock,  city  auditor  and  clerk ; 
S.  S.  Greenwood,  assessor;  W.  E.  Chamberlain,  treasurer;  H.  Mont- 
fort,  collector;  Charles  T.  Jones,  city  attorney;  W.  H.  Hill,  superiu' 
tendent  of  schools. 

1872 — Christopher  Green,  first  trustee  and  mayor;  John  Rider, 
second  trustee;  James  McCleery,  third  trustee;  T.  W.  Gilmer,  police 
judge;  Matt  Karcher,  chief  of  police;  E.  M.  Stevens,  chief  of  police; 
John  McClintock,  city  auditor  and  clerk;  S.  S.  Greenwood,  assessor; 
W.  E.  Chamberlain,  treasurer;  H.  Montfort,  collector;  M.  C.  Tilden, 
city  attorney;  S.  C.  Denson,  superintendent  of  schools. 

1873 — Christopher  Green,  first  trustee  and  mayor;  John  Rider, 
second  trustee;  Horace  Adams,  third  trustee;  T.  W.  Gilmer,  police 
judge;  Matt  Karcher,  chief  of  police;  E.  M.  Stevens,  chief  of  police; 
John  McClintock,  city  auditor  and  clerk;  Fred  A.  Shepherd,  assessor; 
W.  T.  Crowell,  collector;  Samuel  Poorman,  treasurer;  M.  C.  Tilden, 
city  attorney;  S.  C.  Denson,  superintendent  of  schools. 

1874 — Christopher  Green,  first  trustee  and  mayor;  W.  F.  Knox, 
second  trustee;  Horace  Adams,  third  trustee;  W.  R.  Cantwell,  police 
judge;  Matt  Karcher,  chief  of  police;  E.  M.  Stevens,  chief  of  police; 
John  McClintock,  city  auditor  and  clerk ;  Fred  A.  Shepherd,  assessor ; 


W.  T.  Crowell,  collector;  Samuel  Poorman,  treasurer;  W.  R.  Hinkson, 
city  attorney;  Add  C.  Hinkson,  superintendent  of  schools. 

1875 — Christopher  Green,  first  trustee  and  mayor;  W.  F.  Knox, 
second  trustee;  James  McCleary,  third  trustee;  M.  S.  Horan,  police 
judge ;  E.  M.  Stevens,  chief  of  police ;  P.  L.  Hickman,  city  auditor  and 
clerk;  Fred  A.  Shepherd,  assessor;  W.  T.  Crowell,  collector;  Samuel 
Poorman,  treasurer;  W.  A.  Anderson,  city  attorney;  A.  C.  Hinkson, 
superintendent  of  schools. 

1876 — Christopher  Green,  first  trustee  and  mayor ;  W.  F.  Knox, 
second  trustee;  James  McCleery,  third  trustee;  M.  S.  Horan,  police 
judge;  E.  M.  Stevens,  chief  of  police;  P.  L.  Hickman,  city  auditor 
and  clerk;  Fred  A.  Shepherd,  assessor;  W.  T.  Crowell,  collector;  J.  N. 
Porter,  treasurer;  W.  A.  Anderson,  city  attorney;  A.  C.  Hinkson. 
superintendent  of  schools. 

1877 — Christopher  Green,  first  trustee  and  mayor;  W.  F.  Knox, 
second  trustee ;  James  McCleery,  third  trustee ;  Thomas  Conger,  police 
judge;  E.  M.  Stevens,  chief  of  police;  E.  H.  McKee,  city  auditor  and 
clerk;  Fred  A.  Shepherd,  assessor;  G.  A.  Putnam,  collector;  J.  N. 
Porter,  treasurer;  W.  A.  Anderson,  city  attorney;  A.  C.  Hinkson, 
superintendent  of  schools. 

1878 — Jabez  Turner,  first  trustee  and  mayor;  W.  F.  Knox,  second 
trustee;  James  McCleery,  third  trustee;  Thomas  Conger,  police  judge; 
E.  M.  Stevens,  chief  of  police;  E.  H.  McKee,  city  auditor  and  clerk; 
Fred  A.  Shepherd,  assessor;  G.  A.  Putnam,  collector;  J.  N.  Porter, 
treasurer ;  H.  L.  Buckley,  city  attorney ;  A.  C.  Hinkson,  superintendent 
of  schools. 

1879 — Jabez  Turner,  first  trustee  and  mayor;  W.  F.  Knox,  second 
trustee;  Josiah  Johnson,  third  trustee;  W.  A.  Henry,  police  judge; 
E.  M.  Stevens,  chief  of  police;  E.  H.  McKee,  city  auditor  and  clerk; 
Fred  A.  Shepherd,  assessor;  George  A.  Putnam,  collector;  J.  N. 
Porter,  treasurer;  H.  L.  Buckley,  city  attorney;  F.  L.  Landes,  super- 
intendent of  schools. 

1880 — Jabez  Turner,  first  trustee  and  mayor;  Jerome  C.  Davis,  sec- 
ond trustee;  Josiah  Johnson,  third  trustee;  W.  A.  Henry,  police 
judge;  Matt  Karcher,  chief  of  police;  E.  H.  McKee,  city  auditor  and 
clerk;  Fred  A.  Shepherd,  assessor;  George  A.  Putnam,  collector;  W. 
E.  Chamberlain,  treasurer;  W.  A.  Anderson,  city  attorney;  F.  L. 
Landes,  superintendent  of  schools. 

1881 — John  Q.  Brown,  first  trustee  and  mayor;  Jerome  C.  Davis, 
second  trustee  (died  October  5,  1881,  before  expiration  of  his  term) ; 
Josiah  Johnson,  third  trustee;  W.  A.  Henry,  police  judge;  Matt 
Karcher,  chief  of  police;  E.  H.  McKee,  city  auditor  and  clerk;  Fred 
A.  Shepherd,  assessor;  George  A.  Putnam,  collector;  W.  E.  Chamber- 
lain, treasurer;  W.  A.  Anderson,  city  attorney;  F.  L.  Landes,  super- 
intendent of  schools. 

1882 — John  Q.  Brown,  first  trustee  and  mayor ;  John  Ryan,  second 


trustee;  William  Guteuberger,  third  trustee;  W.  A.  Henry,  police 
judge;  M.  Karcher,  chief  of  police;  E.  H.  McKee,  city  auditor  and 
clerk;  Fred  A.  Shepherd,  assessor;  George  A.  Putnam,  collector;  W. 
E.  Chamberlain,  treasurer;  W.  A.  Anderson,  city  attorney;  J.  R. 
Lane,  superintendent  of  schools. 

1883 — John  Q.  Brown,  first  trustee  and  mayor ;  John  Ryan,  second 
trustee;  William  Guteuberger,  third  trustee;  W.  A.  Henry,  police 
judge;  Matt  Karcher,  chief  of  police;  E.  H.  McKee,  city  auditor  and 
clerk;  Fred  A.  Shepherd,  assessor;  George  A.  Putnam,  collector;  W. 
A.  Anderson,  city  attorney;  J.  R.  Lane,   superintendent  of  schools. 

1884 — John  Q.  Brown,  first  trustee  and  mayor;  H.  B.  Neilson, 
second  trustee;  William  Guteuberger,  third  trustee;  W.  A.  Henry, 
police  judge ;  Matt  Karcher,  chief  of  police ;  W.  E.  Chamberlain,  treas- 
urer; E.  H.  McKee,  city  auditor  and  clerk;  Fred  A.  Shepherd,  as- 
sessor; George  A.  Putnam,  collector;  W.  A.  Anderson,  city  attorney; 
J.  R.  Lane,  superintendent  of  schools. 

1885 — John  Q.  Brown,  first  trustee  and  mayor;  William  Guteu- 
berger, third  trustee;  E.  H.  McKee,  city  auditor  and  clerk;  J.  J. 
Buckley,  assessor;  George  A.  Putnam,  collector;  W.  A.  Henry,  police 
judge;  O.  C.  Jackson,  chief  of  police;  J.  N.  Porter,  treasurer;  W.  A. 
Anderson,  city  attorney ;  J.  R.  Lane,  superintendent  of  schools. 

1886 — John  Q.  Brown,  first  trustee  and  mayor;  H.  B.  Neilson, 
second  trustee;  W.  R.  Jones,  third  trustee;  E.  H.  McKee,  city  auditor 
and  clerk ;  J.  J.  Buckley,  assessor ;  J.  N.  Porter,  treasurer ;  George  A. 
Putnam,  collector;  W.  A.  Henry,  police  judge;  H.  F.  Dillman,  chief  of 
police;  E.  C.  Hart,  city  attorney;  M.  R!  Beard,  superintendent  of 

1887 — Eugene  J.  Gregory,  first  trustee  and  mayor;  John  Ryan, 
second  trustee;  W.  R.  Jones,  third  trustee;  E.  H.  McKee,  city  auditor 
and  clerk ;  J.  J.  Buckley,  assessor ;  George  A.  Putnam,  collector ;  Henry 
L.  Buckley,  police  judge;  H.  F.  Dillman,  chief  of  police;  E.  C.  Hart, 
city  attorney;  W.  E.  Gerber,  treasurer;  M.  R.  Beard,  superintendent 
of  schools. 

1888 — Eugene  J.  Gregory,  first  trustee  and  mayor;  John  Ryan, 
second  trustee;  H.  C.  Wolf,  third  trustee;  E.  H.  McKee,  city  auditor 
and  clerk;  J.  J.  Buckley,  assessor;  George  A.  Putnam,  collector; 
Henry  L.  Buckley,  police  judge;  Timothy  Lee,  chief  of  police;  E.  C. 
Hart,  city  attorney;  M.  R.  Beard,  superintendent  of  schools. 

1889 — E]ugene  J.  Gregory,  first  trustee  and  mayor;  William  Mc- 
Laughlin, second  trustee;  H.  C.  Wolf,  third  trustee;  E.  H.  McKee,  city 
auditor  and  clerk;  J.  J.  Buckley,  assessor;  George  A.  Putnam,  col- 
lector; Henry  L.  Buckley,  police  judge;  Timothy  Lee,  chief  of  police; 
W.  S.  Church,  city  attorney;  W.  E.  Gerber,  treasurer;  M.  R.  Beard, 
superintendent  of  schools. 

1890 — W.  D.  Comstock,  first  trustee  and  mayor;  William  Mc- 
Laughlin, second  trustee;  H.  C.  Wolf,  third  trustee;  E.  H.  McKee, 


city  auditor;  George  A.  Putnam,  collector;  J.  J.  Buckley,  assessor; 
W.  E.  Gerber,  treasurer;  Henry  L.  Buckley,  police  judge;  Warren  F. 
Drew,  chief  of  jDolice;  E.  C.  Hart,  city  attorney;  Albert  Hart,  superin- 
tendent of  schools. 

1891 — W.  D.  Comstock,  first  trustee  and  mayor;  William  Mc- 
Laughlin, second  trustee;  Alonzo  Conklin,  third  trustee;  J.  D.  Young, 
auditor;  George  A.  Putnam,  collector;  J.  J.  Buckley,  assessor;  W.  E. 
Gerber,  treasurer;  R.  0.  Cravens,  police  judge;  W.  F.  Drew,  chief 
of  police;  E.  C.  Hart,  city  attorney;  Albert  Hart,  superintendent  of 

1892 — W.  D.  Comstock,  first  trustee  and  mayor;  E.  H.  Green, 
second  trustee;  Alonzo  Conklin,  third  trustee;  J.  D.  Young,  auditor; 
George  A.  Putnam,  collector;  W.  E.  Gerber,  treasurer;  J.  J.  Buckley, 
assessor;  R.  0."  Cravens,  police  jiidge;  John  B.  Rodgers,  chief  of 
police;  E.  C.  Hart,  city  attorney;  Albert  Hart,  superintendent  of 

1893 — B.  U.  Steinman,  first  trustee  and  mayor;  E.  H.  Green, 
second  trustee;  Alonzo  Conklin,  third  trustee;  J.  D.  Young,  auditor; 
George  A.  Putnam,  collector;  W.  E.  Gerber,  treasurer;  J.  J.  Buckley, 
assessor;  H.  L.  Buckley,  police  judge;  John  B.  Rodgers,  chief  of 
police;  C.  N.  Post,  city  attorney;  Albert  Hart,  superintendent  of 

A  new  charter  for  the  city  went  into  force  January  8,  1894,  by 
vt^hich  the  number  of  trustees  was  increased  from  three  to  nine,  the 
mayor  being  elected  separate  from  the  board,  and  the  trustees  being 
(>leeied  to  severally  represent  the  nine  wards  of  the  city 

1894-95 — B.  U.  Steinman,  mayor;  W.  D.  Lawton,  president  of 
board  of  trustees;  trustees:  H.  Wachhorst,  Robert  E.  Kent,  J.  G. 
Davis,  W.  H.  Bragg,  L.  Tozer,  J.  H.  Devine,  C.  E.  Leonard,  T.  J.  Pen- 
nish,  W.  D.  Lawton;  J.  D.  Young,  auditor  and  assessor;  J.  N.  Porter, 
treasurer;  E.  H.  McKee,  collector;  J.  Frank  Brown,  city  attorney; 
M.  M.  Drew,  chief  of  police;  0.  S.  Flint,  city  clerk;  Albert  Hart,  super- 
intendent of  schools. 

1896-97— C.  H.  Hubbard,  mayor;  C.  E.  Leonard,  president  of  board 
of  trustees;  trustees:  H.  Wachhorst,  R.  E.  Kent,  James  G.  Davis, 
D.  ^Y.  McKay,  L.  Tozer,  J.  H.  Devine,  C.  E.  Leonard,  T.  J.  Pennish, 
C.  H.  Beutley;  J.  D.  Young,  auditor  and  assessor;  D.  W.  Carmichael, 
treasurer;  C.  C.  Robertson,  collector;  J.  Frank  Brown,  city  attorney; 
M.  J.  Desmond,  city  clerk;  O.  W.  Erlewine,  superintendent  of  schools. 

1898-1899— Mayor,  William  Land;  collector,  C.  C.  Robertson; 
treasurer,  A.  L.  Frost;  auditor  and  assessor,  J.  D.  Young;  trustees — 
F.  F.  Tebbets,  R.  E.  Kent,  C.  W.  Paine,  D.  McKay,  Philip  Douglas, 
J.  H.  Devine;  M.  J.  Desmond,  clerk;  chief  of  police,  Thomas  D-n^er 
(died  in  office,  1899)  ;  superintendent  of  schools,  0.  W.  Erlewine.  Mr. 
Erlewine  has  been  regularly  re-elected  to  the  office  and  was  the  in- 


cumbeut  until  his  resignation  this  spring  under  the  present  com- 

1900-1901— Mayor,  George  H.  Clark;  collector,  C.  C.  Eobertson; 
auditor  and  assessor,  J.  D.  Young;  trustees — F.  F.  Tebbets,  E.  E. 
Kent,  C.  W.  Paine,  John  C.  Ing,  Jr.,  Philip  Douglas,  James  H.  Devine, 
Henry  P.  Brown,  M.  E.  Beard,  J.  H.  Dolan;  clerk,  M.  J.  Desmond; 
chief  of  police,  John  C.  Sullivan! 

1902-1903— Mayor,  George  H.  Clark;  collector,  C.  C.  Eobertson; 
auditor  and  assessor,  J.  D.  Young;  treasurer,  C.  M.  Prodger; 
trustees— F.  F.  Tebbets,  E.  E.  Kent,  J.  G.  Black,  John  C.  Ing,  Jr., 
S.  H.  Farley,  J.  H.  Devine,  Albert  Elkus,  M.  E.  Beard,  E.  J.  Carra- 
gher;  clerk,  M.  J.  Desmond. 

1904-1905— Mayor,  W.  J.  Hassett;  collector,  J.  E.  Govan;  auditor 
and  assessor,  W.  D.  Comstock;  treasurer,  C.  M.  Prodger;  trustees — 
F.  F.  Tebbets  (died  1904,  George  F.  Eider  appointed),  Ed.  McEwen, 
J.  G.  Black,  John  C.  Ing,  Jr.,  S.  H.  Farley,  E.  E.  Callahan,  Albert 
Elkus,  James  Popert,  E.  J.  Carragher;  clerk,  M.  J.  Desmond;  chief 
of  police,  Martin  Coffey. 

1906-1907— Mayor,"  M.  E.  Beard;  collector,  M.  H.  Spaulding; 
auditor  and  assessor,  Fred  W.  Carey;  treasurer,  C.  M.  Prodger; 
trustees— George  H.  Eider,  Ed.  McEwen  (died  1906,  J.  II.  Schacht 
appointed),  John  C.  Ing,  Jr.,  M.  J.  Burke,  E.  E.  Callahan,  Harry  A. 
Nauman,  James  Popert,  E.  J.  Carragher;  clerk,  M.  J.  Desmond;  chief 
of  police,  John  Denny. 

1908-1909— Mayor,  Clinton  L.  White;  collector,  L.  H.  Spaulding; 
auditor  and  assessor,  Fred  M.  Carey;  treasurer,  C.  M.  Prodger; 
trustees— Geo.  F.  Eider,  J.  H.  Schacht,  J.  T.  Murphy,  E.  P.  Hammond, 
M.  J.  Burke,  B.  F.  Catlett,  Harry  A.  Nauman,  0.  G.  Hopkins,  E.  J. 
Carragher;  clerk,  M.  J.  Desmond;  chief  of  police,  John  E.  Sullivan. 

1910-1911— Mayor,  M.  E.  Beard;  collector,  L.  H.  Spaulding; 
fiuditor  and  assessor,  Fred  W.  Carey  (died  in  1910,  Edward  Haynes 
appointed) ;  treasurer,  C.  M.  Prodger  (died  in  1911,  W.  C.  Hendricks 
appointed);  city  attorney,  J.  V.  Hart;  trustees — George  Eider,  C.  H. 
Schacht,  J.  T.  Murphy,  E.  P.  Hammond,  M.  J.  Burke,  B.  F.  Catlett, 
H.  Hoffman  (died  in  1911,  C.  W.  Mier  appointed),  0.  G.  Hopkins 
and  E.  J.  Carragher ;  clerk,  M.  J.  Desmond ;  superintendent  of  streets, 
E.  C.  Irvine ;  chief  of  police,  William  M.  Ahern. 

1912-1913 — Mayor,  M.  E.  Beard;  auditor  and  assessor,  Edward 
Haynes;  collector,  L.  H.  Spaulding;  city  attorney,  J.  V.  Hart;  treas- 
urer, D.  McDougall;  trustees — Geo.  Eider,  John  W.  Crone,  J.  B. 
Hicks,  E.  P.  Hammond,  M.  J.  Burke,  G.  C.  Simmons,  C.  W.  Mier, 
.James  Mangan  and  E.  J.  Carragher;  clerk,  M.  J.  Desmond;  superin- 
tendent of  streets,  E.  C.  Irvine;  chief  of  police,  William  M.  Ahern. 
William  Johnson  was  appointed  by  the  commissioners  chief  of  police 
during  the  summer  of  1913. 

K    STRKET    IN    THK    '(12    FLOOI 



The  flood  of  1850,  heretofore  mentioned  as  among  the  early  dis- 
asters to  the  city,  was  only  one  of  a  series  that  devastated  the  city 
and  county  in  later  years,  and  some  of  which  were  far  more  wide- 
spread and  destructive.  Seasons  of  heavy  rainfall  have  brought  down 
from  the  mountains  that  bound  the  great  Sacramento  Valley  on  both 
sides  torrents  of  rushing  waters  that  have  spread  out  over  the  low 
lands  along  the  Sacramento  river  or  overtopped  the  levees  constructed 
to  preserve  the  alluvial  lands  and  swept  away  the  banks  erected  as 
barriers,  reminding  man  that  his  puny  efforts  to  restrain  and  control 
the  forces  of  nature  were  futile  at  such  times.  To-day  the  banks  of 
the  river  in  most  places  are  crowned  with  substantial  levees,  many 
of  them  eighty  to  one  hundred  feet  across  the  top,  and  holding  back 
successfully  the  angry  waters  that  surge  and  beat  against  them.  But 
in  many  places  these  huge  mounds  have  ]iroved  ineffectual  in  time  of 
great  floods,  and  the  reclamation  of  the  river  lands  and  islands  has 
been  a  costly  and  discouraging  undertaking.  The  labor  of  months  and 
years,  costing  many  thousands  of  dollars,  has  often  been  swept  away 
in  a  day  and  the  fertile  fields,  often  covered  with  a  valuable  crop, 
inundated  and  covered  with  several  feet  of  sand  and  detritus. 

Long  before  the  white  man  settled  in  the  valley  did  these  floods 
occur  at  different  periods.  The  Indian  mounds  of  past  generations, 
the  remains  of  which  frequently  appear  on  the  low  lands  along  the 
rivers,  bear  mute  testimony  to  the  rise  of  the  raging  waters  and  the 
necessity  forced  upon  the  aborigines  of  providing  for  the  safety  of 
themselves  and  their  families  from  the  devouring  waters.  Their  tra- 
ditions give  an  account  of  various  floods  before  the  white  man  invaded 
the  valley.  The  great  flood  of  1805  forms  an  epoch  in  their  history 
from  which  they  still  reckon  in  speaking  of  subsequent  events.  That 
of  1S25-6  was  often  referred  to  by  the  older  members  of  the  tribes  who 
camped  along  the  river  in  the  early  days  of  the  state.  The  floods  of 
1846-7  and  of  1850  were  familiar  to  the  earliest  pioneers  and  still 
remain  vividly  in  the  memories  of  the  survivors  of  those  days.  The 
former  did  but  little  damage,  for  the  reason  that  there  was  very  little 
property  subject  to  damage  in  those  days.  The  latter,  which  has  been 
referred  to  earlier  in  this  volume,  did  an  immense  am.ount  of  damage 
to  the  infant  city  and  occasioned  much  suffering. 

On  the  evening  of  January  8,  1850,  a  terrible  southeast  storm  set 
in,  swelling  the  Sacramento  river  to  such  an  extent  that  the  slough 
on  I  street,  between  Second  and  Third,  began  to  run  over.  Before 
night  on  Wednesday  the  water  was  running  under  the  zinc  building 
of  Montgomery  and  Warbass,  and  torrents  were  rushing  down  Second 
and  Third  streets.  On  Thursday  morning  the  whole  city  for  a  mile 
from  the  Embarcadero,  except  some  high  places  on  Tenth  street,  was 


under  water.  The  next  day  buildings  were  carried  from  their  founda- 
tions. Very  few  buildings  escaped  having  their  lower  floors  flooded. 
The  damage  was  immense,  great  quantities  of  provisions  and  goods 
being  swept  away.  Dr.  John  F.  Morse,  in  writing  of  the  flood,  says, 
among  other  things: 

"At  10  o'clock  on  the  evening  of  the  flood,  when  the  back  waters 
of  the  sloughs  and  the  waters  that  came  in  from  the  banks  of  the  Sac- 
ramento were  rushing  into  the  city,  tearing  up  sidewalks  and  dislodg- 
ing merchandise,  sweeping  away  tents  and  upsetting  houses, — at  this 
very  time,  and  throughout  the  inundation,  the  city  seemed  almost 
mad  with  boisterous  frolic,  with  the  most  irresistible  disposition  to 
revel  m  all  the  drinking,  talking,  swearing,  dancing  and  shouting  that 
were  ever  patronized  by  the  wine-drinking  son  of  Jupiter  and  Semele. 

"All  the  shipping  and  two-story  houses  became  crowded  with  the 
unwebbed  bipeds  of  hilarity  and  merriment.  When  hundreds  of 
thousands  of  dollars  in  merchandise  were  being  wrested  from  the 
merchants  and  traders  by  the  sweeping  currents  that  were  running 
through  the  streets,  in  some  places  with  irresistible  force,  no  one 
could  have  found  among  the  losers  of  the  property  a  single  dejected 
face  or  dejected  spirit.  There  were  no  gloomy  consultations,  no  long- 
ing looks  cast  upon  the  absconding  produce,  no  animosities  excited. 
A  man  who  would  purposely  roll  into  the  water  that  he  might  share 
in  the  general  laugh  that  was  entailed  upon  one  who  had  accidentally 
fallen  in,  would  not  wet  the  sole  of  his  foot  to  save  a  barrel  of  pork 
that  was  being  carried  off  by  the  current. 

"In  the  early  part  of  this  great  flood  small  boats  would  bring 
almost  any  price  on  sale  or  hire.  A  common-sized  whale  boat  would 
bring  $30  an  hour,  and  sell  readily  for  $1,000;  but  in  an  incredibly 
short  time  every  particle  of  lumber  that  would  answer  for  boat  or 
raft  making  was  appropriated,  and  in  a  few  days  the  people  were 
enabled  to  emigrate  to  the  adjacent  hills,  where  settlements  were  made, 
similar  to  the  Hoboken  of  1853.  It  would  be  impossible  to  estimate 
the  amount  of  property  destroyed  by  this  terrible  visitation."  Team- 
sters lost  from  forty  to  fifty  yoke  of  oxen  and  a  large  number  of 
horses  and  mules  were  drowned,  write  the  historians.  On  the  18th 
the  water  so  far  subsided  as  to  leave  some  dry  spots  on  the  Embar- 
cadero  and  most  of  Second  street.  The  great  number  of  cattle  drowned 
created  much  discomfort  to  the  people. 

Another  flood  occurred  in  March,  in  which  the  city  was  saved 
from  a  second  disaster  by  the  energetic  etforts  of  Hardin  Biglow, 
who  had  built  a  levee  across  the  sloughs  at  his  own  expense.  This  was 
the  inception  of  the  present  system  of  levees  which  so  effectually 
protects  our  city  at  present  and  renders  it  practically  impregnable 
to  the  waters. 

Two  years  later  came  another  devastating  flood.  For  some  days 
prior  to  Simday,  March  7,  1852,  both  the  Sacramento  and  American 


rivers  had  taken  on  a  threatening  form,  heavy  rains  in  the  foot-hills 
and  a  very  heavy  snowfall  in  the  mountains  having  filled  them  bank 
full.  About  1  a.  m.  Sunday  the  citizens  were  aroused  from  their 
slumbers  by  the  clanging  of  the  alarm  bell,  warning  them  of  impending 
danger.  Excited  men  soon  thronged  the  streets,  anxious  to  ascertain 
the  cause.  On  investigation  it  was  found  that,  owing  to  a  sudden  rise 
in  the  American  river,  the  levee  near  its  mouth  had  given  way  and 
the  water  was  rushing  fast  through  a  breach  in  its  crumbling  banks. 
The  mayor,  chief  engineer  and  many  citizens  were  soon  on  the  ground, 
making  every  effort  to  avert  disaster.  Timber,  hay,  sacks  of  barley, 
dirt  and  other  things  were  cast  into  the  breach,  but  to  no  avail.  The 
earth  on  which  the  timbers  of  the  sluice  gate  rested  became  loosened 
and  about  two  o'clock  the  bridge  gave  way  and  was  swept  away  by  the 
current  into  the  slough.  Brooks'  store  house,  on  the  levee,  followed 
the  bridge  and  as  the  opening  widened  the  rush  of  waters  increased 
and  trees,  houses,  scows  and  tents  were  swept  into  the  vortex  and 
coming  with  tremendous  force  against  the  bridge  across  Third  street 
snapped  it  like  a  pipe  stem  and  it  too  was  swept  away,  cutting  off  all 
communication  with  the  peninsula  and  imperiling  the  safety  of  many 

Boats  were  quickly  procured  and  after  great  exertions  all  were 
rescued  and  conveyed  to  a  place  of  safety.  By  four  o'clock  the  water 
had  reached  the  level  of  I  street  and  was  running  up  Second  to  J. 
The  mayor  issued  a  proclamation,  calling  on  all  to  helj^  stem  the  tide. 
A  temjiorary  embankment  stopped  the  water  at  I  street,  but  it  soon 
found  its  way  around  to  Seventh  and  submerged  I  street  again.  The 
embankment  was  continued  to  Seventh,  where  the  ground  was  higher, 
but  soon  the  water  was  pouring  into  J  street  through  the  slough.  The 
Sacramento  river  at  this  time  was  two  feet  lower  than  in  the  flood 
of  1850,  and  lacked  twenty  inches  of  overtopping  the  levee,  and  the 
sloughs  below  the  city  contained  less  water  than  at  the  former  flood. 
But  the  American  was  higher  and  was  rising,  while  the  Sacramento 
was  stationary.  The  levee  was  crumbling  and  the  water  was  trickling 
through  and  it  appeared  certain  that  the  levee  must  ^deld  to  the 
rising  waters.  Much  property  had  been  destroyed  already.  Cattle, 
pigs  and  poultry  floated  by  on  the  flood  and  the  water  stood  from  a 
few  inches  to  two  feet  deep  on  the  lower  floors  on  I  street.  By  six 
o'clock  the  city  was  almost  wholly  submerged,  the  buildings  rising  like 
so  many  pyramids  on  the  desert  over  the  face  of  the  waters,  only 
Sutter's  Fort  and  the  "Ridge"  being  above  the  flood. 

By  this  time  the  American  river,  which  had  overflowed  its  lianks, 
had  crept  insidiously  around  the  city  and  a  torrent  rushed  in  on  the 
opposite  side.  The  east  levee  had  broken  and  the  water  poured  vio- 
lently in.  The  stores  on  K  street  were  nearly  all  flooded  several  inches 
deep,  but  J  street,  being  higher,  was  still  above  the  flood.  The  entire 
city  was  wild  with  excitement.    Every  one  who  possessed  goods  or  fur 


niture  was  removing  them  to  higher  apartments  or  gTound.  Houses 
on  the  outskirts  were  almost  deserted  and  the  residents  took  refuge 
on  scows.  Carpenters  became  boat  builders,  but  there  was  not  half 
enough  material  or  labor  on  hand  to  supply  the  demand.  The  water 
still  rose  and  by  Monday  morning  scarcely  a  foot  of  land  was  visible 
in  the  city.  Then  a  cold  southeast  wind  rose  and  the  water  receded 
four  inches  by  noon,  but  still  stood  two  feet  deep  on  K  street  and  also 
covered  J,  but  not  so  deeply.  From  the  commencement  communication 
with  the  outside  had  been  cut  off.  Stages  for  Auburn  and  Nevada 
leaving  on  the  6th  were  forced  to  turn  back.  On  the  following  day 
one  was  wrecked  while  trying  to  cross  a  slough  at  Sutter's  race,  and 
the  horses  were  saved  with  difficulty.  Little's  bridge  at  Coloma,  the 
bridge  at  Uniontown,  the  two  covered  bridges  at  Salmon  Falls  and  all 
the  bridges  on  the  south  and  middle  forks  of  the  American  river  were 
carried  away.  Many  horses  and  mules  were  drowned  while  trying 
to  swim  a  deep  slough  near  Brighton.  Most  of  the  losses  sustained, 
however,  were  in  the  suburbs,  or  outside  of  the  city.  The  merchants 
had,  as  a  rule,  profited  by  their  experience  in  1850,  and  removed  their 
goods  in  time  to  escape  damage. 

But  with  all  the  damage  and  danger,  not  to  say  discomfort,  the 
elastic  spirits  of  the  pioneers  were  undaunted.  Many  enjoyable  ex- 
periences were  not  lacking  and  pleasure  excursions  took  place  over  the 
submerged  country  outside.  The  Sacramento  Daily  Union  of  March  9, 
1852,  had  the  following  to  say : 

"J  street,  up  town,  proved  to  be  the  center  of  attraction  yester- 
day, and  presented  many  enlivening  and  animating  scenes  through 
the  day.  Its  bosom  was  covered  with  unique  water  craft  of  every  con- 
ceivable description,  and  the  ingenuity  displayed  in  their  construction 
was  only  equalled  by  the  tact  and  skill  with  which  they  were  managed. 
The  greater  number  consisted  of  skiffs,  and  these  constituted  a  regular 
line  of  ferry  boats,  plying  from  block  to  block.  There  were  also 
freight  boats  laden  with  hay,  barley,  provisions,  etc..  which  articles 
were  transported  in  accordance  with  established  rates.  Then  came 
the  fancy  sail  boat  of  the  man  of  leisure,  shooting  swiftly  past  the 
meaner  craft  and  stretching  upward  for  more  sea  room!  We  noticed 
one  of  these  far  out  on  the  prairie,  close-hauled  to  a  southeast  wind 
and  a])parently  bound  for  Stockton.  Among  other  craft,  the  omnibus 
boat  was  conspicuous.  They  are  made  by  fastening  two  or  three  empty 
boxes  together.  These  appeared  to  be  the  favorite  conveyance  of  'the 
people,'  although  scarcely  a  trip  was  successfully  performed,  owing 
to  the  ])ilots  getting  off  their  course,  throwing  their  craft  on  their 
ends,  and  spilling  their  passengers  overboard.  Then,  by  hoisting 
signals  of  distress,  these  attracted  the  attention  of  some  other  catama- 
ran, which  bore  down  to  their  relief.  One  cute  chap  built  a  big  box 
with  wheels  attached,  and  after  getting  'steam  up'  threaded  his  way 
through  K  street.    Besides  these,  there  were  metallic  boats,  dug-outs, 


hide  boats  and  canoes — all  filled  with  people,  out  on  business  or  pleas- 
ure— all,  too,  joyous  and  happy.  It  was,  in  fact,  an  aquatic  carnival, 
and  the  town  was  afloat  on  a  frolic." 

The  high  land  at  the  head  of  I  street,  near  the  plaza,  was  densely 
crowded  during  the  flood  with  human  beings,  wagons,  tents,  cattle  and 
horses.  As  in  the  flood  of  1850,  the  dwellers  near  the  sloughs  on  the 
south  side  of  the  city  and  all  those  on  lower  ground  escaped  from  the 
water  and  made  this  their  camping  ground.  On  J  street  a  number 
of  Mexicans  and  boys  improved  the  opportunity  given  them  by  free 
water,  of  washing  the  surface  ground  in  front  of  the  different  banking 
houses,  in  some  instances  with  considerable  success.  The  wild  animals 
also  sought  refuge  and  fifteen  rabbits  were  caught  at  one  time  in  a 
dwelling  near  the  slough,  which  proved  a  treacherous  refuge  for  them. 
A  large  number  of  rats  took  up  their  abode  on  a  big  stump  on  Sixth 
street,  where  they  were  soon  slaughtered  by  men  and  boys,  much  to 
the  disgust  of  a  crowd  of  Chinamen  who  deprecated  the  destruction 
of  so  much  good  food. 

The  flood  lasted  four  days  before  it  began  to  subside.  Before  this, 
those  who  had  urged  the  necessity  of  a  substantial  levee  on  the  river 
front  to  keep  out  the  flood  waters  had  been  largely  in  the  minority 
and  their  arguments  had  been  scornfully  rejected  and  they  often  sub- 
jected to  public  denunciation  for  advocating  the  incurring  of  such 
a  needless  expense.  It  was  claimed  and  believed  by  many  that  even 
if  a  levee  were  built,  the  water  would  percolate  through  and  undermine 
it.  But  public  opinion  now  underwent  a  radical  change.  The  last 
flood  had  demonstrated  the  fact  that  it  might  become  an  annual  occur- 
rence and  men  thought  it  wise  to  heed  the  warning,  and  arrange- 
ments were  made  at  once  to  construct  more  efficient  levees. 

December  19,  1852,  a  break  occurred  in  the  levee  on  the  American 
river,  between  Stuart's  and  the  "Eidge."  By  the  morning  following 
the  business  portion  of  the  city  was  submerged  to  a  depth  of  several 
inches,  but  the  water  soon  subsided,  but  little  damage  being  done  by  it. 

The  city  was  again  completely  flooded  January  1,  1853.  The 
water  of  the  Sacramento  river  was  twenty-two  feet  above  low-water 
mark  and  two  feet  higher  than  during  the  great  flood  of  1850.  Boats 
were  again  in  great  demand  and  New  Year's  calls  were  made  in  them. 
But  the  trade,  although  profitable,  was  brief,  many  of  the  boats  being 
stranded  by  the  quickly-receding  waters.  While  but  little  damage 
was  done  in  the  city,  the  county  and  those  adjoining  it  suffered  con- 
siderable destruction  of  property  and  the  incidental  discomfort  and 
suffering.  The  city  now  passed  an  ordinance  for  the  improvement  of 
the  river  levees. 

For  nearly  eight  years  after  this  Sacramento  escaped  the  floods 
and  her  prosperity  increased.  She  was  fast  growing  into  a  large 
city.  She  had  passed  through  fire  and  flood  and  all  the  privations  and 
misfortunes  incident  to  the  histoiy  of  a  pioneer  city,  and  far  more  than 


the  average  of  them.  Her  people  had  met  all  these  discouragements 
and  misfortunes  with  a  smiling  face  and  an  undaunted  courage.  It 
seemed  as  if  they  had  surmounted  all  their  trials  and  their  career 
henceforth  was  to  be  one  of  continued  prosperity.  But  the  end  was 
not  yet.  Fate  had  not  yet  shot  all  her  arrows  of  misfortune  and  one 
more,  the  most  destructive  of  all,  was  yet  to  strike  the  city. 

The  precursor  of  the  great  misfortune  was  a  flood  March  28,  1861, 
when  the  American  again  rose,  quickly  reaching  a  point  twenty  feet 
above  low  water  mark.  It  swept  away  the  wing-dam  at  Eabel's  tan- 
nery and  damaged  the  levee  at  that  point  greatly.  The  water  from 
Sutter's  lake  overflowed  its  bounds  and  cut  a  channel  tln-ough  First 
street  to  the  American  river,  Swift's  bridge,  and  Lisle 's  bridge  across 
the  American  were  both  destroyed.  Norris'  bridge  became  impassa- 
ble and  ferries  had  to  be  established,  there  being  no  other  means  of 
crossing  the  American  between  Folsom  and  Sacramento. 

About  8  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  December  9,  1861,  the  an- 
nouncement was  made  that  the  levee  on  the  eastern  boundary  of  the 
city  had  given  way  and  that  the  waters  of  the  American  river  were 
sweeping  down  on  the  devoted  city  with  uncontrollable  fury.  On  they 
came  with  irresistible  force.  Well  was  it  for  Sacramento  in  that  hour 
of  trial  that  the  break  in  the  levee  had  not  occurred  in  the  night.  Had 
it  done  so  the  loss  of  life  would  have  been  heavy.  As  it  was,  a  number 
of  persons  were  drowned  and  the  property  destroyed  far  exceeded  in 
quantity  and  value  that  of  any  preceding  flood.  Bursting  through  the 
eastern  levee,  the  water  poured  down  along  Thirty-first  street  till  it 
struck  the  R  street  levee,  which  was  swept  away  like  an  eggshell  by 
the  tremendous  force  of  the  current  and  the  city  was  at  the  mercy  of 
the  flood.  The  other  levees  surrounding  the  city  instead  of  proving  a 
protection,  now  constituted  a  source  of  danirer  and  damage,  confining 
the  waters  and  forcing  them  to  rise  to  a  liigher  level  than  they  might 
otherwise  have  attained. 

Within  an  hour  of  the  first  alai'm  many  persons  on  Eleventh 
street  found  themselves  surrounded  by  water  and  unable  to  escape. 
Their  appeals  for  help  were  heartrending.  Stock  owners  began  to 
bestir  themselves,  and  great  numbers  of  horses,  mules,  cattle,  hogs  and 
sheep  were  driven  across  the  Yolo  bridge  and  down  to  Sutterville.  By 
eleven  o'clock  the  water  had  risen  to  such  a  depth  at  Fifth  and  Sixth 
streets  that  many  houses  were  overturned  and  set  afloat.  Women 
and  children  clung  to  the  doors  and  windows  of  these  and  cried  out  for 
assistance.  There  was  a  scarcity  of  boats,  and  for  a  time  many  per- 
sons seemed  doomed  to  perish  inevitably.  Many  families  were  driven 
from  their  homes  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Pavilion,  on  the  corner  of 
Sixth  and  M  streets.  The  upper  doors  of  the  Pavilion  being  locked, 
they  were  burst  open  and  many  sought  refuge  in  the  building. 

The  Howard  Benevolent  Society  made  its  headquarters  here,  and. 
having  four  boats  at  its  disposal,  furnished  soup  and  blankets  to  all 


who  came  through  the  day.  In  turn  M,  L,  K  and  J  streets  were 
flooded  by  the  water  backing  up  from  the  R  street  levee.  Inmates  of 
one-story  buildings  deserted  them  while  those  living  in  two-story 
structures  carried  their  bedding  and  furniture  upstairs.  Cellars  were 
flooded  and  large  quantities  of  merchandise  of  all  descriptions  de- 
stroyed. Boats  and  all  imaginable  kinds  of  craft  were  employed  in 
saving  life  and  property,  and  moved  back  and  forth  laden  with  pas- 
sengers and  various  things.  Many  were  upset,  and  many  a  foot  pas- 
senger plunged  into  a  deep  hole,  suffering  temporary  submergement. 

Finally,  the  chain  gang  cut  a  hole  through  the  R  street  levee  and 
the  water  poured  out  of  it  in  a  torrent.  The  force  of  the  water  here 
drew  many  houses  afloat  in  the  vicinity — some  of  them  two-story 
edifices — into  the  break,  where  they  were  torn  to  pieces.  It  was  im- 
possible to  obtain  any  data  as  to  the  number  of  persons  who  perished. 
A  teamster  was  drowned  near  Sutter's  Fort.  A  man  was  drowned 
with  his  team  at  the  corner  of  Ninth  and  M  streets  through  falling  into 
an  open  cistern,  and  a  child  in  the  wagon  was  saved  with  great  diffi- 
culty. It  was  generally  supposed  that  many  women  and  children  were 
drowned  in  one-stor.v  houses,  being  unable  to  escape  to  the  roofs  of 
their  dwellings. 

The  only  dry  portions  of  the  city  were  I  street,  the  river  front,  the 
R  street  levee  and  Poverty  Eidge,  now  known  as  Sutter  terrace.  I 
street  and  the  levee  were  crowded  with  stock  taken  there  for  refuge. 
Many  boats  were  employed  in  the  evening  in  taking  passengers  to  and 
from  the  hotels  and  restaurants  for  meals,  the  fires  in  many  of  which 
had  lieeu  extinguished  by  the  waters. 

The  steamer  Swallow,  coming  from  Marysville,  was  dashed 
against  the  bridge  jiier,  injuring  two  of  her  passengers.  The  train  for 
Folsom  went  only  to  Poverty  Ridge,  passengers  being  carried  thence 
in  boats  for  half  a  mile  and  put  on  another  train  and  carried  to  their 
destination.  In  many  places  the  railroad  track  was  destroyed.  Early 
in  the  day  the  city  gauge  showed  the  water  had  risen  to  twenty-one 
feet,  and  at  sundown  it  had  risen  six  to  eight  inches  higher,  while 
the  Yolo  side  was  but  slightly  overflowed.  During  the  night  several 
houses  floated  down  the  river  and  female  voices  within  them  were 
heard  shrieking  vainly  for  help.  Two  sections  of  Lisle 's  bridge  across 
the  American  were  swept  away,  but  lodged  against  the  Sacramento 
bridge  and  were  secured  there. 

The  next  morning  was  clear  and  the  waters  had  sulisided  several 
feet,  leaving  L  street  a  bed  of  mud  and  those  north  of  it  likewise. 
Planks  of  sidewalks  and  crossings,  stranded  boats  and  scows  used  the 
day  before,  were  scattered  all  around.  The  city  south  of  L  street  was 
still  under  water,  having  first  felt  the  fury  of  the  flood,  and  here  boats 
were  still  in  use.  The  area  was  crowded  with  capsized  houses,  mer- 
chandise and  other  things,  and  the  loss  of  property  here  was  great. 

Many  acts  of  humanity  were  performed,  but  avarice  and  callous- 


ness  were  also  found  during  these  perils.  Some  men  borrowed  boats 
on  the  levee  under  pretense  of  rescuing  sufferers,  but  instead  turned 
them  into  a  means  of  extortion.  One  man  had  placed  his  wife  on  the 
roof  of  a  house  about  to  fall,  and  was  obliged  to  pay  one  of  these 
scoundrels  $75  to  carry  her  to  a  place  of  safety.  A  man  standing  in- 
side of  a  house,  up  to  his  chin  in  water,  begged  to  be  taken  into  a  boat. 
The  boatman  demanded  $15  fare,  but  he  said  he  had  no  money.  ' '  Then 
I'll  leave  you  to  drown,"  was  the  unfeeling  reply.  Fortunately  an- 
other boat  came  along  and  rescued  him.  Such  things  were  common, 
and  near  midnight  two  women  were  saved  who  had  been  on  the  roof 
of  a  house  on  Eleventh  street,  near  L,  for  seven  hours,  unable  to  find 
a  boatman  who  would  take  them  off.  The  loss  of  property  was  esti- 
mated at  $1,500,000.  How  many  lives  were  lost  will  never  be  known. 
By  December  11  the  water  had  subsided  and  traffic  was  resumed. 

Scarcely  had  this  flood  passed  away,  however,  than  it  was  suc- 
ceeded by  another.  On  December  23,  while  men  were  still  employed 
in  building  up  and  strengthening  the  levee  on  Burns'  slough,  the 
American  river  rose  again  so  rapidly  that  it  carried  away  a  portion 
of  the  new  embankment  and  that  portion  of  the  city  lying  south  of 
Tenth  and  L  streets  was  inundated  the  second  time  to  a  maximum 
depth  of  about  four  and  a  lialf  feet.  The  water  soon  subsided  and  the 
levees  were  so  far  repaired  and  strengthened  that,  although  the  Sac- 
ramento river  five  days  later  stood  twenty-two  feet  and  seven  inches 
above  the  low  water  mark,  the  highest  yet  recorded,  the  city  was  quite 
free  from  water  in  its  business  portion. 

The  rains  still  continued  and  as  the  lowlands  could  not  clear 
themselves  of  flood  water,  a  still  greater  calamity  hung  over  the  de- 
voted city  and  would  have  been  the  climax  of  disaster  had  not  the 
previous  floods  warned  the  inhabitants  to  be  prepared  for  anything. 
That  there  was  less  loss  of  life  and  property  is  largely  due  to  this 
fact,  as  the  flood  came  suddenly.  On  Thursday,  January  9,  1862,  in 
consequence  of  the  continued  rains  and  the  melting  of  the  snows  in 
the  Sierras,  the  American  river  overflowed  the  levee  at  Eabel's  tan- 
nery and  speedily  covered  the  entire  area  lying  east  of  the  Thirty-first 
street  levee,  and  before  ten  o'clock  that  night  the  water  had  covered  the 
lower  part  of  the  city  a  foot  deep. 

The  levee  commissioners  after  the  flood  of  December,  1861,  had 
established  a  cam]i  of  about  thirty  men  in  the  vicinity  of  Burns' 
slough,  imder  Charles  Farley.  The  flood  of  January  9  came  on  them 
without  warning,  swept  away  the  house  and  compelled  its  inmates  to 
take  shelter  upon  the  roof  of  the  barn,  which,  being  banked  up  by  sand 
and  sediment  withstood  the  flood. 

About  four  o'clock  Burns  heard  their  cries  and  came  in  a  whale 
boat  with  an  old  sailor,  to  succor  them.  Farley,  seeing  his  men  pre- 
paring to  jump  into  the  boat,  threatened  to  shoot  the  first  one  who 
did  so  without  his  orders,  telling  them  that  such  a  move  would  result 


in  the  loss  of  all  their  lives.  As  a  result,  only  five  men  were  taken  off 
at  this  time  and  it  then  being  too  late  to  do  more,  the  remaining 
twenty-five  spent  the  night  on  the  roof.  During  the  night  Mrs.  Burns 
prepared  soup  and  food  for  them  and  in  the  nioruing  the  wliale  Ijoat 
brought  them  a  large  milk  fan  filled  with  the  hot  soup.  Burns,  the  old 
sailor  and  S.  D.  Carkhuff  toiled  all  day  and  all  were  safely  landed  by 
night,  Farley,  the  overseer,  being  the  last  man  to  leave  the  roof. 

At  daybreak  on  the  lOtli  the  southern  part  of  the  city  was  under 
two  and  a  half  feet  of  water,  while  the  eastern  part,  north  of  J  street, 
was  also  flooded,  and  by  one  o'clock  J  and  K  streets  were  flooded  to 
Ninth  and  during  the  afternoon  the  flood  attained  the  same  height  as 
the  highest  rise  of  December  8,  1861. 

The  scene  in  the  afternoon  was  an  animated  one.  Merchants 
erected  platforms  for  their  goods  above  the  line  of  supposed  danger 
and  stock  owners  were  driving  their  horses,  mules  and  cattle  to  the  I 
street  and  Front  street  levees.  Women  and  children  moved  to  the 
upper  stories  or  to  the  higher  streets  and  hundreds  of  boats  were  afloat 
on  the  streets,  carrying  passengers.  Many  of  them  contained  people 
apparently  bent  on  pleasure  excursions.  There  was  much  less  danger 
than  on  former  occasions  and  fear  and  anxiety  were  also  less.  The 
balconies  were  crowded  with  spectators  and  there  was  plenty  of  mirth 
and  hilarity.  In  the  southern  and  eastern  parts  of  the  city,  however, 
many  were  forced  to  leave  their  homes  without  knowing  where  to  go. 
All  the  hotels  were  soon  overcrowded  and  the  pavilion  again  came  into 
requisition  as  the  headquarters  of  the  Howard  Benevolent  society, 
many  persons  being  lodged  and  fed  there. 

The  committee  of  safety  had  some  time  previous  to  this  flood 
constructed  a  new  levee  at  Rabel  's  tannery,  leaving  the  old  one  stand- 
ing to  protect  it  as  a  lireakwater,  letting  the  water  in  gradually  to 
form  a  basin  of  still  water  and  thus  protect  the  new  enbankment.  A 
person  cut  the  old  levee  without  authority  and  let  the  current  flow 
against  the  new  one,  and  only  by  the  most  strenuous  exertions  and  the 
liberal  use  of  gimny  sacks,  was  the  danger  averted.  A  subsequent 
report  of  the  engineers  to  the  state  board  of  swamp  land  com- 
missioners states  that  at  this  point  the  river  makes  an  acute  angle  to 
the  northwest,  the  effect  being  to  throw  up  a  wall  of  water  there,  two 
feet  higher  than  at  any  other  point  in  the  channel,  and  the  water 
flowed  over  the  levee,  causing  a  crevice  through  which  the  flood  jioured 
at  the  rate  of  60,000  cubic  feet  per  second,  with  a  torrent  velocity  due 
to  the  fall  in  the  river  of  3000  feet  in  seventy-five  miles. 

During  this  inundation  four  deaths  from  drowning  were  reported 
and  the  destruction  of  property  was  considerable.  About  three- 
quarters  of  a  mile  of  the  Folsom  railroad  track  was  washed  away. 
Many  small  buildings  were  carried  through  the  R  street  levee  and 
destroyed.  One  thousand  feet  of  the  wall  surrounding  Agricultural 
park,  which  was  twenty  feet  high  and  fourteen  inches  thick,  fell  to  the 


ground.  The  river  rose  five  inches  higher  than  on  any  previous 
occasion.  The  fires  in  the  Daily  Union  office  were  extinguished, 
stop]nng  the  press  while  it  was  running  off  its  weekly  edition.  The 
steamer  Gem  of  the  California  Navigation  company  was  swept  by  the 
current  through  the  break  at  Rabel's  tannery,  and  stranded  at 
Twenty-third  and  Z  streets  in  a  peach  orchard,  whence  she  was 
launched  with  much  difficulty  in  the  following  February.  Two  dead 
bodies  were  found  floating  on  the  American  river  and  two  milkmen 
on  Eighteenth  street  near  R,  lost  seventy  head  of  milch  cows.  The 
new  levee  at  Rabel's  tannery  was  only  saved  by  using  all  the  raw 
hides  in  the  tannery  to  spread  over  its  weak  points. 

The  legislature  was  then  in  session  and  on  January  11th,  a  resolu- 
tion was  adopted  by  the  senate,  by  a  vote  of  20  to.  13,  to  adjourn  to  San 
Francisco  for  the  remainder  of  the  session.  The  resolution  was  de- 
feated in  the  assembly  after  a  long  discussion,  by  a  vote  of  40  to  36, 
but  a  further  flood  appearing,  the  assembly  agreed  to  the  measure 
and  on  January  23,  the  legislature,  with  its  attaches  and  furniture, 
removed  to  San  Francisco. 

Ou  January  12,  the  steamer  Defiance  went  up  the  river  to  Patter- 
son's, twelve  miles  above  the  city  and  seven  miles  higher  than  any  steam- 
boat had  hitherto  reached,  and  for  some  time  after  she  made  daily  trips 
to  that  point.  On  the  same  day  Wilson's  bridge  over  the  Cosumnes 
was  overturned  by  the  flood.  From  this  time  on  the  flood  began  to 
subside  and  navigation  of  the  streets  soon  became  impossible,  the  only 
means  of  traversing  them  being  to  wade  through  the  mud  with  its  accu- 
mulated filth  and  carcasses  of  dead  animals.  The  half-drowned  and 
starving  cattle  along  the  rivers  gave  employment  to  all  the  steamboats 
and  other  craft  in  rescuing  them.  The  flood  was  equally  destructive 
throughout  the  county.  At  this  time  the  only  mining  that  had  been 
done  was  mostly  in  a  primitive  way.  No  levees,  except  in  the  case  of 
the  city,  had  been  erected  to  repel  the  flood  waters,  as  hydraulic  mining 
had  not  yet  raised  the  bed  of  the  river.  The  water  had  full  sweep  over 
the  valley,  almost  to  the  foothills  of  the  Coast  Range  on  one  side  and 
to  the  rolling  lands  west  of  Folsom  ou  the  other.  This  fact  may  give 
some  idea  of  the  innnense  volume  of  water  poured  into  the  valley  by 
the  continued  rains.  As  one  pioneer  expressed  himself  to  the  writer: 
"We  had  six  weeks'  rain  in  January."  An  equal  amount  of  rainfall 
now,  in  so  limited  a  time,  would  do  incalculable  damage  to  the  dwellers 
of  the  lowlands. 

The  Daily  Union  of  Monda}',  January  13,  1862,  has  the  following: 

"Upon  Friday  night  the  American  river  rose  sixty  feet  above  low 
water  mark,  and  destroyed  a  large  amount  of  property.  The  old  flour 
mill  of  Stockton  and  Coover,  built  some  seven  or  eight  years  ago,  and 
the  new  one  built  by  them  last  summer  in  conjunction  with  Carroll  & 
Moore  of  this  city,  were  both  carried  away,  and  in  their  course  took 


off  the  wire  suspeusion  bridge  of  Kinsey  &  Thompson.  The  new  mill 
was  designed  to  run  nine  pair  of  burrs,  and  is  reported  to  have  cost 
between  $20,000  and  $30,000.  A  large  quantity  of  wheat  therein  stored 
was  also  lost.  The  wire  bridge  was  built  in  the  summer  of  1856,  and 
cost  about  $18,000.  A  wooden  bridge  some  ten  feet  lower  had  been 
previously  destroyed.  The  railroad  bridge  belonging  to  the  California 
Central  Railroad  Company,  some  fifteen  feet  higher  than  the  wire 
bridge,  and  of  a  single  span,  is  still  standing.  So  far  as  we  have 
received  information  from  various  parts  of  the  country,  we  are  con- 
vinced that  the  late  flood  spread  over  a  much  greater  area  of  territory 
and  was  far  more  destructive  than  any  which  has  occurred  since  the 
county  was  settled. 

"The  waters  from  the  American  did  great  injury  at  Brighton; 
those  from  the  Sacramento,  a  great  deal  in  the  townships  bordering 
on  that  river,  and  those  from  the  Sacramento  and  Mokelumne,  pro- 
duced a  corresponding  result  in  the  southern  part  of  the  county. 
We  are  informed  that  families  were  taken  from  the  tops  of  houses 
in  boats,  their  buildings  were  carried  away,  and  most  of  their  stock 
destroyed.  A  large  amount  of  stock  on  the  Lower  Stockton  road  has 
been  lost.  Norris'  bridge,  on  the  American  river,  some  four  miles 
from  its  mouth,  which  withstood  the  flood  of  December  9th,  gave  way 
on  Saturday  afternoon  (January  11th)  to  the  still  stronger  torrent. 
At  about  half  jiast  four  o'clock  two  sections  of  the  structure  were 
carried  off,  and  lodged  on  the  north  bank  of  the  river,  a  short  distance 
away.  There  is -now  no  bridge  standing  on  the  American  river,  that 
we  are  aware  of,  excepting  onlj^  the  railroad  bridge  at  Folsora." 

While  the  elements  were  dealing  death  and  destruction  to  man- 
kind, animals  and  property,  human  philanthropy  was  not  idle.  Steam- 
boats were  dispatched  daily  from  San  Francisco,  laden  with  cooked 
food  for  the  sufferers.  An  aid  society  was  organized  at  Folsom,  and 
a  deputation  sent  to  Sacramento  to  invite  the  suffering  and  distressed 
to  partake  of  the  hospitality  of  that  town.  The  work  of  the  Howard 
Society  of  Sacramento  should  never  pass  into  forgetfulness.  It  will 
always  live  in  the  memory  of  those  who  were  its  beneficiaries  and 
should  never  be  forgotten  by  their  children  or  descendants. 

But  the  troubles  of  the  city  from  flood  were  not  yet  ended. 
January  23,  1862,  the  new  levee  at  Rabel's  tannery  broke  and  a  crevice 
of  150  feet  wide  was  opened,  which  speedily  increased  to  800  feet, 
flooding  the  business  portion  of  the  city.  While  it  lasted  only  a  short 
time,  it  was  followed  by  the  flood  of  February  24,  which  poured  in 
through  a  break  in  the  same  place.  The  water  encroached  on  the 
following  day  to  such  an  extent  that  the  great  railroad  scales  on 
R  street,  sixty  feet  in  length,  had  to  be  removed.  The  railroad  soon 
after  being  repaired,  communication  with  Folsom  was  once  more 

The  city  was  by  this  time  aroused  to  the  necessity  for  better  pro- 


tection  and  the  authorities  began  to  take  active  steps  in  the  matter, 
and  moved  energetically  to  that  end.  Between  the  recession  of  the 
flood  and  January  1,  1863,  more  than  $200,000  was  spent  in  elevating 
the  streets  and  otherwise  improving  them  and  in  strengthening  the 
levees.  Since  that  time  many  hundred  thousands  of  dollars  have 
been  spent  in  raising  and  strengthening  the  levees.  After  the  flood 
of  1862  it  became  evident  to  the  business  men  of  the  city  that  it  was 
unsafe  to  depend  entirely  on  the  levees.  A  movement  was  put  on  foot 
for  raising  J  and  K,  the  principal  business  streets.  It  was  an  arduous 
job,  but  men  were  found  to  contract  to  do  the  work,  and  the  buildings 
were  raised,  the  streets  filled  in  from  six  to  eighteen  feet  and  the 
city  began  to  take  on  a  more  solid  and  permanent  appearance.  The 
flood  of  '62  was  the  last  one  to  do  any  damage  to  the  business  portion 
of  the  city,  and  it  was  not  till  sixteen  years  afterwards  that  the  water 
invaded  the  city  limits. 

On  the  morning  of  February  1,  1878,  it  was  reported  that  a  break 
had  occurred  in  the  levee  below  the  city,  near  the  Lovdal  ranch.  The 
gophers  had  honeycombed  the  levee  and  in  a  very  short  time  the 
crevice,  at  first  about  twelve  feet  wide,  had  grown  much  larger  and 
by  the  next  morning  was  300  feet  wide  and  very  deep.  The  roar  of 
the  waters  pouring  through  the  break  could  be  heard  for  a  great  dis- 
tance. The  lowlands  were  soon  flooded  and  the  road  to  the  city  ceme- 
tery was  soon  covered  and  impassable.  Attention  was  immediately 
turned  to  closing  the  openings  on  the  streets  passing  under  the  R 
street  levee,  which  at  that  time  was  the  city's  only  protection  on  the 
south.  By  nightfall  these  were  rendered  secure,  but  the  seepage  water 
came  up  as  far  as  Sixth  and  N  streets  before  the  flood  subsided. 

On  February  14  it  was  found  necessary  to  cut  the  R  street  levee 
at  Eighteenth  street,  to  allow  the  accumulation  of  water  from  Burns' 
slough  to  pass  away.  On  the  20th  the  river  rose  to  twenty-five  feet 
ten  inches  above  low  water  mark  and  a  strong  gale  forced  the  flood 
up  against  the  levee,  endangering  it,  but  the  citizens  turned  out  at 
the  alarm  and  made  it  secure.  Steps  were  taken  to  close  the  break 
at  the  Lovdal  place  and  by  April  10  the  city  was  once  more  safe. 

The  last  flood  of  any  consecjuence  was  in  1904,  and  is  known 
as  the  "Edwards  break."  It  occurred  on  February  26,  of  that  year, 
at  a  place  in  the  levee  about  three  miles  below  the  city.  It  was  said 
at  the  time  that  it  was  caused  by  water  seeping  through  gopher  holes 
in  the  levee,  and  that  it  was  discovered  by  a  Portuguese  in  the  vicinity 
just  after  it  had  begun  to  trickle  through,  and  could  have  been  stopped 
at  the  time  by  stuffing  a  bale  of  hay  or  straw  into  the  hole,  but  that 
the  man  valued  the  straw  too  highly  to  use  it  in  that  way.  By  night 
the  crevasse  had  increased  to  one  hundred  and  fifty  feet  wide,  and 
later  it  widened  to  three  hundred  feet.  About  fifteen  thousand  acres 
were  flooded,  the  water  running  down  until  it  emptied  into  Snodgrass 
slough.     A  number  of  residents  had  narrow  escapes  from  drowning. 


but  no  lives  were  loat.  Much  saud  was  carried  down  by  the  current, 
badly  damaging  a  number  of  farms.  So  strong  was  the  current  that 
many  attempts  to  close  the  break  by  driving  piles  and  hllmg  in  were 
unsuccessful,  and  not  until  some  months  afterwards,  when  the  river 
fell,  was  it  possible  to  repair  the  levee.  At  present  the  levee  below 
the  city  is  high  and  strong,  the  Southern  Pacihc  having  built  one  on 
which  to  run  the  Sacramento  Southern  railroad  traius. 



Sacramento  county  lias  furnished  a  long  list  of  legislators  to  the 
history  of  the  state  and  many  of  them  finished  their  career  begun 
in  the  state  legislature  by  being  promoted  to  high  office. 

At  the  first  session  of  the  legislature  the  members  represented 
Sacramento  district,  which  was  the  northern  part  of  the  state,  there 
being  at  that  time  no  county  subdivisions.  It  was  provided  in  the 
constitution  of  1849  that  i;ntil  the  legislature  should  divide  the  state 
into  counties,  and  into  senatorial  and  assembly  districts,  Sacramento 
district  should  be  entitled  to  four  senators  and  nine  assemblymen. 
The  list  of  the  first  legislature  shows  twelve  assembhT;nen,  but  this 
was  caused  by  the  resignation  of  three  of  those  originally  elected. 
Cornwall  resigned  January  28,  1850,  and  was  succeeded  on  March  4th, 
by  Deal.  White  resigned  February  9,  1850,  and  was  succeeded  on 
March  15th,  by  Henley.  Dickerson's  seat  was  declared  vacant  De- 
cember 18,  1849,  and  Bigler  was  seated  in  his  place. 

The  first  legislature  made  Sacramento  county  the  twelfth  sen- 
atorial district,  April  4,  1850,  and  pro^dded  for  its  representation 
by  one  senator  and  three  assembhmien.  May  1,  1851,  the  county 
was  made  the  eleventh  senatorial  district,  to  be  represented  by  two 
senators  and  four  assembhmien.  There  was  a  reapportionment  of  the 
state,  May  18,  1861,  and  the  county  was  constituted  the  sixteenth 
senatorial  district,  to  be  represented  by  two  senators  and  five  assem- 
blymen. The  Political  Code,  adopted  March  2,  1872,  retained  this 
a]iportionment,  but  May  16,  1874,  the  legislature  fixed  the  apiwrtion- 
ment  at  two  senators  and  three  assembhmien  and  renamed  the  county 
the  eighteenth  senatorial  district.  March  8,  1883,  there  was  another 
reapportionment  and  the  county  was  changed  to  be  the  thirteenth 
senatorial  district,  with  one  senator.  By  the  act  of  March  13,  1883, 
the  first  and  third  wards  of  the  city  were  made  the  eighteenth 
assembly  district,  the  second  and  fourth  wards  the  nineteenth  assembly 
district  and  the  remainder  of  the  county  the  twentieth  district,  each 
being  entitled  to  one  assemblyman. 

The  senators  from  the  county  have  been  as  follows :  1849-50,  John 
Bidwell,  Elisha  0.  Crosbv,  Thomas  J.  Green  and  Henry  E.  Robinson. 


Bidwell  was  a  man  who  became  prominent  in  the  history  of  the  state. 
He  was  one  of  the  earliest  pioneers,  arriving  here  in  1841  by  the 
overland  route,  after  a  journey  of  six  months.  He  was  given  charge 
of  Forts  Bodega  and  Eoss  and  also  of  General  Sutter's  Feather  river 
property.  During  the  war  with  Mexico  he  saw  service  in  the  army 
and  rose  to  the  rank  of  major.  He  was  the  first  man  to  find  gold 
on  the  Feather  river.  Elected  from  the  Sacramento  district  to  the 
constitutional  convention  in  1849,  he  did  not  serve  as  a  delegate.  He 
was  a  delegate  to  the  Charleston  national  Democratic  convention  in 
1860,  and  was  elected  to  congress  from  the  old  third  district  in  1864. 
He  was  defeated  by  George  Gorham  for  the  nomination  for  governor 
in  the  Eepublican  convention  of  1867,  and  Gorham  was  beaten  at  the 
election  by  Henry  H.  Haight.  In  1875  Bidwell  was  nominated  for 
governor,  but  was  defeated  by  "William  Irwin,  the  Democratic  nominee ; 
he  was  nominated  again  for  governor  on  the  Prohibition  ticket  in 
1890,  and  on  the  same  ticket  for  president  in  1892.  For  many  years 
he  made  his  home  at  Chico  and  there  he  died,  April  4,  1900. 

Arriving  in  California  in  1848,  Elisha  0.  Crosby  was  a  member  of 
the  first  constitutional  convention  and  lived  at  Alameda  for  a  number 
of  years.  Green  was  elected  a  major-general  by  the  legislature  in 
1850.  He  left  California  a  few  years  afterwards  and  died  in  Warren 
county,  N.  C,  December  13,  1863.  Eobinson,  a  lawyer  by  education, 
but  engaged  in  mercantile  pursuits,  arrived  in  San  Francisco  in 
March,  1849,  on  the  California,  the  first  steamer  that  ever  entered 
that  port!  In  his  will  he  left  $40,000  to  be  used  by  the  board  of 
supervisors  of  San  Francisco  for  the  benefit  of  the  poor  of  that  city. 
Robinson  was  a  member  of  the  first  council  of  Sacramento  and  one 
of  the  early  postmasters.  He  amassed  a  large  fortune  in  Alameda 
county  and  died  at  Norwalk,  Conn.,  January  9,  1880. 

1851,  Henry  E.  Eobinson;  1852,  Henry  E.  Eobinson  and  James 
H.  Ealston.  Ralston  was  for  a  number  of  years  one  of  the  leading 
lawyers  in  Sacramento,  but  went  to  Washoe  during  the  mining  excite- 
ment in  that  district  and  afterwards  settled  at  Austin,  Nev.  While 
prospecting  in  search  of  mineral  ledges  in  May,  1864,  he  lost  his  way 
and  perished  of  starvation  after  manv  days  of  wandering.  An  Indian 
discovered  and  buried  his  body,  which  was  afterwards  disinterred  and 
buried  at  Austin. 

1853,  James  H.  Ealston  and  A.  P.  Catlin;  1854,  A.  P.  Catlin  and 
Gilbert  W.  Colby.  The  latter  was  a  pioneer  who  in  the  early  days  ran 
a  ferry  across  the  Upper  Sacramento  at  Colby's  landing.  He  was 
surveyor  of  Sacramento  county  two  terms,  from  1862  to  1866.  For 
a  number  of  years  afterwards  he  made  his  hoine  at  Nord,  but  later 
located  at  Martinez  and  became  interested  in  banking.  He  died  in 
San  Francisco,  August  20,  1881.  A.  P.  Catlin  was  born  in  New 
York  and  came  to  California  in  July,  1849.     He  was  instrumental  in 


getting  the  capital  located  in  Sacramento,  was  prominent  in  politics 
and  as  a  lawyer.     He  died  on  November  5,  1900. 

1855,  Gr.  W.  Colby  and  A.  S.  Gove.  The  latter,  who  was  a  mer- 
chant, returned  to  Vermont  and  died  there.  At  the  time  he  was 
elected  to  the  senate  he  was  a  member  of  the  city  council. 

1856,  A.  S.  Gove  and  W.  I.  Ferguson.  The  latter  was  a  na- 
tive of  Illinois  and  was  shot  in  a  duel  with  George  Pen  Johnston, 
dying  in  San  Francisco  from  the  effect  of  his  wound,  September 
14,  1858.  Ferguson  was  a  lawyer  of  much  ability  and  an 
effective  and  popular  speaker.  The  nick-name  of  "Ipse  Doodle"  was 
given  to  him,  for  some  reason  not  explained.  Ferguson  was  a  man  of 
great  courage  and  it  is  stated  that  when  he  received  the  wound  that 
caused  his  death,  he  exclaimed  as  he  fell,  "I  am  a  gone  community." 
His  body  is  interred  in  the  state  plat  of  the  Sacramento  city  cemetery. 
Johnston  died  in  San  Francisco,  March  4,  1884. 

1857,  W.  I.  Ferguson  and  Josiah  Johnson.  Johnson  was  at  one 
time  a  member  of  the  board  of  supervisors  and  afterwards  a  city 
trustee.    He  died  in  Sacramento,  December  10,  1888. 

1858,  W.  I.  Ferguson  and  Josiah  Johnson;  1859,  J.  M.  McDonald 
and  Dr.  Johnson  Price.  McDonald  removed  to  San  Francisco  some 
years  after  and  became  prominent  as  a  capitalist  and  mining  man. 
Price  was  a  Kentuckian  and  was  elected  at  a  special  election  to  fill 
the  vacancy  caused  by  Ferguson's  death.  He  had  been  an  officer  dur- 
ing the  Mexican  war  and  a  member  of  the  convention  to  revise  the 
constitution  of  his  own  state.  He  came  to  California  in  1849  and 
practiced  medicine  in  Sacramento.  He  was  appointed  secretarj^  of 
state  January  10,  1860,  by  Governor  Latham,  and  held  the  office 
until  the  expiration  of  Governor  Downey's  term.  Afterwards  he  was 
a  stock  broker  in  San  Francisco  and  died  there  of  consumption,  Feb- 
ruary 8,  1868. 

1860,  J.  M.  McDonald  and  Robert  C.  Clark.  The  latter,  a  son  of 
James  Clark,  an  early  congressman,  supreme  judge  and  governor  of 
Kentucky,  arrived  in  this  state  in  1853  and  began  practice  of  the  law 
in  Sacramento.  He  was  elected  county  judge  in  1861,  and  was  contin- 
uously re-elected  to  that  office  until  it  was  abolished  by  the  new  con- 
stitution in  1879,  when  he  was  elected  superior  judge  of  this  county, 
filling  that  office  until  his  death,  which  occurred  January  27,  1883. 

1861,  R.  C.  Clark  and  E.  H.  Heacock.  Heacock  practiced  law  in 
this  city  for-  a  number  of  years,  and  was  city  attorney  from  1863  to 
1867.  He  moved  from  here  to  Santa  Cruz  and  served  as  county  judge 
there  for  a  number  of  years.  Later  he  removed  to  Santa  Barbara 
and  was  appointed  superior  judge  of  that  county  by  Governor  Per- 
kins, to  succeed  Eugene  Faucett,  deceased.  Faucett  will  be  recol- 
lected as  the  judge  who  tried  Sprague  for  the  killing  of  Moore.  Hea-. 
cock  represented  the  counties  of  San  Luis  Obispo,  Santa  Barbara  and 
Ventura  in  the  state  senate  for  several  terms. 


1862,  E.  H.  Heaeock  and  Dr.  A.  B.  Nixon.  Dr.  Nixon  practiced 
medicine  in  Sacramento  for  many  years  and  was  in  charge  of  the 
Railroad  hospital  here.  He  was  one  of  the  first  in  the  county  who 
espoused  Republican  principles.  Later  he  became  identified  with  the 
Prohibition  movement  and  ran  for  mayor  in  1884  on  the  Prohibition 
ticket  against  John  Q.  Brown.  He  also  ran  as  a  St.  John  elector  in 
1884.    He  died  in  this  city,  November  2,  1889. 

1863,  Dr.  A.  B.  Nixon  and  Newton  Booth.  A  sketch  of  the  latter 
will  be  found  elsewhere. 

1864,  J.  E.  Benton  and  E.  H.  Heaeock.  At  the  time  of  his  elec- 
tion Mr.  Benton  was  a  minister  at  Folsom.  An  anecdote  regarding 
him  relates  that  on  one  occasion  he  was  so  shocked  at  a  remark  made 
by  a  young  rough  in  Sacramento  that  he  reproved  him  for  his  lan- 
guage. The  young  man  asked  him  brusquely  who  he  was,  and  Mr. 
Benton  replied,  "I  am  a  follower  of  the  meek  and  lowly  Jesus." 
"Well,"  rejoined  the  offender,  "if  I  was  the  meek  and  lowly  and 
such  a  looking  fellow  as  you  was  following  me  around,  I  would  hit 
him  on  the  nose."  Benton  built  the  first  church  erected  in  Folsom. 
Afterward  he  became  postmaster  of  Oakland,  and  died  there,  Feb- 
ruary 18,  1888. 

1865-66,  J.  E.  Benton  and  E.  H.  Heaeock. 

1867-68,  E.  H.  Heaeock  and  N.  Greene  Curtis.  Curtis  arrived  in 
California  in  May,  1850,  and  was  recorder  or  police  judge  of  this  city 
from  1853  to  1855.  For  many  years  he  practiced  law  here  and  was 
regarded  as  the  best  among  the  criminal  lawyers  of  the  state.  Soon 
after  his  arrival  in  Sacramento  he  was  appointed  deputy  postmaster 
and  shortly  afterwards  Jonathan  Tittle,  the  postmaster,  having  gone 
east  on  business,  left  Curtis  in  charge  of  the  office.  While  Tittle  was 
absent,  Richard  Eads  appeared  and  claimed  that  he  had  been  ap- 
pointed to  the  office.  Curtis  refused  to  surrender  the  office  imtil  Eads 
presented  his  commission  and  filed  his  bond,  and  he  retained  the  office 
for  some  months,  until  Eads  had  complied  with  these  formalities. 
When  Eads  came  in  he  retained  Curtis  as  his  deputy  until  the  latter 
was  elected  recorder.  Curtis  was  a  Democrat,  and  was  elected  to 
the  senate  three  times  and  the  assembly  once.  He  was  a  regent  of 
the  State  University  from  1880  to  1883,  and  was  Grand  Master  of 
Masons  of  California  from  1857  to  1860.  He  died  at  Sacramento, 
July  27,  1897. 

1869-70,  N.  Greene  Curtis  and  A.  Comte,  Jr.  Comte  was  a  lawyer 
and  afterwards  went  to  San  Francisco.  He  graduated  from  the 
pubUc  schools  of  this  city  a.nd  from  Harvard  Collesre,  and  received 
his  legal  training  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  from  our  local  law 
offices.    He  also  served  in  the  assembly  from  Sacramento. 

1873-74,  James  A.  Dut¥y  and  Henry  Edgerton.  A  native  of  Ver- 
mont and  a  distinguished  lawyer,  Edgerton  served  for  several  terms 
as   district   attorney  of  Napa   county.     As   such,   he   conducted   the 


prosecution  of  Edward  McGowan  for  his  connection  with  the  killing 
of  James  King  of  William  (the  editor  of  the  San  Francisco  Bulletin), 
which  led  to  the  forming  of  the  vigilance  committee  of  1856,  and  the 
purification  of  San  Francisco.  He  was  senator  from  Napa  county  in 
1860  and  1861,  and  ran  unsuccessfully  for  congress  in  1861  and  1862. 
He  was  also  a  member  of  the  last  constitutional  convention  and  was 
the  only  Republican  presidential  elector  elected  in  1880,  and  was 
re-elected  in  1884.    He  died  in  San  Francisco,  November  4,  1887. 

1875-76,  Henry  Edgerton  and  Creed  Haymond.  Haymond  was  a 
brilliant  lawyer,  with  a  national  reputation.  He  came  from  Virginia 
to  California  in  1852,  and  locating  in  Plumas  county,  practiced  law 
there  for  a  number  of  years,  removing  thence  to  Sacramento.  In 
3870  he  was  appointed  one  of  the  commissioners  to  draft  a  code  of 
laws  for  the  state.  He  was  a  delegate  to  three  national  Republican 
conventions  and  held  a  prominent  position  in  the  law  department  of 
the  Central  and  Southern  Pacific  railroads  at  San  Francisco  until  his 
death  there,  January  13,  1893. 

1877-78,  Creed  Ha^anond  and  N.  Greene  Curtis. 

1880,  Grove  L.  Johnson  and  William  Johnston.  In  1849  Johnston 
came  from  Pennsylvania  to  this  state  and  engaged  in  mining,  but 
afterward  bought  a  place  near  Richland,  in  this  county,  where  he 
passed  the  rest  of  his  life,  dying  at  his  home,  November  15,  1905. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  senate  for  two  terms  and  of  the  assembly 
one  term.  He  was  master  of  the  State  Grange  two  terms  and  twice 
a  delegate  to  the  National  Grange,  and  was  Grand  Master  of  Masons 
of  California.  In  1883  he  was  a  member  of  the  state  board  of  equal- 
ization by  appointment  of  Governor  Perkins,  served  as  a  dele- 
gate to  the  national  Republican  convention  in  1880,  and  in  1886  was 
a  prominent  candidate  for  the  Republican  nomination  for  lieutenant- 

1881,  Grove  L.  Johnson  and  William  Johnston. 

1883,  Frederick  Cox  and  Joseph  Rentier.  Routier  was  born  in 
France  and  came  to  California  in  1853.  He  planted  one  of  the  first 
orchards  near  Folsom  and  settled  ten  miles  from  Sacramento,  becom- 
ing a  successful  fruit-raiser.  In  1877  he  was  a  member  of  the  assem- 
bly, and  in  1886  he  was  appointed  by  Governor  Bartlett  as  a  member 
of  the  board  of  fish  commissioners.  He  died  at  his  home  at  Routier 's, 
February  6,  1898.  Frederick  Cox  came  to  this  state  in  1850.  He  was 
president  of  the  State  Agricultural  Society  for  several  years.  With 
C.  W.  Clarke  he  engaged  in  raising  cattle  for  many  years,  on  a 
large  scale. 

1885,  Frederick  Cos  and  Joseph  Routier. 

1887,  Findley  R.  Dray.  As  a  boy  of  seventeen,  Mr.  Dray  came 
to  California  with  his  father  in  1850.  He  mined  and  farmed  for 
several  years  in  different  parts  of  the  state,  and  finally  settled  here 
in  1863,  being  appointed  a  deputy  by  Sheriff  James  McClatchy.    After 


the  close  of  MeClatchy's  term  Mr.  Dray  was  elected  public  adminis- 
trator, and  then  assessor,  for  eight  years.  Judge  Clark  then  ap- 
pointed him  a  supervisor,  to  fill  out  the  term  of  H.  0.  Seymour, 
deceased.  He  engaged  in  real-estate  and  insurance  and  later  became 
connected  with  the  Sacramento  Savings  Bank.  He  died  in  this  city, 
November  30,  1901. 

1889-91,  Findley  R.  Dray. 

1893-95,  Elijah  C.  Hart.  Judge  Hart  is  well  known  throughout 
the  state,  and  for  many  years  has  been  a  resident  of  Sacramento. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  assembly  in  1889-91,  served  as  superior 
judge  of  this  county  from  1897  until  1906,  and  was  elected  in  1907 
a  justice  of  the  third  district  court  of  appeals,  which  office  he  has 
filled  most  creditably.    Judge  Hart  possesses  a  host  of  friends. 

1897-99,  Gillis  Doty.  Mr.  Doty  was  one  of  the  sturdy  farmers 
of  the  county,  respected  by  all  for  his  high  character  and  incorrupti- 
ble integTity.  He  was  a  member  of  the  assembly  for  the  twenty-fifth 
and  twenty-ninth  sessions,  and  from  1897  to  1902  was  a  inember  of 
the  auditing  board  to  the  conunissioner  of  public  works.  In  addition 
he  served  two  terms  as  a  member  of  the  board  of  supervisors  of  this 
county.     He  died  at  his  residence  in  Elk  Grove  July  23,  1909. 

1901-03,  R.  T.  Devlin.  Mr.  Devlin  was  born  in  this  city  and 
resided  here  all  his  life  until  recently,  being  a  member  of  the  law  firm 
of  Devlin  and  Devlin  ever  since  its  formation  many  years  ago.  In 
1884  he  was  appointed  a  state  prison  director.  In  1885  he  was  ap- 
pointed penology  commissioner  and  continued  as  a  member  of  the 
board  of  prison  directors  until  1905,  when  he  was  appointed  United 
States  district  attorney  for  the  northern  district  of  California,  which 
office  he  still  holds.  He  is  considered  one  of  the  soundest  and  most 
capable  lawyers  in  the  state. 

1905-07,  J.  A.  McKee.  For  a  generation  Mr.  McKee  has  been 
a  successful  practicing  physician  in  this  county  and  resides  in  this 
city,  still  practicing  his  profession. 

1909-11,  Charles  B.  Bills.  Mr.  Bills  is  a  successful  business  man 
of  this  city  and  is  the  head  of  the  Pioneer  Fruit  company. 



The  first  assemblymen,  members  of  the  legislature  of  1849-50, 
were  IT.  C.  Cardwell,"P.  B.  Cornwall,  Rev.  W.  Grove  Deal,  W.  B. 
Dickerson,  T.  J.  Henley,  E.  W.  McKinstry,  John  Bigler,  George  B. 
Tingley,  Madison  Walthal,  T)r.  Thomas  John  "\\'hite,  John  T.  Hughes 
and  John  F.  Williams.  Sacramento  district  was  entitled  at  that  time 
to  nine  assemblymen,  as  it  comprised  all  of  the  northern  part  of  the 
state,  but  Cornwall  resigned  and  was  replaced  by  Deal;  White  re- 


signed  and  was  replaced  by  Henley,  and  Bigler  took  the  place  of  Dick- 
erson,  whose  seat  was  declared  vacant.  Cardwell  died  at  Los  Angeles, 
Jnly  4,  1859. 

Cornwall  arrived  in  Sacramento  in  Augnst,  1848,  and  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  first  city  council.  He,  with  Sam  Brannan,  foresaw  that  a 
great  city  would  soon  spring  up  on  the  Sacramento  river  at  the  head 
of  navigation,  so  thej'  came  up  from  San  Francisco  to  investigate. 
Seemingly  unimportant  events  often  bring  about  great  changes.  Tliey 
decided  that  Sutterville  would  be  the  most  eligible  spot  for  the  city, 
on  account  of  the  high  ground  there.  Accordingly,  they  endeavored 
to  make  satisfactory  arrangements  with  L.  W.  Hastings,  who  owned 
the  land  there,  for  going  into  business.  They  were  unable  to  do  so, 
and  having  on  their  way  up  passed  two  launches  loaded  with  supplies 
for  the  mines,  they  returned  and  met  them  and  persuaded  them 
to  go  farther  up  and  unload  their  cargoes  on  the  Sutter  Embarcadero 
at  Sacramento.  Through  this  little  circiimstanee  their  trading  ])ost 
was  established  at  this  place,  and  soon  a  small  city  sprang  u\o.  Had 
Hastings  agreed  with  them,  the  city  would  have  been  located  at  Sat 
terville.  Cornwall  afterwards  went  to  San  Francisco  and  engaged 
in  business  and  died  there  September  5,  1904.  He  was  a  member  of 
the  first  constitutional  convention  and  of  the  board  of  regents  of  the 
University  of  California. 

Henley  was  the  father  of  ex-Congressman  Barclay  Henley,  and 
was  a  native  of  Indiana.  In  that  state  he  served  several  tenns  in  the 
assembly,  being  once  speaker.  He  was  congressman  from  Indiana 
three  terms,  serving  with  President  Lincoln.  He  arrived  in  California 
in  1849  and  engaged  in  banking  in  Sacramento.  In  1852  he  was  a 
presidential  elector;  was  chosen  postmaster  in  San  Francisco  in  1853; 
appointed  superintendent  of  Indian  affairs  in  1S54.  and  defeated  for 
presidential  elector  in  1868.  He  died  at  his  farm  in  Round  valley, 
Mendocino  county.  May  1,  1875. 

McKinstry  was  a  native  of  Michigan,  and  arrived  in  California 
in  March,  1849.  He  was  elected  judge  of  the  seventh  district,  Novem- 
ber 2,  1852 ;  re-elected  September  1,  1858 ;  elected  judge  of  the  twelfth 
district  (San  Francisco)  October  30,  1873,  but  resigned  in  the  latter 
part  of  1873,  having  been  elected  a  justice  of  the  supreme  court  Oc- 
tober 15,  1873.  He  was  re-elected  supreme  justice  September  3,  1S79, 
and  resigned  October  1,  1888.    He  died  at  San  Jose,  November  1,  1901. 

Bigler  was  a  Pennsylvanian,  and  was  a  journalist  and  lawyer. 
He  arrived  in  Sacramento  in  1849,  and  became  an  auctioneer  and 
also  a  woodchopper.  For  a  time  he  was  speaker  of  the  first  assem- 
bly; he  was  elected  governor  September  3,  1851;  re-elected  September 
7,  1853 ;  defeated  for  that  office  in  1855.  He  served  as  United  States 
minister  to  Chile  from  1857  to  1861;  was  defeated  for  congress  in 
1863;  served  as  a  delegate  to  the  Democratic  national  conventions  of 
1864  and  1868;  was  appointed  assessor  of  internal  revenue  for  this 


district  in  1866  and  edited  the  State  Capital  Reporter  from  January, 
1868,  until  his  death,  November  29,  1871.  His  body  was  interred  in 
the  City  Cemetery. 

Tingley  was  a  native  of  Ohio  and  was  a  brilliant  lawyer.  He 
removed  to  Indiana  and  there  served  in  the  legislature  with  T.  J. 
Henley  and  Vice-President-elect  T.  A.  Hendricks.  He  was  an  unsuc- 
cessful candidate  for  the  United  States  senate  and  was  defeated  for 
congress  in  1851.    He  died  at  San  Francisco,  Aug-ust  3,  1862. 

White  served  as  speaker  till  February,  1850,  when  he  resigned 
the  office  and  was  succeeded  by  Henley.  He  was  at  one  time  city  coun- 
cilman, and  died  at  Los  Angeles  in  December,  1861. 

Deal,  a  Methodist  minister,  was  elected  to  succeed  Cornwall 
(resigned)  and  he  qualified  March  4,  1850.  He  died  in  Indiana  in 
June,  1892. 

1851,  John  Bigler,  D.  J.  Lisle  and  Dr.  Charles  Robinson.  liisle 
built  the  Twelfth  street  bridge  across  the  American  river.  At  a 
special  election  he  was  chosen  to  till  the  vacancy  caused  by  the  death 
of  L.  Dunlap,  who  had  been  elected,  but  died  of  cholera  before  the 
meeting  of  the  legislature.  He  went  to  San  Francisco  and  died  there 
February  8,  1855. 

Robinson  came  here  from  Massachusetts.  He  was  prominently 
identified  with  the  squatter  element  in  1850  and  was  second  in  com- 
mand of  the  forces  of  that  party  in  the  riot  which  took  place  in 
August  of  that  year.  He  was  wounded  in  the  fight  and  was  arrested 
on  the  oath  of  several  citizens  that  he  had  been  seen  to  aim  deliber- 
ately at  the  mayor,  who  was  shot  four  times  during  the  fight.  He 
Avas  confined  in  the  prison  brig  when  he  was  elected  to  the  assembly. 
In  1854  he,  with  S.  C.  Pomeroy,  led  one  of  the  parties  of  free  state 
men  into  Kansas,  and  was  prominently  connected  with  the  Free  State 
party  in  the  slavery  agitation  in  that  commonwealth.  He  was  elected 
governor  by  the  Free  State  men  under  the  Topeka  constitution  Jan- 
uary 15,  1856,  and  was  indicted  in  May  by  the  grand  jury  for  treason, 
with  the  other  officers  who  had  been  elected.  Some  of  them  fled  from 
the  territory,  but  Robinson  was  arrested  and  confined  for  four  months. 
While  in  prison  his  residence  was  burned  in  the  sacking  of  Lawrence. 
He  was  elected  the  first  governor  of  the  state  after  the  adoption  of 
the  constitution  in  1859,  and  died  at  Lawrence,  August  17,  1894. 

1852,  Gilbert  W.  Colby,  Alpheus  Kip,  G.  N.  McConaha  and  Dr. 
Joseph  C.  Tucker.  Colby  was  also  senator  one  term.  McConaha  was 
a  lawyer  and  was  drowned  by  the  upsetting  of  a  boat  at  Seattle, 
May  4,  1854.  Kip  lived  on  the  farm  near  Brighton  where  Sheriff 
McKinney  was  killed  by  Allen,  its  then  owner  (1850).  The  farm  was 
owned  later  by  John  Rooney.  Kip  left  this  country  many  years  ago. 
Tucker  went  to  live  in  San  Francisco  and  died  in  Oakland,  Decem- 
ber 22,  1891. 

1853,  J.  W.   Harrison,   J.   Neely  Johnson,   Robert   Robinson   and 


J.  H.  Estep.  Robinson  was  afterward  county  judge,  and  was  for 
many  years  connected  with  the  law  department  of  the  Central  Pacific 
Railroad  Company.  He  was  adjutant-general  in  1865-66  and  died  at 
San  Francisco,  September  26,  1894.  Estep  removed  from  Sacramento 
and  died  at  Lakeport  January  11,  1876.  Harrison  left  Sacramento 
in  the  '50s.  Johnson  was  elected  district  attorney  of  Sacramento  in 
1850  and  in  1855  he  was  elected  governor  on  the  Know  Nothing  ticket. 
After  his  term  as  governor  he  removed  to  Nevada,  where  he  served 
as  a  member  of  the  constitutional  convention  and  as  supreme  justice. 
He  died  from  the  effects  of  a  sunstroke  at  Salt  Lake  Citv,  Augiist 
31,  1872. 

1854,  J.  M.  McBrayer,  Dr.  F.  A.  Park,  T.  R.  Davidson  and  J.  W. 
Park.  F.  A.  Park  was  a  dentist  and  at  one  time  was  deputy  sheriff. 
He  died  at  San  Francisco,  November  13,  1870.  The  others  removed 
from  Sacramento  some  years  after  they  served. 

1855,  John  G.  Brewton,  Philip  L."  Edwards,  H.  B.  Meredith  and 
James  H.  Vineyard.  Edwards  was  a  native  of  Kentucky.  He  visited 
San  Francisco  with  a  party  of  traders  in  1836  and  returned  to  the 
east.  He  was  admitted  to  the  bar,  elected  to  the  Missouri  legislature 
in  1843,  chosen  a  delegate  to  the  Whig  national  convention  in  1844, 
removed  to  Sacramento  in  1850,  defeated  as  the  Whig  candidate  for 
congress  in  1852,  and  ran  unsuccessfulh'  for  United  States  senator 
in  1855.  He  died  here  May  1,  1869.  Vineyard  was  a  member  of  the 
city  council  at  the  time  of  his  election  to  the  assembly.  He  died  at 
Los  Angeles,  August  30,  1863.  Meredith,  a  brother  of  ex-supervisor 
James  H.  Meredith,  of  Folsom,  practiced  law  while  living  in  Sacra- 
mento county.  In  1864  he  removed  to  New  York,  where  he  carried 
on  business  as  a  broker,  and  where  he  died.  Brewton  went  to  San 
Francisco  and  died  there. 

1856,  George  H.  Cartter,  George  Cone,  George  W.  Leihy  and 
Dr.  J.  W.  Pugh.  Cone  was  for  many  years  justice  of  the  peace  in 
Center  township  and  was  an  unsuccessful  nominee  for  coimty  treasurer 
on  the  Democratic  ticket.  He  was  a  brother  of  ex-Railroad  Commis- 
sioner Cone,  and  died  at  Red  Bluff,  November  12,  1883.  Leihy,  a 
farmer  and  miner,  was  murdered  by  Indians  in  Arizona  November  18, 
1866.  Cartter  was  district  attorney  in  1852  and  1853.  He  left  this 
state  many  years  ago  and  went  to  Oregon,  where  he  died  at  Portland 
February  24,  1862.  Pugh  removed  from  the  county  many  years  ago, 
and  died  at  Stockton  January  24.  1896. 

1857,  A.  P.  Catlin,  Robert  C.  Clark,  L.  W.  Farris  and  John  H. 
McKune.  Catlin  and  Clark  were  also  senators.  A  sketch  of  Judge 
McKune  will  be  found  elsewhere.  Farris  was  in  business  here  for  a 
number  of  years,  but  removed  to  another  part  of  the  state,  and  died 
at  Altaville,  Tuolumne  county,  in  April,  1878. 

1858,  R.  D.  Ferg-uson,  Charles  S.  Howell,  James  E.  Sheridan  and 
Moses  Stout.     For  manv  vears  Ferguson  conducted   a  horsemarket 


here  and  then  went  to  Nevada  and  in  1868  was  a  member  of  the 
legislature  of  that  state.  Later  he  went  to  Arizona.  Sheridan  was 
a  farmer  near  Georgetown  (now  known  as  Franklin)  and  died  on  his 
farm  there,  October  12,  1872.  Howell  was  a  farmer  living  near  Wal- 
nut Grove  and  was  killed  by  the  explosion  of  the  steamboat  J.  A. 
McClelland,  near  Knights  Landing,  August  25,  1861.  Stout  died  on 
his  farm  in  this  county  December  20,  1879. 

1859,  Dr.  R.  B.  Ellis,  A.  R.  Jackson,  James  E.  Sheridan  and  Dr. 
Charles  Duncombe.  Jackson,  a  well-known  school  teacher,  died  in 
San  Francisco,  August  30,  1876.  Ellis  practiced  medicine  here  at 
the  time  of  his  election.  He  removed  to  Nevada  in  1861  and  died  at 
Carson,  that  state,  January  12,  1873.  Duncombe  was  once  a  member 
of  the  city  council.  His  election  gave  rise  to  a  novel  contest  in  the 
assembly  and  one  that  is  often  cited  in  the  legislature  in  contested 
election  cases.  He  was  born  in  Connecticut  and  about  1817  removed 
to  Canada.  A  couple  of  months  afterwards  he  was  elected  to  the 
colonial  parliament  and  took  an  oath  of  allegiance  to  the  then  English 
king.  He  was  denounced  as  a  rebel  and  fled  to  the  United  States  in 
1837,  but  was  never  naturalized.  His  seat  in  the  assembly  was  con- 
tested on  the  ground  that  he  was  not  a  citizen  and  January  22,  1859, 
the  house  declared  his  seat  vacant.  A  special  election  was  called  and 
on  February  19  9he  was  elected  again  by  a  large  majority.  On  the  14th 
he  had  been  admitted  to  citixenship  under  the  act  of  1795.  His  seat 
was  again  contested  on  the  ground  that  he  had  not  been  a  citizen 
for  the  constitutional  period  at  the  time  of  his  election,  and  the  house 
again  declared  his  seat  vacant.  Sacramento  county  therefore  lost 
part  of  its  representation  at  the  session.  Duncombe  died  at  Hicks- 
ville,  October  1,  1867. 

1860,  Dr.  R.  B.  Ellis,  L.  C.  Goodman,  Henry  Starr  and  D.  W. 
Welty.  Goodman  was  at  one  time  a  supervisor  and  afterward  re- 
moved fi-om  the  county.  Starr  was  a  practicing  attorney  and  died 
in  this  city  about  three  years  ago.  Welty  removed  to  Nevada,  then 
returned  to  Sacramento  and  practiced  law.  He  removed  to  Oregon 
and  died  'at  Chehalis,  Wash.,  March  24,  1891. 

1861,  Amos  Adams,  Charles  Crocker,  N.  Greene  Curtis  and  Dr. 
Jose]3h  Powell.  Adams,  at  that  time  a  farmer,  afterward  became 
prominent  as  a  member  of  the  Grange.  He  removed  to  San  Francisco 
and  died  at  San  Jose,  March  18,  1896.  Crocker  was  then  a  dry-goods 
merchant  and  afterwards  acquired  national  reputation  as  one  of  the 
builders  of  the  Central  Pacific  Railroad.  He  was  at  one  time  a  city 
councilman.  He  died  at  Monterey,  August  14,  1888.  Powell  prac- 
ticed medicine  at  Folsom,  where  he  died  November  27,  1869. 

1862,  W.  H.  Barton,  John  E.  Benton,  James  B.  Saul,  James  H. 
Warwick  and  R.  D.  Ferguson.  Barton  was  president  of  the  New 
Liverpool  Salt  Company  in  San  Francisco  for  many  years.  Benton 
served  also  as  a  senator.     Saul  removed  to  Yolo  county,  where  he 


managed  a  large  fruit  ranch.  He  died  at  Davisville,  October  30,  1881. 
Warwick,  an  actor  of  ability  and  a  fine  orator,  removed  from  here 
many  years  ago. 

1863,  Amos  Adams,  W.  H.  Barton,  M.  M.  Estee,  James  H.  War- 
wick and  Dr.  Charles  Buncombe.  Estee  served  the  county  as  district 
attorney  in  1864-65.  In  1882  he  ran  for  governor  and  was  defeated 
by  Stoneman.  He  was  chairman  of  the  national  Republican  conven- 
tion; a  presidential  elector  in  1876;  nominee  for  governor  in  1894; 
United  States  district  judge  of  the  Hawaiian  Territory,  appointed 
June  5,  1900.  He  lived  for  a  number  of  years  at  his  home  in  Napa, 
and  died  at  Honolulu,  October  27,  1903. 

1863-64,  Alexander  Badlam,  William  B.  Hunt,  John  P.  Rhodes, 
Francis  Tukey  and  J.  R.  Watson.  Badlam,  in  partnership  with  M.  M. 
Estee,  John  Simpson,  H.  C.  Bidwell  and  others,  published  a  paper 
called  the  Evening  Star  for  about  three  months  from  May  25,  1864. 
He  removed  to  San  Francisco  and  was  elected  assessor.  He  ran  for 
re-election  in  1882  and  when  his  friends  expressed  fear  that  he  might 
not  win,  he  said  that  "it  would  be  a  cold  day  when  he  got  left."  The 
day  after  the  election  some  of  his  friends  sent  him  a  ton  of  coal  and  a 
cord  of  wood,  with  a  note  sa>'ing  that  it  might  serve  to  keep  him 
warm  during  the  cold  da}'.  He  was  port  warden  at  San  Francisco, 
1890-91,  and  died  in  that  city,  January  25,  1898.  Hunt  kept  the  French 
Hotel  on  Second  street  for  many  years.  He  was  an  old  New  York 
fireman  in  the  days  of  the  volunteer  companies  and  was  chief  en- 
gineer of  our  fire  department.  He  was  known  as  the  "Sacramento 
Statesman"  when  he  was  assemblyman;  was  an  assemblyman  from 
San  Francisco  in  1885,  and  died  there  November  13,  1889.  Rhodes 
was  a  farmer  on  the  Cosunmes,  and  died  there  on  his  farm,  December 
20,  1866.  Tukey  was  marshal  of  Boston  at  the  time  of  the  Webster- 
Parkman  murder.  He  was  city  superintendent  of  schools  in  1855  and 
died  on  his  farm  near  this  city,  November  23,  1867.  For  many  years 
Watson  was  purchasing  agent  for  the  Central  Pacific  Railroad  Com- 
pany, and  superintendent  of  the  hospital.  He  died  in  this  city,  Sep- 
tember 11,  1889. 

1865-66,  Thomas  Hansbrow,  Dwight  Hollister,  Peter  J.  Hopper, 
William  B.  Hunt  and  J.  B.  Maholmb.  Hansbrow  was  in  business  in 
Sacramento  for  some  years.  He  was  at  one  time  a  supervisor,  and 
died  August  31,  1868.  Hollister  was  a  farmer  and  fruit-grower  near 
Courtland.  He  was  once  a  supervisor  and  served  in  the  assembly 
a  second  time,  in  the  twenty-sixth  session.  He  died  on  his  ranch  at 
Courtland,  September  7,  1904.  Hopper  was  a  lawyer  and  newspaper 
publisher  at  Folsom  and  afterward  moved  to  Sacramento.  He  died 
July  22,  1883.  Maholmb  was  a  farmer  on  the  Cosumnes,  but  afterward 
moved  to  San  Francisco. 

1867-68,  Marion  Biggs,  Paschal  Coggins,  A.  Comte,  Jr.,  Bruce  B. 
Lee  and  Charles  Wolleb.     Marion  Biggs  removed  to  Butte  county, 


where  he  lived  until  his  death.  He  was  a  member  of  the  second  con- 
stitutional convention  and  a  member  of  congress  from  1887  till  1891. 
Coggins  was  for  some  time  local  editor  of  the  Union,  and  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  board  of  education,  but  left  here,  shot  himself  in  the  head 
in  San  Francisco  and  died  from  the  effects  of  the  wound,  November 
18,  1883.  Comte  was  also  a  senator.  Bruce  B.  Lee  was  a  son  of 
Barton  Lee,  one  of  the  pioneer  merchants  and  bankers,  whose  deeds 
of  charity  in  the  early  days  of  Sacramento  are  worthy  of  remem- 
brance. He  was  subsequently  harbor  commissioner  and  later  removed 
to  Eed  Bluff  and  engaged  in  the  real-estate  and  insurance  business. 
A  prominent  Mason,  he  was  chosen  grand  commander  of  the  Knights 
Templar  of  California.  He  died  at  Eed  Bluff,  October  30,  1890. 
WoUeb  was  secretary  of  the  Germania  Building  and  Loan  Association 
for  years.    He  died  at  Fruitvale,  Alameda  coimty,  December  21,  1883. 

1869-70,  James  A.  Duffy,  Isaac  F.  Freeman,  M.  S.  Hor.qn,  John  A. 
Odell  and  R.  D.  Stephens.  Duffy  was  also  a  senator.  Freeman  was 
a  farmer  near  Elk  Grove.  Born  in  Ohio,  he  came  to  this  state  in  1852, 
driving  a  herd  of  cattle  across  the  plains  and  walking  all  the  way. 
After  staying  a  year  he  returned  east,  but  came  back  in  1859,  settled 
near  Elk  Grove  and  carried  on  a  farm  there  for  many  years.  He  was 
highly  respected  by  his  neighbors,  by  whom  he  was  familiarly  known 
as  "Uncle  Isaac."  He  died  at  his  home,  December  7,  1892.  Horan 
was  afterwards  a  police  judge  and  practiced  law  in  San  Francisco  and 
died  there,  December  10,  1892,  three  days  later  than  Freeman,  his 
colleague.  Odell  died  at  Folsom,  May  29,  1881.  Stephens  was  born 
in  Illinois  and  came  overland  to  California  in  1849  with  his  father. 
They  located  near  Mayhews,  where  the  son  still  has  a  very  valuable 
vineyard  and  orchard.  He  has  been  one  of  the  foremost  fruit-growers 
in  the  county  and  has  done  much  to  build  up  the  fruit  interests  of  the 
state.  He  was  elected  constable  in  1859,  to  the  legislature  in  1869, 
served  as  warrant  clerk  in  the  controller's  office  from  1875  to  1880, 
and  was  a  candidate  for  controller  in  1882  in  the  Democratic  conven- 
tion. He  took  an  active  part  in  the  constitutional  convention  of  1879, 
and  in  1885  was  appointed  by  President  Cleveland  postmaster  of  Sac- 
ramento. He  was  state  library  trustee,  1889-94;  member  of  the  state 
board  of  vitieultural  commissioners,  1890,  and  the  state  board  of  hor- 
ticulture from  1896  to  1903.  He  still  lives  in  Sacramento  and  carries 
on  his  horticultural  interests. 

1871-72,  C.  G.  W.  French,  Dr.  Obed  Harvey,  Peter  J.  Hopper, 
William  Johnston  and  E.  B.  Mott,  Jr.  French  practiced  law  at  Fol- 
som and  in  this  city  for  many  years.  He  was  appointed  chief  justice 
of  Arizona  by  President  Hayes  in  1877;  was  trustee  of  the  state 
library  from  1866  to  1870,  and  died  in  San  Francisco,  Aug-ust  13,  1891. 
Dr.  Harvey  came  from  Illinois  to  California  in  1850.  In  1859  he  was 
a  delegate  to  the  first  railroad  convention  held  in  the  state.  In  1869 
he  located  near  Gait  and  acquired  large  land  holdings.     He  served  in 


the  state  senate  and  was  a  director  of  the  insane  asylum  at  Stockton 
for  many  years.  He  died  at  Gait,  January  16,  1894.  Johnston  was 
also  a  senator.  Mott  was  for  many  years  a  member  of  the  firm  of 
Gillig,  Mott  &  Co.,  and  was  afterward  connected  with  the  Pacific  Mu- 
tual Life  Insurance  Company.  He  was  trustee  of  the  state  library 
from  1872  to  1878,  and  died  here  August  4,  1882. 

1873-74,  James  N.  Barton,  W.  E.  Bryan,  Paschal  Coggins,  Reuben 
Kercheyal  and  P.  H.  Russell.  Barton  remoyed  to  Humboldt  county. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  second  constitutional  conyention.  He  is  still 
liying  near  Sacramento.  W.  E.  Bryan  was  a  farmer  residing  in  this 
county.  Kercheyal  was  a  fruit  farmer  with  large  holdings  on  Grand 
Island  and  died  there,  May  9,  1881.  Russell  was  formerly  a  prominent 
grocer  in  this  city.  Pie  remoyed  to  San  Francisco  and  died  there, 
February  12,  1906. 

1875-76,  Marion  Biggs,  Jr.,  Thomas  J.  Clunie  and  A.  D.  Patter- 
son. Biggs,  the  son  of  Marion  Biggs,  Sr.,  was  a  farmer  near  Frank- 
lin, but  afterwards  moyed  to  Butte  county.  He  died  in  Sacramento, 
January  19,  1903.  Clunie  practiced  law  for  many  years  in  this  city 
and  afterwards  removed  to  San  Francisco,  being  sent  to  congress  from 
that  city  and  also  represented  it  in  the  state  senate.  In  1884  he  was 
a  delegate  to  the  Democratic  national  conyention.  He  died  in  San 
Francisco,  June  30,  1903.  Patterson  was  a  native  of  Pennsylvania. 
He  came  to  California  in  1849  and  soon  afterwards  located  at  Ron- 
tier's,  his  family  coming  out  here  in  1852.  He  was  postmaster  at 
Routier's  for  fifteen  years.  In  1851  he  was  elected  sheriff  and  the 
first  three  men  executed  by  the  authorities  were  hung  during  his  term. 
He  died  at  Routier's,  December  4,  1884.  What  is  known  as  Routier's 
for  years  was  called  Patterson's,  until  the  name  of  the  postoffice  was 

1877-78,  Grove  L.  Johnson,  Reuben  Kercheval  and  Joseph  Ron- 
tier.     Johnson  and  Routier  were  also  senators. 

1880,  Elwood  Bruner,  Seymour  Carr  and  John  N.  Young.  Brunei- 
and  Young  were  lioth  members  of  the  city  board  of  education.  The 
former  has  been  grand  master  of  the  order  of  Odd  Fellows  of  Cali- 
fornia, and  was  elected  district  attorney  in  1886  and  1888.  He  went 
to  Alaska  some  years  ago.  Young  was  an  attorney  here  for  a  num- 
ber of  years  and  "finally  removed  to  San  Francisco,  where  he  still  prac- 
tices law.     Carr  was  a  farmer  near  Clay  station,  where  he  still  lives. 

1881,  John  E.  Baker,  W.  C.  Van  Fleet  and  J.  N.  Young.  Baker 
was  a  soldier  during  the  Civil  War,  and  was  a  farmer  down  the  Sac- 
ramento river.  He  died  in  this  city.  May  2,  1881.  Judge  Van  Fleet 
was  born  in  Ohio  and  came  to  California  in  1869,  and  studied  law 
with  Beatty  and  Denson.  He  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1873  and 
practiced  in  Nevada,  returning  here  in  1876;  was  appointed  a  state 
prison  director  in  1883;  elected  to  the  superior  court  in  1885-92;  jus- 
tice of  the  supreme  court,  1894-99;  trustee  state  library,  1899;  code 
commissioner,  1899-1903;  judge  of  the  United  States  district  court, 
northern  district,  in  1907,  which  office  he  still  holds. 


1883,  Gillis  Doty,  Hugh  M.  LaRue  and  Frank  D.  Ryan.  Doty 
was  for  many  years  a  farmer  near  Elk  Grove  and  enjoyed  the  con- 
fidence of  the  community.  He  was  sui^ervisor  several  times  and  was 
also  a  state  senator  for  two  terms.  He  was  a  member  of  the  auditing 
board  for  the  commissioner  of  pnblic  works  from  1897  to  1902.  He 
died  at  Elk  Grove,  July  23,  1909.  La  Rue  was  born  in  Kentucky  and 
came  to  California  in  1849,  locating  at  Fiddletown  (now  called  Oleta), 
but  came  to  Sacramento  in  1850.  In  1857  he  was  elected  sheriff  by  a 
few  votes,  but  lost  the  office  on  a  contest.  He  was  elected  again  in 
1873,  and  in  1879  was  a  member  of  the  second  constitutional  conven- 
tion. In  1863-64  he  was  a  member  of  the  assembly,  being  speaker  for 
both  terms.-  He  was  a  delegate  to  the  national  Democratic  conven- 
tion in  1884;  was  president  of  the  State  Agricultural  Society  for  sev- 
eral years  and  an  ex-ofificio  regent  of  the  State  University,  and  served 
as  railroad  commissioner  from  1895  to  1899.  He  died  at  Sacramento, 
December  12,  1906.  Ryan  was  born  in  Sacramento,  was  admitted  to 
the  bar  in  1880;  was  grand  president  of  the  Native  Sons  in  1889; 
trustee  of  the  state  library,  1898-1902;  trustee  Chico  Normal  School, 
1899-1901;  trustee  Sutter's  Fort,  1891-1903;  commissioner  of  public 
works,  1899-1907;  died  near  Pleasant  Grove,  Februarv  9,  1908. 

1885,  Winfield  J.  Davis,  Charles  T.  Jones  and  Dwight  Hollister. 
Davis  was  a  valuable  man  in  the  history  of  this  county.  Having  a 
taste  for  literature  and  history,  he  preserved  many  of  the  early  in- 
cidents and  records,  and  in  1890  published  a  history  of  the  county, 
collected  with  much  care  and  to  which  the  writer  of  this  history  is 
much  indebted  for  valuable  matter,  both  then  and  subsequently.  A 
biograpliical  sketch  of  him  will  be  found  elsewhere.  He  died  at 
Marysville,  August  3,  1909.  Jones  served  the  county  several  terms 
as  district  attorney  and  still  livfes  in  this  city,  practicing  law.  He  was 
chosen  an  alternate  elector  in  1888. 

1887,  H.  W.  Carroll,  L.  S.  Taylor  and  Seymour  Carr.  Carroll  was 
born  in  Sacramento,  was  a  University  of  California  graduate,  and 
engaged  in  various  kinds  of  business  here.  He  was  a  prominent 
Mason  and  was  engineer  officer,  brigade  inspector,  lieutenant-colonel 
and  aide-de-camp  on  the  staff  of  Governors  Stoneman  and  Bartlett. 
He  removed  some  years  ago  to  Seattle,  where  he  is  city  controller  at 
present.  Taylor  was  a  native  of  Ohio  and  came  to  this  state  in  1850. 
He  spent  some  time  in  the  mines  and  later  went  to  Solano,  holding  for 
a  year  the  position  of  deputy  district  attorney.  For  some  years  he 
practiced  law  in  this  city  and  was  a  county  commissioner.  He  was  a 
past  grand  master  of  Odd  Fellows,  and  died  in  this  citv,  Februarv  6, 

1889,  E.  C.  Hart,  W.  M.  Petrie  and  L.  H.  Fassett.  Judge  Hart 
was  a  member  of  the  senate  in  1893-95,  and  is  now  a  justice  of  the 
third  district  appellate  court.  Mr.  Petrie  has  been  for  nearly  fifty 
years  a  resident  of  this  city  and  a  successful  merchant.  He  served  a 
number  of  terms  as  a  member  of  the  city  board  of  education,  of  which 


he  was  a  member  until  the  uew  city  charter  abolished  the  board,  hav- 
ing been  re-elected  term  after  term.  Mr.  Fassett  was  a  farmer  and 
died  at  his  home  near  Freeport,  December  16,  1889.  He  served  one 
term  as  supervisor. 

1891,  Elwood  Bruner,  Judson  C.  Brusie  and  Gillis  Doty.  Mr. 
Bruner  was  for  many  years  a  resident  of  Sacramento,  but  went  to 
Alaska  during  the  gold  excitement  some  years  ago  and  still  resides 
there.  He  was  also  a  member  of  the  assembly  in  1879  and  was  dis- 
trict attorney  of  this  county  for  a  time.  Judson  C.  Brusie,  a  prac- 
ticing attorney  of  this  city  and  previously  an  assemblyman  from 
Amador  county,  was  secretary  of  the  railroad  commissioners  from 
1903  to  1908.  He  died  in  Los  Angeles,  June  10,  1908.  In  addition  to 
being  an  attorney  and  public  man,  he  was  a  very  versatile  writer 
and  the  author  of  a  successful  play. 

1893,  H.  C.  Chipman,  W.  A.  Anderson  and  Eben  B.  Owen.  Mr. 
Chipman  was  a  resident  of  this  city  for  many  years  and  died  here. 
May  26,  1899.  Judge  Anderson  is  an  old-timer,  having  come  to  this 
county  with  his  father  at  four  years  of  age,  in  1849.  lie  was  elected 
city  auditor  and  took  the  office  four  days  after  attaining  his  ma- 
jority; was  admitted  to  the  bar  of  the  supreme  court  while  yet  a 
minor.  In  1868  he  entered  the  practice  of  the  law  and  has  been  for 
many  years  one  of  the  best  known  and  successful  attorneys  in  the 
state.  He  has  filled  the  office  of  city  attorney  for  several  terms  and 
also  that  of  city  justice.  From  1867  to  1875  he  was  assistant  ad- 
jutant-general of  the  Fourth  Brigade,  N.  G.  C,  with  the  rank  of 
major.  Mr.  Owen  was  a  farmer  living  near  McConnell's  on  the 
Cosumnes,  where  he  has  a  large  ranch. 

1895,  L.  T.  Hatfield,  John  E.  Butler  and  Judson  C.  Brusie.  Mr. 
Hatfield,  an  attorney,  has  been  for  a  number  of  years  legal  adviser 
of  the  Sacramento  Electric  Gas  and  Railway  Company  of  this  city. 
Mr.  Butler  was  a  farmer  who  lived  above  Folsom.  He  died  about  a 
vear  ago  at  his  home  in  Oak  Park. 

1897,  Scott  F.  Ennis,  L.  M.  Landsborough  and  William  M.  Sims. 
Mr.  Ennis  is  a  prominent  citizen  of  Sacramento,  in  the  wholesale 
produce  and  commission  business.  Mr.  Landsborough  was  a  fruit- 
raiser  of  Florin  and  is  now  a  successful  business  man  in  that  town. 
Mr.  Sims  was  for  a  niimber  of  years  a  practicing  attorney  here,  but 
of  late  years  has  been  a  resident  of  San  Francisco,  where  he  prac- 
tices his  profession. 

1899,  W.  D.  Knights,  Grove  L.  Johnson  and  Morris  Brooke.  Mr. 
Knights  was  for  a  number  of  years  engaged  in  business  here,  but  has 
for  sonie  years  past  been  a  resident  of  San  Francisco.  Mr.  Brooke 
was  a  fruit-raiser  for  some  years,  but  is  at  present  the  head  of  a 
large  and  successful  real-estate  firm. 

1901,  Louis  F.  Reeber,  W.  W.  Greer  and  Grove  L.  Johnson.  Mr. 
Reeber  was  a  well-known  citizen  of  Sacramento.  He  was  elected 
as  a  Democrat  and  was  backed  by  the  labor  organizations  of  the  city. 
Mr.  Greer  was  a  farmer  and  prominent  in  Grange  circles.     He  still 


resides  on  his  farm,  southeast  of  the  city. 

1903,  Grove  L.  Johnson,  W.  W.  Greer  and  J.  M.  Higgins.  Mr. 
Higgins  has  been  for  a  number  of  years  foreman  of  the  bindery  in  the 
state  printing  office  and  is  very  popular  among  the  labor  unions. 

1905,  Frank  J.  0  'Brien,  Edward  F.  Ljnich  and  C.  0.  Busick.  Mr. 
0  'Brien  and  Mr.  Busick  are  both  practicing  lawyers  of  this  city.  Mr. 
L^^lch  is  a  farmer  living  near  Mills  station"  on  the  Folsom  and 
Placerville  railway. 

1907,  Grove  L.  Johnson,  Frank  J.  O'Brien  and  Edward  F.  Lynch. 

1909,  E.  L.  Hawk,  W.  W.  Greer  and  Grove  L.  Johnson.  Mr. 
Hawk  has  been  for  many  years  a  prominent  real-estate  dealer  of  this 
city,  and  is  very  prominent  in  Grand  Army  circles,  having  been  de- 
partment  commander  in  1910. 

1911,  John  C.  March,  Charles  A.  Bliss  and  E.  F.  Lynch.  Mr. 
March  is  well  known  in  this  city,  and  was  city  justice  for  two  terms. 
Mr.  Bliss,  a  practicing  attorney  here,  at  the  recent  election  under  the 
new  charter  was  elected  one  of  the  city  commissioners. 


In  1850  the  legislature  took  the  first  active  step  toward  securing 
a  state  library  by  enacting  a  law  directing  that  the  scattered  books 
which  were  the  property  of  the  state  be  gathered  together  and  placed 
in  the  custody  of  the  secretary  of  state,  who  should  also  serve  as 
state  librarian.  This  was  done,  but  no  considerable  addition  was 
made  to  the  number  of  volumes  so  collected  until  1856,  when  3500 
standard  law  books  were  bought,  at  a  cost  of  about  $17,000,  and 
placed  in  the  library,  which  soon  began  to  grow,  comprising  in  1860 
about  20,000  volumes;  in  1870  it  had  increased  to  25,000;  in  1880 
to  50,000 ;  in  1890  to  about  70,000. 

Nearly  every  stranger  in  Sacramento  visits  the  California  State 
Library,  whose  headquarters  are  in  the  Capitol  building,  where  they 
occupy  the  largest  part  of  the  east  wing,  extending  from  the  base- 
ment to  the  top  floor.  On  the  shelves  of  the  library  are  about 
165,000  volumes.  Its  average  annual  income  has  been  about  $45,000. 
The  institution  was  established  by  an  act  of  the  state  legislature  in 
1851,  and  was  intended  originally  as  a  legislative  reference  collection 
only.  In  1899  the  right  to  appoint  the  state  librarian  passed  from  the 
legislature  to  the  governor,  thus  taking  the  state  librarianship  out 
of  the  danger  of  periodic  scrambles  for  office  incident  upon  legis- 
lative changes.  The  strength  and  influence  of  the  office  was  greatly 
strengthened  by  the  api)ointment  in  the  same  year  of  the  present 
state  librarian,  J.  L.  Gillis,  a  librarian  of  unusual  executive  power. 
Under  his  administration  the  library  has  widened  its  sphere  of  use- 
fulness until  it  has  become  the  controlling  factor  in  library  work 
throughout  the  entire  state. 


The  work  of  the  institution  is  carried  on  through  about  seven  de- 
partments, briefly  summarized  as  Order  and  Accessions;  Catalogue; 
Law ;  Reference ;  Documents ;  California ;  Department  for  the  Blind, 
and  County  Library  Extension.  The  most  original  work  is  conducted 
by  the  last  three  departments.  The  California  includes  besides  all 
books  written  about  California  or  by  California  authors,  a  splendid 
file  of  pioneer  records,  arranged  in  card-catalogue  form,  and  con- 
taining invaluable  information  concerning  the  social  and  political 
history  of  the  state  written  first-hand  by  actual  observers  of  the 
events  that  make  up  the  annals  of  early  California.  A  like  record  is 
kept  of  the  state's  authors,  musicians  and  artists,  together  with  files 
containing  reproductions  of  the  canvases  of  California  painters.  Pho- 
tographs are  also  on  file  of  the  interesting  persons  connected  with  any 
part  of  the  state's  history,  political,  social  or  artistic.  An  unique 
index  to  California's  newspapers  and  magazine  literature  is  main- 
tained by  this  department. 

Books  for  the  blind  are  sent  out  upon  request  to  coimtless  readers 
all  over  the  state.  The  resources  of  this  branch  of  the  work  are 
some  2,132  books  in  different  kinds  of  raised  ijpe,  and  nearly  all  the 
leading  magazines  for  the  blind;  to  which  are  being  constantly  added 
writing  appliances,  games  and  puzzles  of  new  invention. 

Nowhere  is  the  influence'  of  the  state  library  more  helpful  thkn 
in  its  organization  and  encouragement  of  the  county  libraries  which 
are  rapidly  appearing  on  every  side,  and  promise  to  spread  throughout 
all  the  counties  of  the  state.  These  county  libraries,  through  a  well 
organized  system  of  inter-library  loans  managed  by  the  state  library, 
are  able  to  secure  a  constant  supply  of  rare,  valuable  or  technical 
books  which  would  otherwise  be  unattainable  by  them.  Also  the 
standard  of  scholarship  and  efficiency  of  these  smaller  libraries  is 
kept  u]!  to  a  high  level  through  a  system  of  report-making  to  the 
state  library;  through  county  library  conventions  conducted  by  the 
state  library ;  through  personal  yearly  visits  of  the  state  librarian,  and 
through  the  influence  of  the  state  library  board  of  examiners,  which 
conducts  competitive  examinations  for  applicants  for  county  librari- 

California  is  among  the  first  of  all  the  states  to  reeogTiize  the 
large  value  of  a  strong,  central  library  which  shall  foster  the  smaller 
county  organizations,  and  naturally  the  people  of  the  state  are  in-oud 
of  the  good  work  accomplished  and  yet  to  be  accomplished  by  their 
state  library  at  Sacramento. 



Along  in  the  middle  '50s  the  need  for  a  piiblic  library  began  to 
be  recognized,  and  in  1857  the  Sacramento  Librarv  Association  was 


organized  and  a  good  library  collected,  which,  in  spite  of  loss  by  fire, 
steadily  increased.  In  1872  the  building  on  I  street,  between  Seventh 
and  Eighth,  which  is  now  occupied  by  the  Sacramento  City  Free 
Library,  was  erected,  and  furnished  at  a  total  cost  of  $17,000.  $11,000 
of  this  amount  was  raised  by  a  gift  enterprise  and  mortgage  for 
$6,000  was  given.  The  library  opened  under  favorable  auspices,  but 
its  existence  was  not  as  prosperous  as  had  been  expected  or  was 
desirable.  In  1879,  therefore,  the  directors  offered  to  donate  the 
property  to  the  city,  to  be  maintained  as  a  free  library,  if  the  city 
would  assume  the  debt.  When  the  question  was  submitted  to  the 
voters  of  the  city  at  the  election  in  March  following,  the  offer  was 
accepted.  Soon  after  the  library  was  re-arranged  and  re-catalogued 
and  on  Ji;ne  15,  was  thrown  open  to  the  jjublie  as  a  free  library  with 
6,067  volumes  on  the  shelves.  It  has  steadily  gTOwn  in  size  and  use- 
fulness and  comprises  many  thousand  volumes.  The  leading  papers 
of  the  state  and  many  of  the  leading  newspapers  of  the  Union  are 
to  be  found  in  its  reading  room,  besides  a  number  of  representative 
foreign  newspapers  and  periodicals,  numbering  in  all,  between  two 
hundred  and  three  hundred.  Books  may  be  drawn  from  the  library 
by  any  citizen  of  Sacramento,  free  of  cost,  upon  obtaining  the  neces- 
sary permit.  The  library  is  supported  by  a  public  tax  and  is  under 
the  control  of  a  board  of  trustees  appointed  by  the  mayor  of  the  city. 
For  a  number  of  years  they  were  elected  by  the  people.  Among  those 
who  have  served  as  library  trustees  were  the  following:  Judge  S.  C. 
Denson,  William  H.  Mills,  William  C.  Fitch,  Samuel  Howard  Gerrish. 
Add  C.  Hinkson,  Mrs.  G.  W.  Hancock,  Miss  Georgiana  Brewster, 
Albert  Hart,  Kirke  W.  Brier,  Francis  Le  Noir,  A.  S.  Hopkins,  L.  E. 
Smith,  E.  B.  Willis. 

In  1908  the  library,  under  an  agreement  with  the  board  of  super- 
visors, extended  the  library  privileges  to  all  the  residents  of  Sacra- 
mento county,  being  the  first  library  in  the  state  to  undertake  this 
county  library  work.  Branch  libraries  and  deposit  stations  to  the 
number  of  twenty-eight  have  been  established  in  various  parts  of  the 
county,  and  school-room  libraries  have  been  provided  for  all  schools 
desiring  this  service. 

The  library  now  has  approximately  50,000  volumes,  including 
the  county  and  schools  collections,  serves  10,000  card  holders,  and 
circulates  about  200,000  books  a  year.  Under  the  new  city  charter, 
effective  July  1,  1912,  the  management  of  the  library  is  placed  in  the 
hands  of  a  librarian,  subject  to  the  supervision  of  the  commissioner 
of  education.  The  last  board  of  library  directors  to  serve  in  this 
capacity,  who  will  go  out  of  office  with  the  incoming  of  the  new  charter, 
consists  of  W.  C.  Fitch,  president;  S.  H.  Gerrish,  secretary;  L.  J. 
Hinsdale,  F.  B.  Sutliff  and  D..  S.  Watkins  The  first  two  have  served 
continuously  since  the  library  became  a  free  library.  The  librarian, 
Lauren  W.  Ripley,  has  been  connected  with  the  institution  since  Jan- 


uary,  1882,  and  is  assisted  by  a  staff  of  ten  people  at  the  central 
library  and  twenty-eight  branch  librarians  and  custodians  of  deposit 


The  Sacramento  postoffice  was  established  in  the  early  days  of 
the  city's  existence.  Since  that  time  its  business  has  increased  with 
the  growth  of  the  city,  but  the  facilities  for  carrying  it  on  have 
always  been  less  than  its  needs.  The  rapid  growth  and  extension 
of  Sacramento  and  its  suburbs  during  the  past  few  years  have  sorely 
taxed  the  resources  of  the  office,  the  government  furnishing  additional 
carriers  and  clerks  when  it  could  no  longer  shut  its  eyes  to  the  fact 
that  the  force  was  inadequate. 

R.  M.  Richardson,  the  latest  postmaster,  assumed  his  duties  in 
1904.  The  total  receipts  of  the  office  for  that  year  were  $117,792.55. 
The  tremendous  growth  since  then  is  apparent  when  it  is  stated  that 
for  the  year  ending  December  31,  1911,  the  receipts  were  $284,807.86. 

When  Mr.  Richardson  took  charge  in  1904,  there  were  twenty-six 
carriers  and  twenty-two  clerks.  At  the  present  time  the  force  con- 
sists of  forty-one  carriers  and  forty-nine  clerks,  with  the  prospect 
that  another  increase  will  be  necessary  before  long.  The  addition 
which  during  the  past  year  has  been  made  to  the  building  provides 
for  about  double  the  lobby  space,  and  greatly  increases  the  general 
working  room  of  the  main  office.  At  the  i^resent  rate  of  increase  in 
postal  receipts  and  the  amount  of  work  to  be  handled,  the  present 
building  will  hardly  be  sufficiently  large  to  accommodate  the  postal 
business  of  this  city  in  a  few  years. 

It  is  estimated  that  over  60,000  people  are  now  receiving  city 
delivery  service,  which  includes  Oak  Park,  Highland  Park,  Curtis 
Oaks  and  East  Sacramento.  The  adjacent  country  Mng  within  a 
radius  of  about  nine  miles  from  Sacramento  is  served  by  two  rural 
carriers.  Owing  to  the  fact  that  it  has  become  so  thickly  populated, 
it  has  become  necessary  to  make  request  for  two  additional  rural 
routes  in  order  to  serve  the  patrons. 

In  addition  to  the  main  office  there  are  fifteen  branch  offices  within 
the  old  limits  of  Sacramento  and  one  at  Oak  Park. 

The  Post  Office,  Internal  Revenue  Office,  United  States  Land 
Office,  Weather  Bureau  and  some  minor  offices  are  in  the  fine  sand- 
stone Government  building  that  stands  on  the  northeast  corner  of 
Seventh  and  K  streets,  on  the  site  formerly  occupied  by  St.  Rose's 
Rou'an  Catholic  Church. 

The  United  States  Land  Office  dates  back  to  the  early  history 
of  the  state,  after  its  admission.  There  were  formerly  United  States 
land  offices  at  Marysville  and  Stockton,  but  the  two  offices  were  con- 


solidated  with  the  Sacramento  office  a  few  years  ago  and  all  their 
records  transferred  to  Sacramento.  John  F.  Armstrong  is  the  reg- 
istrar and  John  C.  Ing  the  receiver,  and  they  have  given  to  the  office 
a  reputation  of  promptness  and  careful  management. 

The  Internal  Revenue  office  for  this  district  comprises  Northern 
California  and  Nevada — a  wide  extent  of  country — and  which  gives 
employment  to  a  large  clerical  force,  as  well  as  numerous  store- 
keepers, gangers,  etc.  It  has  been  vex'y  efficient  in  the  discharge  of 
its  duties  for  many  years,  and  stands  high  on  the  roll  of  efficiency 
in  the  revenue  department  in  Washington.  It  has  not  lost  any  of 
its  prestige  during  the  management  of  the  present  incumbent,  Hon. 
W.  A.  Shippee,  and  his  clerical  force.  (It  was  incorporated  lately 
with  the  San  Francisco  office.) 

The  United  States  Weather  Bureau  station  in  Sacramento  was 
established  July  1,  1877,  by  Sergeant  B.  B.  Watkins  of  the  Signal 
Corps,  U.S.A.  The  office  was  located  on  the  fourth  floor  of  the  St. 
George  building,  on  the  corner  of  Fourth  and  J  streets.  November 
28,  1879,  the  office  was  moved  to  the  Fratt  building,  corner  of  Second 
and  K  streets,  and  June  1,  1882,  it  was  again  moved  to  the  Arcade 
building,  on  Second  street,  between  J  and  K.  February  1,  1884,  it 
was  moved  to  the  Lyon  &  Curtis  building,  on  J  street,  between  Front 
and  Second,  and  April  30,  1894,  it  was  removed  to  the  postoffice 
building,  at  Seventh  and  K  streets,  where  it  now  is.  The  station  was 
in  charge  of  Sergeant  Watkins  until  April  15,  1879,  when  he  was 
relieved  by  Sergeant  M.  M.  Sickler,  who  was  relieved  by  Sergeant 
James  A.  Barwick,  March  15,  1881.  Sergeant  Barwick  remained  in 
charge  of  the  station,  except  as  temporarily  relieved  on  account  of 
sickness  or  other  causes,  until  August  18,  1901,  when  he  was  relieved 
by  James  H.  Scarr,  and  transferred  to  Denver,  his  health  having 
failed.  Mr.  Scarr  was  relieved  May  3,  1908,  by  T.  A.  Blair,  who 
had  temporary  charge  until  relieved  by  N.  R.  Taylor,  the  present 
incumbent.  May  8,  1908.  By  his  uniform  courtesy  and  personal  quali- 
ties Mr.  Taylor  has  made  many  friends  in  the  community,  and  during 
his  incumbency  has  instituted  great  improvements  in  the  service. 

During  his  incumbency  of  twenty  years  Sergeant  Barwick  made 
great  strides  in  the  efficiencj"  of  the  service  and  is  held  in  most  kindly 
regard  by  older  residents  of  the  city.  Formerly  the  data  concerning 
the  stage  of  the  river  and  the  forecasts  in  winter  concerning  it  were 
published  in  the  San  Francisco  office,  but  May  1,  1905,  the  data  con- 
cerning the  river  were  transferred  to  Sacramento.  Here  the  river 
observation  service  was  re-organized  by  Observer  Scarr,  and  he 
made  great  improvements  in  it,  which  brought  it  to  a  high  state  of 
efficiency  and  which  have  been  continued  and  expanded  by  Observer 
Taylor.  Today  all  the  flood  stages  of  the  Sacramento  river  and  its 
tributaries  are  accurately  forecast  by  him  from  data  gathered  from 
the  stations  in  his  district.     This  station  now  has  the  collection  of 


data  from  the  San  Joaquin  watershed  below  the  mouth  of  the  Mokel- 
umne,  embracing  that  of  the  Mokehimne,  Cosunmes,  Stanislaus,  Cala- 
veras rivers,  and  Mormon  slough.  Observer  Taylor  has  also,  within 
the  past  two  years,  established  a  number  of  stations  for  the  observa- 
tion and  recording  of  the  snowfall  in  the  Sierra  Nevada  mountains. 



In  an  earlier  chapter  reference  was  made  to  the  suffering  in 
1849  and  1850  of  the  inhabitants  of  Sacramento  and  the  immigrants 
who  came  across  the  plains  or  "around  the  Horn,"  in  search  of  gold. 
Some  of  them  had  lost  their  stores  of  provisions  or  exhausted  them. 
Some  had  started  without  calculating  on  the  conditions  they  would 
find  here.  Some  had  been  despoiled  by  the  attacks  of  Indians,  and, 
losing  their  horses  or  cattle,  had  been  obliged  to  abandon  part  of 
their  wagons  and  stores.  And  some  of  those  coming  by  both  of  the 
routes  had  been  attacked  by  scurvy  on  account  of  the  scarcity  of 
vegetables,  and  were  in  wretched  condition  when  they  arrived  here. 
The  generosity  of  General  Sutter  afforded  the  impoverished  strangers 
temporary  relief,  but  more  than  temporary  relief  was  needed  where 
there  were  so  many  destitute  and  suffering. 

The  situation  in  Sacramento  was  graphically  set  forth  by  Dr. 
Morse  in  his  history.  He  says:  "At  this  time  Sacramento  was  a 
nucleus  of  attraction  to  the  world.  It  was  the  great  starting  point 
to  the  vast  and  glittering  gold  fields  of  California,  with  the  tales  of 
which  the  whole  imiverse  became  astounded,  and  which  men  of  every 
clime  and  nation  sought  to  reach,  without  a  moment's  reflection  upon 
the  cost  or  hazard  of  such  an  adventure.  The  only  consideration 
upon  the  part  of  a  hundred  thousand  gold-seekers  who  were  prepar- 
ing for  emigration  to  California  was  dispatch.  Time  wasted  on  pru- 
dential outfits,  upon  the  acquirement  of  means  beyond  the  passage 
fee  to  San  Francisco,  and  peradventure  a  little  spending  money  to 
dissipate  the  impatience  of  delay,  was  as  well  wasted  in  any  other 
way.  What  were  a  few  dollars  that  required  months  to  accumulate  in 
the  Atlantic  states,  to  the  gold-gleaming  ounces  that  California  gave 
weekly  as  compensation  to  the  simplest  labor? 

"All  that  men  seemed  to  wish  for  was  the  means  of  setting  foot 
on  California  soil,  and  few  were  sufficiently  provident  in  their  calcu- 
lations to  provide  anything  beyond  the  mere  landing  at  San  Francisco. 
Out  of  the  thousands  who  landed  at  the  above  place  in  the  interval 
referred  to,  not  one  in  a  hundred  arrived  in  the  country  with  money 
enough  to  buy  him  a  decent  outfit  for  the  mines.  Such  was  the  heed- 
lessness with  which  people  inunigrated  to  this  country  during  the 
incipient  progTess  of  the  gold-seeking  fever.  In  all  parts  of  the  world 
vessels  of  every  size  and  condition  were  put  up  for  the  great   El 


Dorado,  and  as  soon  as  put  up  were  filled  to  overflowing  with  men 
who  had  not  the  remotest  conception  of  the  terrible  sufferings  they 
were  to  encounter.  Along  the  entire  coast  of  the  American  continent, 
in  every  prominent  port  in  Europe,  in  nearly  every  maritime  point 
in  Asia,  and  in  nearly  all  the  islands  in  the  world,  were  men  struggling 
with  reckless  determination  for  the  means  of  coming  to  California. 
The  savings  of  years  were  instantly  appropriated,  goods  and  chattels 
sold  at  ruinous  sacrifices,  homesteads  mortgaged  for  loans  obtained 
upon  destructive  rates  of  interest,  and  jewelry,  keepsakes  and  pension 
fees  pledged  for  the  reimbursement  of  a  beggarly  steerage  passage 
for  thousands  of  miles  to  the  town  of  San  Francisco. 

"These  are  facts  with  which  the  world  is  now  familiar,  and  this 
being  the  manner  in  which  people  embarked  for  the  Eureka  state,  it 
can  be  easily  imagined  how  those  landed  who  survived  the  untold 
and  unutterable  suffering  endured  from  port  to  jDort.  From  the  1st 
of  August,  1849,  the  deluging  tides  of  immigrants  began  to  roll  into 
the  city  of  San  Francisco  their  hundreds  and  thousands  daily;  not 
men  robust  and  hearty  by  a  pleasant  sea  voyage,  but  poor  miserable 
beings,  so  famished  and  filthy,  so  saturated  with  scorbutis  diseases, 
or  so  depressed  in  spirits  as  to  make  them  an  easy  prey  of  disease 
and  death,  where  they  had  expected  naught  but  health  and  fortune. 

"Thus  did  mining  adventurers  pour  into  San  Francisco,  nine- 
tenths  of  whom,  for  a  few  months,  took  passage  to  Sacramento.  How- 
ever debilitated  they  might  be,  however  penniless  and  destitute,  still 
this,  the  great  focus  of  mining  news,  the  nearest  trading  point  for 
miners  situated  on  a  navigable  stream,  was  the  only  place  that  men 
could  think  of  stopping  at  for  recuperative  purposes.  Hence,  from 
Cape  Horn,  from  all  the  isthmus  routes,  from  Asiatic  seaports,  and 
from  the  islands  of  the  Pacific,  men  in  the  most  impoverished  health 
were  converging  at  Sacramento.  But  these  were  not  the  only  sources 
of  difficulty  to  Sacramento  in  1849;  for  at  the  same  time  that  the 
scurvy-ridden  subjects  of  the  ocean  began  to  concentrate  among  us, 
there  was  another  more  terrible  train  of  scorbutic  sufferers  coming 
in  from  the  overland  roads,  so  exhausted  in  strength  and  so  worn 
out  with  the  calamities  of  the  journey  as  to  be  but  barely  able  to 
reach  this,  the  Valley  City. 

"From  these  sources  Sacramento  became  a  perfect  lazar  house 
of  disease,  suffering  and  death,  months  before  anything  like  an  ef- 
fective city  government  was  organized.  It  must  be  remembered  that 
in  proportion  as  these  scenes  began  to  accumulate,  men  seemed  to 
grow  indifferent  to  the  appeals  of  suffering,  and  to  the  dictates  of 
benevolence.  The  more  urgent  and  importunate  the  cries  and  be- 
seeching miseries  of  the  sick  and  destitute,  the  more  obdurate,  des 
potic  and  terrible  became  the  reig-n  of  cupidity. 

"In  the  month  of  July,  1849,  these  subjects  of  distress  and  the 
appeals  of  misery  became  so  common  that  men  could  not  escape  them ; 


and  if  there  had  been  the  utmost  attention  paid  to  the  exercise  of 
oharity  and  protection,  it  would  have  been  impossible  to  have  met  the 
demands  of  the  destitute,  sick  and  dying  as  a  commensurate  sympathy 
would  have  dictated.  Such  was  the  difficulty  with  which  facilities  for 
the  care  of  the  sick  could  be  procured,  that  even  the  few  who  had 
money  could  not  purchase  those  comforts  which  even  the  poorest 
in  the  Atlantic  states  can  enjoy.  Dr.  Craigan's  hospital  at  the  Fort 
was  the  most  comfortable  place,  but  such  'were  the  necessary  demands 
for  boarding  and  nursing  that  men  could  not  avail  themselves  of  such 
care.  Soon  after  the  establishment  of  this  hospital,  Drs.  Deal  and 
Martin  opened  another  hospital  in  one  of  the  bastions  of  the  old 
Fort.  This  led  to  a  reduction  of  the  cost  of  hospital  board  and 
attendance,  but  still  it  was  too  dear  a  comfort  to  be  purchased 
by  more  than  one  in  five  of  the  accumulating  invalids  of  the  town. 
The  sick  of  the  city  were  in  consequence  thrown  upon  the  exclusive 
attention  of  a  society  which  had  become  so  mammon-ridden  as  to  be 
almost  insensible  to  the  voice  of  want.  Not  only  were  the  victims 
of  scurvy  evolving  a  general  distress,  but  also  those  who  supposed 
themselves  acclimated  were  beginning  to  feel  the  sweeping  miasmatic 
fevers  which  were  peculiarly  severe  during  this  first  season." 

The  first  organized  efforts  to  relieve  the  suffering  were  made 
by  the  fraternity  of  Odd  Fellows,  individual  members  of  which  formed 
an  informal  organization.  Gen.  A.  M.  Winn  was  elected  president, 
Mr.  McLaren,  secretary,  and  Captain  Gallup,  treasurer.  They  devoted 
themselves  untiringly  to  the  sick  and  suffering,  and  an  immense 
amount  of  relief  was  dispensed.  Still  men  sickened  and  died  and 
often  were  not  even  wrapped  in  a  blanket  for  burial.  Coffins  were 
from  sixty  to  one  hundred  and  fifty  dollars  apiece  and  could  not 
always  be  procured,  Imt  the  association  spent  thousands  of  dollars 
for  them. 

As  before  related,  the  cholera  made  its  appearance  oh  the  20th 
of  October,  1850,  and  raged  for  nearly  a  month,  the  death  roll  of 
which  can  never  be  known.  The  stricken  city  was  nearly  dejioim- 
lated  for  a  time.  In  A]n-il,  1850,  the  Freemasons  and  Odd  PVllows 
together  built  a  hospital,  the  board  of  trustees  being  elected  by  linth 

Dr.  Dow  had  a  "Thompsonian  Hospital  and  Botanic  Medicine 
Store"  on  K  street,  between  Second  and  Third.  The  price  of  admis- 
sion per  day  was  from  five  to  twenty- five  dollars,  "according  to 
trouble  and  expense." 

Drs.  T.  J.  White  and  C.  D.  Cleveland  had  a  large  hospital  at 
the  corner  of  Ninth  and  L  streets  that  would  accommodate  one  hun- 
dred patients,  and  Drs.  James  S.  Martin  and  B.  R.  Carman  eon- 
ducted  the  "Sutter's  Fort  Hospital"  inside  of  the  Fort.  Drs.  Morse 
and  Stillman  also  had  a  hosjutal  at  the  corner  of  Third  and  K  streets. 

Besides   these,   there   were   several   physicians,   first   at    Sutter's 


Fort  and  afterwards  in  the  city,  who  received  boarding  jDatients,  but 
very  few  sick  persons  had  the  means  with  which  to  pay  the  prices 
asked.  It  became  necessary,  therefore,  at  an  early  date,  for  a  public 
hospital  to  be  established,  at  which  all  cases  could  be  taken  in  and 
cared  for.  This  was  done,  the  first  one  being  opened  in  the  business 
part  of  the  city,  Drs.  J.  F.  Montgomery,  Johnson  Price,  George  W. 
Williams  and  Proctor  being  among  the  first  physicians  connected 
with  it.  The  city  directory  of  1853  contains  the  announcement,  "Drs. 
Johnson  Price  and  George  W.  Williams,  Physicians  to  the  County 
Hospital,  corner  of  I  and  Seventh  streets."  About  that  time  Proctor 
and  Price  established  a  hospital  on  Second  street,  between  I  and  J, 
with  seventy-five  or  eighty  beds,  and  entered  into  a  contract  with  the 
county  for  keeping  the  poor,  numbering  about  fifty,  and  charging  very 
high  prices.  Three  or  four  years  afterwards  the  county,  having 
meanwhile  built  itself  a  hospital  on  the  corner  of  Tenth  and  L  streets, 
endeavored  to  break  the  contract,  but  Price  and  Proctor  sued  and 
obtained  judgment  against  it.  This  county  hospital  was  erected  on 
the  northeast  corner  of  the  present  Capitol  Park.  It  was  torn  down 
and  removed  shortly  after  it  was  vacated,  soon  after  the  Civil  War. 

Dr.  Montgomery  was  the  county  physician  again  in  1857 ;  1858-59, 
Dr.  G.  L.  Simmons;  1859-60,  Dr.  Montgomery;  1861,  from  November, 
Dr.  G.  J.  Phelan;  1869,  from  September,  Dr.  Montgomery;  1870,  Dr. 
A.  C.  Donaldson,  with  Dr.  G.  A.  White  as  assistant. 

The  county  then  purchased  some  land  from  James  Lansing,  there 
being  about  sixty  acres  on  the  Upper  Stockton  Road,  a  mile  south  of 
the  city  limits,  paying  about  $11,000  for  it.  Here  the  county  erected 
a  fine  building  and  removed  to  it  about  seventy-five  patients  from  the 
old  one.  This  hospital  was  burned  October  5,  1878,  and  the  patients 
were  removed  to  the  "Old  Pavilion,"  corner  of  Sixth  and  M  streets 
and  cared  for  temporarily,  until  the  present  one  was  built,  in  1879. 
It  was  more  eonunodious  and  better  arranged  than  the  first  one,  but 
has  nearly  outlived  its  usefulness  and  a  new  one  will  undoubtedly 
be  constructed  in  the  near  future,  with  more  up-to-date  appurtenances. 
It  was  built  on  the  "pavilion"  plan  with  four  wings  radiating  from 
the  central  structure  and  cost  about  $65,000.  The  farm  provides 
fruit,  vegetables,  milk  and  various  other  things  for  the  use  of  the 

Dr.  G.  A.  White  became  county  physician  in  1872,  and  continued 
as  such  until  1908,  with  the  exception  that  in  the  spring  of  1879,  the 
homeopathists  were  put  in  charge  of  the  hospital,  Dr.  George  Pyburn 
serving  for  three  months,  and  Dr.  George  M.  Dixon  the  succeeding 
four.  Dr.  Laine,  regiilar,  finished  out  the  unex]Hred  term.  Dr. 
White  brought  the  hospital  up  to  a  high  state  of  efficiency  and  stands 
in  the  front  rank  of  the  surgeons  of  the  state.  He  was  succeeded, 
in  1904,  by  his  son,  Dr.  John  L.  White,  who  is  the  present  county 


physician  and  has  already  won  the  name  of  one  of  the  most  promising 
yoimg  surgeons  on  the  coast. 


In  the  early  days  of  the  Central  Pacific  history,  the  road  i-an 
through  a  sparsely  settled  country,  with  the  towns  few  and  far  be- 
tween and  of  small  size.  Accidents  in  the  railroad  man's  life  are 
frequent.  In  those  days  most  of  the  road's  employees  were  new  men 
on  the  coast  and  but  few  of  them  had  relatives  that  could  take  care 
of  them  when  disabled.  It  remained  then,  in  most  cases,  for  the  com- 
pany and  their  comrades  to  take  care  of  them.  These  calls  for  dona- 
tions were  frequent  and  burdensome  and  the  company  finally  con- 
cluded that  it  would  be  best  and  most  humane  for  it  to  build  a  hos- 
pital where  the  emploj^ees  could  be  treated  and  cared  for  when  sick 
or  disabled,  whether  they  had  means  or  not.  Sacramento  was  the 
place  chosen  for  the  hospital  and  an  old  residence  was  leased  for  the 
purpose.  In  1869  the  Central  Pacific  Hospital  was  built  at  a  cost  of 
$64,000.  It  was  of  four  stories,  60x35  feet,  and  two  wings,  35x52 
feet,  and  a  kitchen  twenty-four  feet  square.  It  had  six  wards,  be- 
sides eight  private  rooms  for  patients,  and  had  a  library  of  fifteen 
hundred  volumes.  The  executive  and  medical  staff  was  excellent. 
It  was  supported  by  a  monthly  contribution  of  fifty  cents  from  each 
officer  and  employee,  which  entitled  them  to  free  medical  treatment 
in  case  of  sickness  or  injury  while  in  the  employ  of  the  company.  It 
proved  of  very  great  benefit  to  the  employees.  In  1900  it  was  aban- 
doned and  removed  to  the  Charles  Crocker  residence  on  F  street  and 
Eighth,  where  it  now  is,  but  the  construction  of  a  new  one  was  begun 
in  1911  on  Second  street.  It  was  completed  in  1912,  and  has  since 
been  used  chiefly  as  an  emergency  hospital,  most  of  the  ordinary  eases 
being  sent  to  the  company's  hospital  in  San  Francisco. 


Early  in  1858  the  necessity  for  caring  for  orphan  children  was 
discussed,  and  an  association  for  that  purpose  was  formed,  but  it  did 
not  prove  of  long  continuance  and  the  matter  was  dropped  for  some 
years.  In  1867,  however,  the  governor  and  a  number  of  citizens  were 
interested  through  the  efforts  of  Mrs.  Elvira  Baldwin  in  the  care  of 
a  family  of  seven  children  orphaned  by  the  death  of  their  mother,  a 
poor  woman.  The  direct  influence  of  this  movement  was  the  awaken- 
ing of  a  new  interest  in  the  subject,  and  the  organization  of  a  society 
for  the  care  and  maintenance  of  destitute  orphans  in  the  county,  and 
ultimately  in  the  state.  Mrs.  I.  E.  Dwinell  was  the  first  president 
of  the  organization  and  the  society  rented  and  furnished  a  building 
at  Seventh  and  D  streets,  where  fourteen  or  fifteen  children  were 
immediately  placed  in  the  care  of  the  first  matron,  Mrs.  Cole.  The 
association  erected  a  building  the  next  year  on  the  block  between  K 
and  L,  Eighteenth  and  Nineteenth  streets,  where  the  new  high  school 
building  now  stands.    The  building  was  considerably  damaged  by  fire, 


December  7,  1878,  but  was  soon  repaired  and  another  and  better 
building  was  added  to  it,  making  it  commodious  and  well-arranged. 
The  year  previous  a  neat  school  building  had  been  erected,  and  the 
school  was  made  part  of  the  city  public-school  system  and  placed 
under  the  care  of  the  city  board  of  education.  No  children  except 
the  inmates  of  the  institution  were  allowed  to  attend  the  school. 

Many  noble  women  have  devoted  much  time  and  money  to  the 
welfare  and  upbuilding  of  the  institution.  Among  them  was  Mrs. 
Sarah  E.  Clayton,  who  was  president  of  the  society  in  1877-88,  and 
traveled  nearly  five  thousand  miles  in  fifteen  years,  caring  for  orphans 
who  were  afterwards  furnished  with  homes  through  the  efforts  of 
the  society.  In  1905  the  propertj^  was  sold  to  the  city  of  Sacramento 
for  high  school  purposes  and  the  institution  was  removed  to  a  site 
on  the  Lower  Stockton  Eoad,  just  beyond  the  William  Curtis  jilace. 


The  first  of  the  monuments  to  the  memory  of  Mrs.  Margaret 
Crocker  was  the  home  for  aged  women  known  as  the  MargTierite  Home, 
the  second  being  the  gift  of  the  Crocker  Art  Gallery  to  the  city.  The 
home  is  situated  at  Seventh  and  I  streets  and  was  originally  the 
residence  and  grounds  of  Capt.  William  Whitney,  comprising  a  half- 
block  on  I  street.  A  fine  building  was  added  to  the  residence,  mak- 
ing twenty-eight  large  bedrooms,  with  parlor,  reception  room,  office, 
kitchen,  laundry  and  diningroom.  Everything  was  done  for  the  com- 
fort and  convenience  of  the  inmates  and  the  rooms  are  well-lighted 
and  ventilated,  and  the  house  heated  by  hot-air  pipes.  The  grounds 
are  well  shaded  by  fine  trees  and  kept  in  good  order  by  the  trustees. 

The  Marguerite  Home  was  dedicated  February  25,  1884;  the 
sixtieth  anniversary  of  the  birth  of  Mrs.  Crocker,  the  occasion  being 
celebrated  by  a  reception  of  the  older  citizens  of  Sacramento  at  the 
home.  After  the  congratulations  were  over,  Mrs.  Margaret  Crocker 
made  the  presentation  of  the  home  to  the  trustees  in  the  following 
words,  which  explain  the  purpose  and  status  of  the  gift:  "Frank 
Miller,  Albert  Gallatin,  John  H.  Carroll,  Gustavus  L.  Simmons  and 
Charles  McCreary:  Gentlemen — Herewith  I  deliver  into  your  pos- 
session a  deed  in  trust  for  certain  money,  real  and  personal  prop- 
erty, by  means  of  which  I  propose  to  establish  a  home  for  aged 
and  indigent  women  in  Sacramento,  to  be  known  as  the  'Marguerite 
Home.'  I  have  the  honor,  gentlemen,  to  solicit  your  acceptance  of 
this  trust;  the  deed  expresses  my  intentions  without  placing  restric- 
tions on  your  mode  of  management. 

"Knowing  your  intelligence  and  ability,  and  having  full  faith  in 
your  character  and  in  your  disposition  to  aid  in  all  benevolent  pur- 
poses, and  believing  you  to  be  in  full  accord  with  my  views  in  respect 
to  the  especial  objects  in  my  regard  in  this  gift,  I  have  left,  as  you 
will  see  upon  a  careful  examination  of  the  deed,  to  your  discretion 


and  superior  knowledge  and  to  your  kind  and  earnest  efforts,  wliich 
I  most  heartily  invoke,  the  success  of  this  trust." 

Mayor  John  Q.  Brown,  Dr.  G.  L.  Simmons  and  Hon.  Joseph  Stef- 
fens  made  appropriate  responses  to  the  tender  of  the  generous  gift. 
The  deed,  in  addition  to  the  property  purchased  for  the  home,  dedi- 
cated also  $50,000  as  an  endowment  fund,  besides  $12,000  as  a  further 
aid  to  the  maintenance  of  the  home.  While  the  money  was  apportioned 
to  the  support  of  the  inmates,  the  trustees,  anxious  to  extend  the 
benefits  of  the  institution  to  a  wider  range,  concluded  to  take  for  life 
such  worthy  and  respectable  women  as  may  desire  to  enter  the  home 
and  as  are  able  to  pay  the  expenses  incident  to  their  maintenance. 

Of  the  original  trustees,  all  except  Frank  Miller  are  dead,  Dr. 
Simmons  passing  away  a  little  over  a  year  ago.  The  present  board 
of  trustees  consists  of  Ludwig  Mebius,  president.  Dr.  W.  A.  Briggs, 
vice-president,  Dr.  W.  E.  Briggs,  C.  F.  Dillman  and  H.  A.  Fairbanks. 
The  death  of  Dr.  Simmons  was  a  great  blow  to  the  board  of  directors, 
as  he  had  given  his  time  and  eifort  unstintedly  and  unselfishly  to 
looking  after  details  important  to  the  efficiency  of  the  home  and  the 
comfort  of  its  inmates.  The  patronesses  of  the  home  are  Mrs.  W.  A. 
Briggs,  Mrs.  Mebius,  Mrs.  C.  F.  Dillman,  Mrs.  W.  E.  Briggs  and 
Mrs.  Fairbanks.    Miss  Sue  M.  Clarke  is  the  present  matron. 


From  time  to  time  other  hospitals  have  been  provided  for  the 
care  of  the  sick,  which,  while  not  strictly  speaking,  charitable  institu- 
tions, are  for  the  alleviation  and  cure  of  the  ills  of  suffering  humanity, 
and  may  therefore  be  spoken  of  under  this  head.  All  "water  cures" 
and  "health  institutes"  are  hospitals,  and  after  the  rush  of  the  gold 
seekers  to  this  state  was  fairly  on,  it  is  surprising  how  quickly  all 
the  eastern  institutions  of  that  class  were  established  on  this  coast, 
although  not  on  an  extensive  scale.  There  is  no  record  as  to  when 
the  first  water  cure  was  established  in  this  city,  but  it  was  probably 
in  the  early  '50s.  We  find  Dr.  T.  P.  Zander  in  1857  advertising  one 
at  the  southwest  corner  of  Fifth  and  K  street,  and  later  a  Dr.  Burns 
established  one  which  afterwards  became  the  Pacific  Water  Cure  and 
Electric  Health  Institute. 

This  fell  later  under  the  management  of  Dr.  M.  F.  Clayton,  a 
graduate  of  the  Eclectic  Medical  Institute  of  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  who 
carried  it  on  until  his  death,  when  Mrs.  Clayton  took  charge  of  it 
for  a  number  of  years,  being  succeeded  in  its  active  management  by 
her  daughter,  Mrs.  A.  J.  Gardner.  In  1910  the  institution  was  closed 
and  the  fine  structure  known  as  the  Hotel  Clayton  was  erected  on 
its  site. 


The  care  of  the  sick  is  one  of  the  chief  objects  of  the  order  of 
Sisters  of  Mercv,  and  as  Sacramento  for  so  many  years  could  not 


lay  claim  to  any  institution  for  the  care  of  the  sick  except  those  of 
the  city  and  county  and  the  railroad  hospital,  the  Sisters,  in  1895, 
with  very  little  money,  but  with  great  faith  in  God's  providence,  pur- 
chased the  half  block  between  Q  and  R,  Twenty-second  and  Twenty- 
third  streets,  of  the  late  Dr.  G.  L.  Simmons  for  $12,000  on  a 
mortgage  note.  The  two  small  buildings  known  as  the  "Ridge  Home," 
on  Twenty-second  street,  were  a  small  beginning,  and  poorly  equipped, 
but  their  faith  was  rewarded  bj'  the  appreciation  of  the  public  and 
in  1896,  the  large  building  now  known  as  the  Hospital  Mater  Miser- 
icordiae  was  erected.  It  has  since  been  enlarged,  and  porches  run 
all  around  it,  and  is  one  of  the  best  equipped  and  best  patronized 
hospitals  on  the  coast,  having  four  elegant  operating  rooms  of  the 
latest  pattern.     Ridge  Home  is  now  utilized  as  a  home  for  the  aged. 


The  Wentworth  Igo  Hospital  was  opened  September  1,  1900,  at  a 
cost  of  $13,000,  at  No.  2515  I  street.  It  had  twenty-five  beds,  and 
increased  rapidly  in  popularity.  Dr.  Wentworth  died  in  1901  and 
Miss  Louise  Igo  continued  .the  management  of  the  hospital  until  1902, 
when  she  severed  her  connection  with  it  and  graduated  from  the 
Medical  College  of  the  University  of  California.  In  March,  1910, 
she  opened  the  Louise  Igo  Hospital  with  eight  rooms  for  patients, 
and  her  business  grew  so  rapidly  that  she  has  determined  to  build  a 
larger  institution. 


January  12,  1910,  Dr.  J.  L.  White  opened  tlie  White  Hospital  at 
Twenty-ninth  and  J  streets,  with  five  four-bed  wards,  two  four-lied 
wards  and  thirty  private  rooms.  He  is  the  owner  and  manager.  For 
more  than  ten  years  he  was  superintendent  of  the  County  Hospital 
and  is  considered  one  of  the  most  successful  young  surgeons  in  North- 
ern California.  Mrs.  Staley  is  superintendent  of  the  nurses  and  has 
a  number  of  assistants,  and  twenty-one  nurses  in  training.  The  ap- 
proximate value  of  the  hospital  is  $90,000.  The  annex  was  completed 
in  May,  1911,  with  twelve  rooms  on  the  upper  floor  for  patients.  The 
hospital  rapidly  found  its  way  into  public  favor  and  is  in  a  very 
prosperous  condition. 


The  Home  of  the  Merciful  Saviour,  on  the  J  Street  Road,  is  an 
institution  for  the  treatment  of  crippled  and  invalid  children.  Al- 
though under  the  fostering  care  of  the  Episcopal  Church  it  is 
wholly  non-sectarian  as  to  admissions  and  has  received  as  patients 
children  from  the  length  and  breadth  of  California,  the  only  requisite 
for  their  acceptance  being  a  physician's  certificate  indicating  their 
need  of  medical  or  surgical  treatment  and  the  age  restriction  of  twelve 
years  for  boys  and  fourteen  for  girls. 


The  Home  owes  its  existence  to  a  memorial  gift  of  $250,  donated 
by  the  late  Mrs.  James  Palache,  of  Berkeley,  in  remembrance  of  her 
daughter.  That  nest  egg  was  augmented  by  the  generosity  of  many 
Sacramentans  and  other  friends  in  the  diocese,  and  the  property  on 
J  street  was  purchased,  the  house  renovated  and  the  Home  opened 
for  the  reception  of  patients,  June  1,  1907,  with  an  initial  family  of 
three  little  ones. 

In  the  five  succeeding  years  one  hundred  and  twenty-five  children 
have  been  admitted,  many  have  been  discharged  "cured,"  some  "im- 
proved" and  there  have  been  eight  deaths.  The  fatalities  have  al- 
most invariably  been  due  to  the  hopeless  condition  of  the  children  when 
brought  to  the  Home.  The  average  size  of  the  family  at  the  pres- 
ent time  is  from  twenty  to  twenty-five. 

The  organization  of  the  Home  consists  of  a  board  of  directors 
from  whose  number  are  elected  a  president,  vice-president,  treas- 
urer, corresponding  and  recording  secretaries,  the  bishop  of  the 
diocese  being  ex-officio  president.  There  is  a  sustaining  member- 
ship of  annual  subscribers  and  a  life  membership  comprising  don- 
ors of  one  hundred  dollars  or  more  in  one  sum. 

There  is  also  a  Memorial  Endowment  Fund,  the  interest  from 
which  is  applied  to  the  maintenance  of  the  Home,  and  from  which 
it  is  hoped  in  time  to  realize  an  adequate  annual  income  for  the 
support  of  the  institution.  This  is  being  created  by  special  gifts, 
endowed  beds  and  bequests.  Legacies  to  this  charitable  institu- 
tion are  made  payable  to  the  Protestant  Episcopal  Bishop  of 
Sacramento,  a  Corporation  Sole,  in  trust  for  the  Home  of  the  Mer- 
ciful Saviour. 

"the  howaeds" 

The  Howard  Benevolent  Association  of  Sacramento  was  organ- 
ized in  a  time  of  great  tribulation  and  distress  in  this  city.  Tlie 
rush  of  gold  seekers  in  1849  had  brought  with  it  much  of  disease 
and  poverty,  and  the  Masons  and  Odd  Fellows  had  risen  nobly  to 
the  occasion  and  dispensed  charity  with  open  hands  and  willing 
hearts,  counting  not  the  cost  when  they  could  alleviate  distress.  In 
later  times,  when  the  floods  and  fires  brought  poverty  and  suffer- 
ing, another  organization  arose.  This  one  was  formed  purely  and 
solely  for  the  relief  of  the  destitute  and  sick,  and  well  and  faith- 
fully it  played  its  part.  No  one  will  ever  know  how  much  it  did 
for  the  needy,  for  those  who  disbursed  its  funds  never  boasted  of 
the  deeds,  and  most,  if  not  all,  of  the  original  members  have  passed 
away.  The  name  of  the  Howards,  however,  should  always  be  held 
in  reverence  by  every  citizen  of  Sacramento. 

The  first  steps  looking  to  the  organization  of  the  society  were 
taken  as  early  as  December  21,  1857,  N.  A.  H.  Ball  being  the  leader  in 
the  good  work.     The  officers  elected  for  the  first  year  were:     George 


W.  Mowe,  president;  L.  A.  Booth,  James  P.  Robinson,  Jobn  McNeill, 
E.  A.  Pearis,  James  E.  Perkins  and  N.  A.  H.  Ball,  directors;  James 
M.  Kennedy,  secretary,  and  John  S.  Bien,  treasurer.  The  income 
of  the  society  was  derived  from  membership  fees,  voluntary  con- 
tributions, donations  by  the  legislature,  and  various  other  sources. 
None  of  the  officers  except  the  steward  received  any  salary.  Dur- 
ing the  floods  of  1861-62  the  association  had  its  headquarters  at  the 
Old  Pavilion  on  M  street,  as  stated  in  a  previous  chapter,  and  as- 
sisted hundreds  of  homeless  people.  For  many  years  it  distributed 
to  the  needy  about  $4000  a  year  and  numbered  about  thirty  active 
members,  who  elected  the  directors.  Of  late  years  the  Howards  have 
not  had  so  many  calls  on  their  charity,  as  the  county  has  taken  hold 
of  such  matters  more  systematically.  For  this  reason  their  reserve 
fund  has  accumulated  until  it  amounts  to  about  $20,000.  The  pres- 
ent board  of  directors  consists  of  R.  D.  Finnic  and  Fred  Biewener, 
John  Weil,  the  third  member  having  died  in  January,  1912. 

The  Catholic  Ladies'  Relief  Society,  No.  1,  has  been  in  ex- 
istence for  many  years  and  has  faithfully  looked  after  the  needs  of 
the  destitute  and  sick  of  their  denomination. 

The  Young  Men's  Christian  Association  was  organized  October 
3,  1866,  and  elected  officers  as  follows:  N.  N.  Denton,  president;  H. 
B.  Eddy,  secretary,  and  M.  L.  Templeton,  treasurer.  Twenty-six 
names  were  enrolled  at  the  organization.  At  a  subsequent  meeting 
October  22,  1866,  at  the  Congregational  Church,  the  organization 
was  completed  by  electing  other  officers,  as  follows :  Sparrow  Smith, 
corresponding  secretary;  George  "Wick,  librarian;  H.  W.  Earl,  regis- 
trar; G.  W.  Bruff,  Seth  Babson,  A.  Aitken,  J.  M.  Ripley,  G.  W. 
Bonner,  board  of  managers ;  and  the  following  vice-presidents :  Frank 
Miller  (Congregational  Church),  G.  R.  Forshee  (Sixth  Street  Metho- 
dist Church),  A.  Aitken  (Presbyterian  Church),  C.  Emery  (Baptist 
Church),  and  Henry  Garrett   (Christian  Church). 

The  association  died  down  in  1877  and  1878,  but  was  soon  after 
revived.  Its  headquarters  were  at  No.  309  K  street,  the  St.  George 
Building,  and  on  the  west  side  of  Sixth  street,  between  K  and  L. 
At  present  they  own  the  building  at  the  Northwest  corner  of  Fifth 
and  J  streets,  but  it  has  been  razed,  and  a  splendid  building,  costing 
with  the  lot  about  $200,000,  is  being  erected  on  the  site.  The  associa- 
tion is  strong  and  prosperous  and  has  a  large  membership. 


The  New  Helvetia  Cemetery,  which  lies  south  of  and  adjoining 
McKinley  Park,  just  east  of  Thirty-first  street,  is  the  oldest  bury- 
ing ground  in  Sacramento,  and  is  embraced  in  the  original  plat  of 
Sutter's  Port.  Ten  acres  here  were  donated  for  burial  purposes 
by  Gen.  John  A.  Sutter  to  the  city,  about  the  first  of  December, 
1849.     The  first  person  buried   was   Major   Cloud,   a  paymaster   of 


the  United  States  army,  who  was  killed  in  1847  some  distance  south- 
east of  the  fort,  by  being  thrown  from  a  horse.  The  second  person 
buried  in  the  cemetery  was  Miss  Susanna  Hitchcock,  who  died  early 
in  1849  at  the  new  diggings  on  the  Stanislaus;  the  third  was  James 
McDowell,  who  was  shot  in  Washington,  just  across  the  river  from 
this  city.  Many  interments  were  made  here  in  1849  and  1850,  dur- 
ing the  times  when  sickness  and  cholera  were  so  prevalent.  Since 
the  annexation  of  the  suburbs  beyond  it  in  1911,  bringing  this  and 
the  Jewish  cemeteries  within  the  city  limits,  it  is  proposed  to  re- 
move the  remains  of  those  buried  there  to  some  other  place,  and 
abolish  those  cemeteries. 

The  City  Cemetery  was  located  south  of  Y  street  in  1850,  on 
the  southern  boundary  of  the  city  limits,  on  Tenth  street.  It  origin- 
ally comprised  about  twenty  acres,  but  the  area  has  been  largely  in- 
creased by  additions.  It  is  beautifully  adorned  with  trees,  flowering 
shrubs  and  plants,  and  many  fine  monuments  are  to  be  seen  there. 
The  Freemasons,  Odd  Fellows,  Red  Men,  Firemen,  Pioneers,  Print- 
ers, Veterans  of  the  Mexican  war,  and  other  organizations  have 
plats  within  the  enclosure,  as  has  also  the  state,  where  a  number  of 
state  officials  were  buried.  This  cemetery  is  owned  by  the  city,  and 
is  controlled  by  a.  superintendent  elected  by  the  board  of  trustees. 

The  Hebrew  Cemetery  is  under  the  control  of  the  Congregation 
B'nai  Israel,  but  is  owned  by  the  Hebrew  Benevolent  Society.  A 
chapel  has  been  erected  on  the  grounds,  which  are  enclosed  by  a 

St.  Joseph's  Cemetery  belongs  to  the  Catholic  diocese  of  Sac- 
ramento and  was  consecrated  by  Archbishop  Alemany  in  1865.  It  is 
located  at  Twenty-first  and  Y  streets,  and  is  well  kept  by  the  sup- 

East  Lawn  Cemetery  is  the  most  modern  of  all  the  cemeteries, 
having  been  opened  by  a  private  corporation  in  1904.  It  is  located 
on  a  knoll  which  is  part  of  the  farm  formerly  owned  by  Governor 
Booth,  on  the  M  street  road,  or  Schley  avenue,  as  it  is  called,  a  short 
distance  east  of  the  former  city  limits,  but  now  far  within  them 
since  the  annexation  of  the  eastern  suburbs.  It  occupies  a  beautiful 
site  and  will,  in  time,  be  one  of  the  first  in  the  state.  It  was  fur- 
nished with  a  furnace  for  cremation  a  year  or  two  ago. 



One  of  the  first  accomjianiments  of  civilization  is  the  newspaper. 
The  savage  communicates  with  his  fellows  by  breaking  twigs  on  the 
trail  or  by  smoke  and  other  si.gnals  in  the  hills  and  on  the  plains. 
Civilized  man  uses  more  universal  and  wide-spread  devices  for  dis- 
seminating the  news.     In  the  days  of   '49  the  people  were  no  less 


eager  to  hear  the  news  than  are  we  of  the  present  day,  who  must 
devonr  the  news  from  the  daily  paper  while  we  devour  our  break- 
fast. News  from  the  mines  was  no  less  eagerly  sought  by  the  dweller 
in  the  city  than  was  the  news  from  the  city  and  the  east  by  the 
miner  at  his  claim.  It  was  a  foregone  conclusion,  therefore,  that 
as  soon  as  society  was  organized,  the  journalist  should  open  his 
office  and  begin  to  supply  the  demand. 

The  Monterey  Californkm  was  the  first  newspaper  issued  in 
California  and  was  published  and  edited  by  Rev.  Walter  Colton,  a 
chaplain  in  the  United  States  navy,  and  Dr.  Robert  Semple.  The 
type  was  principally  long  primer,  an  old  Spanish  font,  badly  worn 
and  battered.  As  there  is  no  "w"  in  the  Spanish  language,  two 
"v's"  were  substituted  in  words  containing  "w. "  The  press  was 
an  old  Eamage,  which  had  been  used  by  the  Mexican  authorities  for 
printing  their  edicts  and  other  public  papers.  The  first  issue  of 
the  Californian  was  printed  on  an  inferior  quality  of  paper  used 
for  tobacco  wrappers,  and  was  issued  in  the  summer  of  1846.  John 
R.  Gould,  of  Baltimore,  afterwards  secretary  of  the  Maryland  As- 
sociation of  Veterans  of  the  Mexican  War,  assisted  by  a  boy,  set 
the  tj'pe,  worked  off  the  paper  and  kept  the  books  of  the  office.  B. 
P.  Kooser,  a  corporal  in  the  United  States  army,  was  compositor 
and  pressman  on  the  Californian  in  1847,  and  subsequently  pub- 
lished the  Santa  Cruz  Sentinel  and  was  a  commissioner  from  the 
state  at  the  Centennial  Exposition. 

The  second  paper  published  in  this  state  was  the  California 
Star,  the  first  number  being  issued  in  San  Fi-ancisco  January  9, 
1847.  It  was  a  weekly  a  little  larger  than  the  Californian  and  was 
published  by  Sam  Brannan  and  edited  by  E.  P.  Jones.  The  press 
was  a  tolerably  good  one  and  the  Sonora  Herald  afterwards  used 
it.  On  the  17th  of  April,  1848,  Mr.  Jones  resigned  and  E.  C.  Kemble 
succeeded  him  as  editor.  The  last  number  of  the  first  volume  was 
issued  January  1,  1848.  The  first  number  of  the  second  volume  ap- 
peared January  8,  1848,  in  enlarged  form  and  its  publication  was 
continued  regularly  till  May  26,  when  the  printers  went  to  the  mines 
and  its  publication  was  discontinued.  The  Californian  having  been 
discontinued  for  the  same  reason,  California  was  without  a  news- 
paper from  the  last  of  May  till  the  latter  part  of  June,  1848. 

About  July  1,  1848,  a  few  printers  returned  disgusted  from  the 
mines  and  commenced  the  publication  of  the  third  volume  of  the 
Californian,  and  published  it  irregiilarly  until  August,  when  it  re- 
commenced its  regular  weekly  issues  under  the  editorial  manage- 
ment of  H.  I.  Sheldon.  In  September  Mr.  Kemble,  who  had  re- 
turned from  the  mines,  purchased  the  Californian,  as  well  as  the 
interests  of  his  partners  in  the  Star,  and  united  the  two  under  the 
title  of  the  Star  and  Californian  and  recommenced  where  the  Star 
had  left  off — Volume  III,  No.  24.     It  was  the  only  paper  then  pub- 


lished  in  California  and  was  issued  weeklj-  till  the  last  of  December, 
1848,  when  it  was  discontinued.  January  1,  1849,  Mr.  Kemble  took 
into  partnership  Messrs.  Gilbert  and  Hubbard,  and  began  publish- 
ing the  Alta  California.  They  published  it  weekly  until  November 
10,  1849,  when  it  was  issued  tri-weekly  and  after  January  23,  1850, 
it  was  published  daily,  simultaneously  with  the  Journal  of  Com- 
merce, published  by  W.  Bartlett.  March  4,  1849,  the  Pacific  News 
also  appeared  daily.  The  fourth  paper  started  in  California  and  the 
second  published  in  1849  was  the  Placer  Times,  at  New  Helvetia, 
Sutter's  Fort  April  28,  1849,  published  by  E.  Gilbert  &  Co.,  in  Sac- 
ramento, and  edited  by  Jesse  Giles.  It  was  a  weekly  sheet  and  a 
small  one.  It  was  printed  on  sheets  of  foolscap  size.  Printing  paper 
was  very  scarce  in  California,  but  the  market  was  overstocked  with 
unruled  foolscap,  which  was  made  a  substitute.  The  Pacific  News 
was  the  third  newspaper  published  in  the  state,  at  this  time,  and 
was  the  first  tri-weekly.  It  was  published  in  San  Francisco  on  fools- 
cap paper,  fte  lack  of  size  being  compensated  for  by  supplementary 

During  the  winter  of  1849-50,  George  Kenyon  Fitch  came  by 
the  Isthmus  route,  bringing  with  him  a  hand  and  a  card  press,  ink, 
tjTse  and  about  thirty  reams  of  printing  paper.  He  proposed  to  five 
attaches  of  the  Pacific  News — F.  C.  Ewer,  H.  S.  Warren,  J.  M. 
Julian,  Theodore  Russell  and  S.  C.  Upham — the  formation  of  a  com- 
pany to  publish  a  newspajDer  at  Sacramento,  and  the  proposition  was 
accepted.  They  rented  the  second  floor  of  a  frame  building  on  Second 
street,  between  J  and  K  streets,  and  April  1,  1850,  the  initial  number 
of  the  tri-weekly  paper  was  issued,  which  was  christened  the  Sacra- 
mento Transcript.  It  was  published  on  a  folio  sheet,  in  brevier  and 
nonpareil  type.  A  steamer  edition,  for  circulation  in  the  Atlantic 
states,  was  printed  once  a  month,  selling  at  fifty  cents  a  copy,  while 
the  tri-weekly  sold  at  twelve  and  one-half  cents  and  advertisements 
were  inserted  for  $4  a  square,  each  insertion.  The  six  copartners 
accepted  positions  on  the  paper  as  follows:  G.  K.  Fitch,  heavy  and 
fighting  editor;  F.  C.  Ewer,  literary  editor;  H.  S.  Warren,  foreman; 
J.  M.  Julian,  compositor;  Theodore  Russell,  pressman;  and  S.  C. 
Upham,  local  reporter,  business  manager,  printer's  devil,  "dead 
head,"  etc. 

In  its  salutatory  the  Transcript  uttered  a  sentiment  that  it  would 
be  well  for  the  papers  of  the  present  day  to  adopt.     It  said  in  part : 

"The  opening  of  a  new  paper  is  like  the  planting  of  a  tree 

Its  shade  should  be  free  to  all.  It  should  reach  forth  its  branches  to 
shield  the  innocent  from  the  pelting  storm,  and,  conscious  of  its  fear- 
less might,  men  should  come  to  it  for  protection,  and  find  refresh- 
ment in  its  shade.  It  should  be  nurtured  by  no  unhealthy  influences; 
it  should  be  propped  up  by  no  interested  motives;  its  growth  should 
be  free  and  unrestrained.    Perchance  it  may  wither  in  its  youth,  and 



no  longer  be  tlie  home  of  healthy  influences.  Perhaps  it  may  be 
stricken  in  its  manhood  by  the  storms  of  adversity.  Perchance  it 
may  flourish  through  the  years  and  grow  green;  but  of  all  dangers 
that  assail  it  from  without,  the  insidious  influence  of  those  who  may 
cluster  round  it  for  their  own  jDrivate  ends  is  the  most  withering 
and  the  most  to  be  feared.  A  newspaper  should  never  be  used.  It 
is  too  tremendous  a  lever  to  be  brought  to  bear  for  any  jjurpose, 
save  for  the  good  of  the  public."  , 

The  day  of  publication  of  its  first  number  was,  besides  being 
"All  Fools'  Day,"  the  first  election  day  under  the  new  charter  and 
there  were  three  tickets  in  the  field — the  Democratic,  the  ranchers' 
and  the  citizens'  ticket.  The  total  number  of  votes  cast  was  2,943, 
and  Hardin  Biglow,  the  people's  candidate,  received  a  majority  of 
323  over  all  the  others.  The  Transcript  was  the  fifth  newspaper  pub- 
lished on  the  Pacific  Coast  and  the  first  daily  outside  of  San  Fran- 
cisco published  in  California.  Ten  days  later  the  Placer  Times  came 
out  daily. 

The  Transcript  was  a  financial  success,  but  Mr.  Julian  retired 
within  two  months  and  Mr.  Upham  a  month  later  sold  his  interest 
to  G.  C.  Weld,  California  correspondent  of  the  New  York  Journal  of 
Commerce.  Mr.  Weld  was  a  model  business  man  and  a  fine  writer, 
but  died  within  six  weeks  of  the  time  he  became  one  of  the  proprie- 
tors and  the  paper  beginning  to  run  down,  was  consolidated  with  the 
Placer  Times.  A  year  later,  the  Times  and  Transcript  removed  to 
San  Francisco  and  took  a  leading  position  as  a  Democratic  organ, 
under  Pickering  and  Fitch.  It  died  in  1856  of  a  Democratic  contro- 

When  the  Placer  Times  was  started  the  office  was  not  equipped 
with  a  modern  plant  equal  to  those  nowadays.  A  lot  of  old  t^qse 
was  picked  up  out  of  the  Alta  office,  an  old  Ramage  press  was  re- 
paired, a  lot  of  Spanish  foolscap  was  secured  in  San  Francisco,  and 
the  whole  was  shipped  to  Sacramento  on  a  vessel  named  the  Dice  me 
Nana  (says  my  mamma),  the  first  craft  to  carry  type  and  press  to 
the  interior  of  California,  and  which  made  the  trip  in  eight  days. 
An  office  was  built  for  the  paper  about  six  hundred  feet  from  the 
northeast  corner  of  the  bastion  of  Sutter's  Fort,  and  near  what  is 
now"  the  corner  of  Twenty-eighth  and  K  streets.  The  structure  was 
a  queer  mixture  of  wood,  adobe  and  cotton  cloth,  but  it  answered 
the  purpose.  The  paper  was  13x18  inches  in  size,  and  the  title  was 
cut  from  wood  with  a  ]5ocket  knife.  All  sorts  of  expedients  were 
resorted  to  in  cutting  off  and  piecing  out  letters  to  round  out  a  com- 
plement of  "sorts"  for  the  cases.  The  press  had  a  wooden  platen, 
which  needed  constant  planing  to  keep  it  level,  and  the  rollers  were 
not  a  most  brilliant  success.  The  plant  like  its  owners  was  a  pioneer 
in  that  line,  but  with  all  its  defects,  it  "filled  a  long  felt  want,"  and 
the  merchants  of  the  city  rallied  around  the  pioneer  publisher  and 


subscribed  liberally  to  secure  bim  from  loss.  It  bas  been  said  tliat 
in  tbis  country  tbe  newspaper  is  tbe  berald  of  progress,  and  in  an 
energetic  community  like  that  of  early  Sacramento  tbe  truth  of  the 
assertion  was  certainly  made  good. 

When  tbe  Times  and  Transcript  were  combined  under  the  double 
head  in  June,  1851,  the  new  paper  was  enlarged.  Tbe  Transcript 
bad  been  started  as  an  independent  paper,  but  in  1850  it  came  out 
for  the  Democratic  party,  thus  being  the  first  interior  Democratic 
paper.  The  Times  had  also  originally  been  neutral,  but  bad  also  in 
1850  leaned  toward  Democracy.  When  the  Squatter  riot  excitement 
arose,  it  had  been  valiant  in  defense  of  the  real-estate  owners,  but 
under  its  new  management  it  became  less  partisan.  At  tbe  time  of 
tbe  consolidation  G.  K.  Fitch  had  become  state  printer  and  Lorin 
Pickering  bad  the  city  printing.  This  formed  an  advantageous  basis 
for  the  fusion,  Fitch  retaining  a  half  interest  in  the  printing  and 
Pickering  and  Lawrence  the  other  half.  The  three  were  the  editors. 
The  State  Journal  became  an  active  rival  to  the  new  paper  and  in 
June,  1852,  tbe  Times-Transcript  abandoned  the  field  to  its  rival  and 
removed  to  San  Francisco,  where  it  was  published  by  the  old  firm, 
which  was  afterwards  succeeded  by  George  Kerr  &  Co.,  composed  of 
George  Kerr,  B.  F.  Washington,  J.  E.  Lawrence  and  J.  C.  Haswell. 
From  then  it  passed  to  Edwin  Bell  and  later  to  Vincent  E.  Geiger  & 
Co.  In  the  meantime  Fitch  &  Co.  bad  acquired  the  Alta  California 
and  December  17,  1854,  they  repurchased  tbe  old  Times-Transcript 
and  absorbed  it  into  tbe  Alta. 

October  30,  1850,  the  Squatter  Association  started  a  paper,  styl- 
ing it  the  Settlers'  and  Miners'  Tribune.  Dr.  Charles  Robinson,  who 
had  become  noted  for  tbe  part  be  took  in  tbe  Squatter  riots  and  who 
subsequently  became  tbe  free-state  governor  of  Kansas,  was  the 
editor;  James  McClatchy  and  L.  M.  Booth  were  the  associate  editors. 
The  type  was  brought  from  Maine  by  Sirus  Rowe.  Except  for  Sun- 
days, it  was  a  daily  for  a  month,  but  then  declined  into  a  weekly  and 
after  another  month  it  died  quietly  and  took  its  place  in  the  journal- 
istic boneyard. 

Tbe  Sacramento  Index  was  started  December  23,  1850,  by  Lynch, 
Davidson  &  Rolfe,  practical  printers,  with  J.  W.  Winans,  since  a 
prominent  San  Francisco  lawyer,  as  editor,  and  H.  B.  Livingstone  as 
associate.  It  was  of  good  size,  typographically  neat  and  a  paper  of 
rare  literary  ability.  It  was  the  first  evening  paper  in  Sacramento 
and  was  printed  in  tbe  Times  ofSee.  Having  taken  ground  against 
the  action  of  a  vigilance  committee  in  hanging  a  gambler,  it  lost  in- 
fluence. After  a  career  of  three  months  it  died  March  17,  1851,  and 
joined  tbe  squatters'  paper  in  the  boneyard. 

Before  the  union  of  tbe  Times  and  tbe  Transcript,  tbe  compe- 
tition between  them  became  so  fierce  that  the  prices  of  advertising 
declined  until  they  fell  below  the  price  of  composition.     At  last  the 


printers  in  both  offices  rebelled  and  the  greater  number  of  them  quit. 
They  held  a  meeting  in  a  building  adjoining  the  Transcript  office, 
which  thereby  acquired  the  name  of  "Sedition  Hall,"  and  resolved 
to  start  a  new  i3aper,  for  which  they  secured  as  editor  Dr.  J.  F. 
Morse.  Buying  their  stock  in  San  Francisco,  they  launched  the  Sac- 
ramento Daily  Union  at  No.  21  J  street,  March  19,  1851,  renting 
rooms  for  it  in  the  Langley  brick  building.  The  fate  of  several  of 
the  proprietors  was  tragic.  Alexander  Clark  went  to  the  Society 
Islands  and  was  never  heard  from  afterwards;  W.  J.  Keating  died  a 
few  years  afterwards  in  an  insane  asylum;  Joe  Court  was  burned 
to  death  at  the  Western  Hotel  fire  in  this  city,  in  the  fall  of  1874. 
The  others  were  Alexander  C.  Cook,  E.  Gr.  Jeffries,  Charles  L.  Han- 
secker,  J.  H.  Harmon,  W.  A.  Davidson  and  Samuel  H.  Dosh.  The 
latter  subsequently  became  editor  of  the  Shasta  Courier  and  died 
prior  to  1875. 

It  was  nearly  a  year,  however,  before  type  could  be  procured. 
A  lot  had  been  ordered,  but  failed  to  arrive.  J.  W.  Simonton  having 
made  an  appearance  with  a  full  fledged  printing  office,  with  the  in- 
tention of  starting  a  Whig  paper,  was  persuaded  to  sell  and  his 
stock  was  purchased  by  the  Union  men. 

The  daily  edition  of  the  Union  started  with  five  hundred  copies 
and  rapidly  increased.  The  paper  was  23x34  inches,  with  twenty- 
four  columns,  thirteen  of  which  were  filled  with  advertisements.  It 
was  an  independent,  outspoken  paper  and  ably  edited.  The  edition 
printed  March  29,  1851,  was  entitled  the  Steadier  Union,  and  was 
designed  for  reading  in  the  eastern  states.  April  29,  1851,  the  Union 
hoisted  the  Whig  flag,  at  the  same  time  declining  to  be  ranked  as  a 
subservient  partisan.  S.  H.  Dosh  soon  sold  out  for  $600  and  in 
June,  Harmon  sold  out  for  a  like  sum.  On  April  23  the  paper  was 
enlarged  to  the  size  it  has  since  averaged,  and  appeared  in  the  new 
ty|3e  at  first  ordered.  H.  B.  Livingstone  became  associate  editor  in 
January,  1852,  and  Hansecker  sold  out  for  $2,000,  the  firm  now  be- 
coming* E.  G.  Jeffries  &  Co.  They  next  sold  out  to  W.  W.  Kurtz 
for  $2,100.  The  first  Weekly  Union  was  issued  January  10,  1852. 
February  13,  Cook  sold  out  to  H.  W.  Larkin,  and  April  3,  Davidson 
sold  to  Paul  Morrill.  In  May  Dr.  Morse  retired  as  editor,  being 
succeeded  by  A.  C.  Russell,  who  remained  until  August.  Lauren 
Upson  succeeded  him  as  editor,  retiring  for  a  time  in  1853,  when 
John  A.  Collins  filled  the  place. 

November  2,  1852,  the  Union  was  burned  out  in  the  great  fire. 
A  small  press  and  a  little  type  were  saved  and  the  second  morning 
after  the  fire  the  paper  came  out  foolscap  size,  but  soon  resumed  its 
former  dimensions.  A  brick  building  was  erected  for  it  on  J  street. 
near  Second.  May  16,  1853,  Jeffries  &  Kurtz  sold  to  the  other  part- 
ners and  to  James  Anthony,  who  had  been  in  the  business  depart- 
ment of  the  paper  since  November,  1851.     The  firm  became  James 


Anthony  &  Co.  Keating  sold  to  Morrill,  Anthony,  Clark  and  Lar- 
kin,  and  in  December  Clark's  interest  passed  to  the  firm.  A  steam 
engine  was  installed  Jime  20,  1853,  to  rim  the  press. 

In  May,  1858,  Morrill  sold  his  interest  to  J.  Gray,  and  went  to 
New  Hampshire,  reiraining  between  one  and  two  years,  when  he  re- 
turned and  bonght  back  Gray's  interest.  In  February,  1875,  the 
firm  sold  out  to  the  Sacramento  Publishing  Company,  which  also 
purchased  the  Sacramento  Daily  and  Weekly  Record  and  the  two 
papers  assumed  the  title  of  the  Sacramento  Daily  Record  Union.  Be- 
sides the  daily  issue,  the  semi-weekly  feature  of  the  Record  was 
maintained,  being  issued  on  Wednesdays  and  Saturdays.  Since  that 
time  the  daily  has  been  issued  on  each  day  of  the  week  except  Sun- 
days, which  day  was  added  in  1893,  with  a  double  or  eight-page  edi- 
tion on  Saturdays  and  a  mammoth  sheet  on  each  New  Year's  day. 

Mr.  Upson  remained  chief  editor  of  the  Union  about  twelve 
years.  He  was  succeeded  by  H.  C.  Watson,  who  served  until  his 
death  in  June,  1867,  and  was  succeeded  by  Samuel  Seabough,  who 
served  until  the  merging  of  the  Union  with  the  Record.  George 
Frederick  Parsons,  editor-in-chief  of  the  Record,  then  became  editor- 
in-chief  of  the  Record-Union,  and  continued  as  such  until  his  re- 
moval to  New  York  in  1883,  and  J.  A.  Woodson  became  the  editorial 
writer.  When  the  Record  was  consolidated  with  the  Union,  W.  H. 
Mills,  one  of  the  proprietors  of  the  Record,  became  the  manager  and 
remained  in  charge  until  his  removal  to  San  Francisco  in  January, 
1883,  and  C.  E.  Carrington  was  appointed  local  manas-ing  editor, 
with  T.  W.  Sheehan  business  manager.  April  1,  1889,  Mr.  Carring- 
ton retired  and  E.  B.  Willis  and  T.  W.  Sheehan  were  appointed 
general  managers  of  the  paper,  the  former  assuming  the  duties  of 
managing  editor  and  the  latter  remaining  in  immediate  charge  of 
the  business  department.  Mr.  Willis  continued  as  managing  editor 
for  seventeen  years,  the  longest  term  of  anyone  who  held  that  posi- 
tion, resigning  to  accept  the  secretarvship  of  the  state  commission 
to  the  St.  Louis  Exposition.  Mr.  Sheehan  remained  as  business  man- 
ager until  after  the  paper  changed  hands  in  June,  1904,  Alfred  Hol- 
man  becoming  publisher.  Mr.  Holman  remained  as  publisher  until 
the  paper  was  purchased  by  Col.  E.  A.  Forbes  in  December,  1906.  In 
February,  1908,  the  paper  again  changed  hands,  the  Calkins  Syndi- 
cate purchasing  it,  but  becoming  involved  in  financial  difficulties 
caused  by  broadening  out  and  assuming  the  proprietorship  of  several 
other  papers  in  the  state,  the  control  passed  from  the  hands  of  the 
syndicate.  In  1910  the  paper  was  purchased  by  Lewey  E.  Bontz. 
who  had  been  superintending  it  for  the  creditors,  and  had  been  busi- 
ness manager  from  Holman 's  time.  The  paper  is  now  owned  by  the 
L.  E.  Bontz  Publishing  Company. 

May  19,  1889,  the  publication  of  the  Sunday  Union  was  begun 
and  it  was  mailed  to  all  the  subscribers  for  the  Weekly  Union,  the 


semi-weekly  having  been  discontinued.  The  fine  three-story  build- 
ing which  was  built  for  the  Union  in  1861,  on  the  east  side  of  Third 
street,  is  now  occupied  by  the  Union,  the  name  of  the  paper  having 
been  changed  from  the  Record-Union  to  the  Union  by  Mr.  Holman 
during  his  proprietorship.  The  building  was  remodeled  by  the 
Calkins  Syndicate  during  their  ownership  and  a  splendid  new  press 
put  in,  besides  other  expensive  changes. 

Among  the  earliest  of  the  defunct  journals  comes  the  Democratic 
State  Journal,  the  initial  number  appearing  February  5,  1852.  It 
was  a  morning  paper,  about  the  size  of  the  Record-Union.  V.  E. 
Geiger  &  Co.  were  the  publishers  and  Geiger  and  B.  F.  Washington 
were  the  editors.  It  battled  valiantly  for  the  Democratic  party,  sup- 
porting John  Bigler  in  his  political  aspirations,  while  its  contem- 
porary, the  Times  and  Transcript,  supported  William  M.  Gwin.  Early 
in  1853  Washington  retired,  and  was  employed  on  the  Times  and 
Transcript,  and  B.  B.  Redding,  afterwards  land  agent  of  the  Central 
Pacific  Company,  became  editor.  The  destruction  of  the  office  by  the 
great  fire  of  1852  greatly  impeded  the  paper,  and  in  June,  1853,  a 
new  firm  was  composed,  consisting  of  B.  B.  Redding,  P.  C.  Johnson, 
S.  J.  May  and  James  McClatch\.  In  April,  1854,  Johnson  sold  to 
Colonel  Snowden,  and  in  June,  Mr.  May  sold  to  Redding  and  Snow- 
den.  All  of  these  pioneer  newspaper  owners  have  been  dead  for  many 

In  the  fall  of  1854  William  Walker,  who  afterward  became  known 
as  General  Walker,  of  Nicaragiia  filibuster  fame,  the  "gray-eyed  man 
of  destiny,"  became  editor.  Mr.  McClatchy  sold  out  to  D.  J. 
Thomas  in  October,  1854.  Walker  retired  in  February,  1855,  and  Mc- 
Clatchv  became  editor,  being  succeeded  in  a  month  by  John  White. 
In  1856  Snowden  sold  out  to  Redding  and  Thomas  and  in  June,  1857, 
the  party  having  failed  to  give  adequate  support  to  it,  the  paper  was 
sold,  under  attachment  and  bought  in  by  the  printers  in  the  office. 
It  resumed  publication  in  about  four  weeks,  with  Henry  Shipley  & 
Co.  as  publishers,  and  after  various  vicissitudes  yielded  up  the  ghost 
June  24,  1858.  At  one  time  it  ran  a  column  in  French  and  was  the 
only  Sacramento  paper  that  had  a  department  in  a  foreign  tongue. 

In  August,  1852,  T.  Alter  began  the  publication  of  a  weekly  Bap- 
tist paper,  with  0.  C.  Wheeler  and  E.  J.  Willis  as  editors.  It  had  its 
office  in  the  courthouse  and  lived  about  a  year,  losing  $3000  to  its 

November  17,  1852,  E.  Williamson  &  Co.,  with  James  McClatchy 
and  D.  J.  Thoiuas  as  editors,  started  a  settler  Democratic  daily 
paper,  super-royal  in  size  and  in  April,  1853,  S.  J.  May  bought  one- 
fourth  interest  and  became  editor.  It  was  burned  out  and  started 
again  in  an  old  deserted  kitchen  bought  from  the  county  for  that  pur- 
pose.    On  July  30th  it  fused  with  the  State  Journal. 

The  California  Statesman,  a  morning  paper  published  by  J.  W. 


Gisli  &  Co.  and  edited  by  Henry  Meredith,  started  November  13, 
1854.  It  was  Democratic  and  supported  William  M.  Gwin  for  United 
States  senator  against  Broderick.  March  1,  1855,  Gish  &  Woodward, 
the  publishers,  sued  Gwin  and  Ilardenbergh  on  a  claim  that  they  had 
agreed  to  pay  $2500  for  the  support  of  Gwin  by  the  paper.  They 
alleged  that  Gwin  also  agreed  to  give  the  paper  the  public  printing. 
They  placed  their  damages  at  $20,000,  but  were  thrown  out  of  court 
on  the  ground  that  the  agreement  was  contrary  to  public  policy. 
Hardenbergh  then  sued  for  possession  and  the  Statesman  died. 

The  California  Farmer  and  Journal  of  Useful  Science,  which 
had  been  published  in  San  Francisco,  appeared  in  Sacramento  in 
May,  1855,  as  a  weekly  paper,  published  by  Warren  &  Son,  and  J. 
K.  Philips  &  Co.     In  1856  it  moved  back  to  San  Francisco. 

In  March,  1854,  Dr.  Morse  and  S.  Colville  issued  the  first  and 
only  number  of  a  monthly  magazine  called  "Illustrated  Historical 
Sketches  of  California,  with  a  minute  liistory  of  the  Sacramento  Val- 
le^^"  It  was  a  good  number,  but  the  business  department  was  poorly 
managed  and  the  second  number  never  appeared. 

The  Pacific  Recorder  appeared  July  15,  1854,  edited  by  E.  J. 
Willis  and  was  to  be  the  organ  of  the  Baptist  church.  It  was  a  neat 
semi-monthly  and  July,  1855,  it  became  a  weeklj^,  but  in  March  follow- 
ing it  was  discontinued. 

June  8,  1855,  the  State  Tribune,  a  daily  paper,  appeared,  edited 
and  ]nihlished  by  Parker  H.  French  and  S.  J.  May.  It  was  pro- 
fessedly independent  of  politics,  but  had  Democratic  proclivities. 
In  Se]5tember  French  sold  out  to  May  and  left  with  the  Nicaragua 
expedition.  J.  N.  Estill  became  editor  August  1st,  and  opposed  John 
Bigler  and  the  Democracy  so  vigorously  that  it  soon  became  promi- 
nent as  an  opposition  journal.  French  returned  to  the  state  and 
bought  into  it  again,  but  some  of  the  arrangements  for  pa>Tnent  were 
left  in  such  form  that  difficulty  ensued.  He  sold  to  George  W.  Gift, 
who  had  assigned  to  Monson  and  Valentine,  who  attached  the  paper. 
S.  J.  May  and  his  three  remaining  partners  set  out  these  things  in 
a  card  and  issued  a  new  Tribune,  so  that  October  16,  1855,  two 
Tribunes  appeared,  each  claiming  to  be  the  genuine  one.  May  & 
Co.'s  issue  was  from  the  material  of  the  defunct  Statesman.  The 
other  Tribune  was  published  by  Farwell  &  Co.  Both  papers  were 
ardent  American  or  Know-Nothing  sheets,  and  each  was  very  bitter 
against  the  other.  The  war  lasted  two  weeks,  when  Farwell  &  Co. 
Tribune  gave  up  and  the  Tribune  came  out  with  James  Allen  &  Co., 
as  publishers,  still  advocating  Know-Nothin.gism.  It  lived  till  June 
1,  1856.  A  new  paper  sprang  up  the  next  day  from  its  ashes,  called 
the  California  American,  and  was  as  radical  in  its  Know-Nothingism 
as  its  predecessor.  James  Allen,  J.  E.  Eidge  and  S.  J.  May  were 
the  proprietors.    Allen  at  the  time  was  state  printer  and  was  said  to 


have  sunk  $15,000  on  the  paper,  which  never  was  a  success.  He  died 
in  February,  1856. 

The  Water  Fount  and  Home  Journal,  a  weekly  paper,  was  issued 
December  15,  1855,  by  Alexander  Montgomery  &  Co.,  with  Montgom- 
ery as  editor.  It  was  the  official  organ  of  the  Sons  of  Temperance 
and  lived  only  nine  months. 

December  6,  1855,  George  H.  Baker  and  J.  A.  Mitchell  started  an 
independent  evening  paper  called  the  Spirit  of  the  Age.  In  June, 
1856,  it  changed  its  name  to  the  Sacramento  Age,  and  was  enlarged, 
with  A.  A.  Appleton  &  Co.  as  publishers.  In  the  summer  of  1856 
it  was  sold  to  the  Know-Nothings  and  made  their  fight  till  the  elec- 
tion was  over,  dying  in  1857. 

December  24,  1855,  A.  Badlam  &  Co.  started  the  Daily  Evening 
Times,  a  gratuitous  advertising  sheet  10x18  inches  and  worked  on  a 
wooden  press  made  bv  the  publishers.  It  died  of  inanition  in  March, 

December  11,  1856,  C.  Babb  and  W.  H.  Harvey,  with  Paschal 
Coggins  as  editor,  started  the  publication  of  a  daily  morning  inde- 
pendent paper  of  small  size,  called  the  City  Item.  It  lived  seven 

Cornelius  Cole  &  Co.  commenced  the  publication  August  15,  1856. 
of  the  Daily  Times,  a  morning  paper.  Republican  in  politics.  It  was 
very  lively  in  the  canvass  for  Fremont,  and  was  edited  with  ability. 
It  became  an  evening  paper  in  November  and  issued  a  weekly,  but 
became  so  weakly  that  it  succumbed  January  24,  1857.  Mr.  Cole,  the 
editor,  aftei'wards  became  United  States  senator. 

The  Chinese  News,  which  began  publication  in  December,  1856, 
lasted  for  a  couple  of  years,  first  being  a  daily,  then  a  tri-weekly, 
next  a  weekly  and  finally  a  monthly.  It  was  printed  in  the  Chinese 
language,  Ze  Too  Yune,  alias  Hung  Tai,  being  editor  and  publisher. 

The  Temperance  Mirror,  a  quarto  monthly,  issued  one  number  in 
January,  1857,  0.  B.  Turrell,  publisher,  and  W.  B.  Taylor,  editor. 
It  removed  to  San  Francisco,  where  it  died  in  March. 

The  Daily  Morning  Bee  was  born  February  3,  1857,  as  an  inde- 
pendent in  politics.  J.  R.  Ridge  and  S.  J.  May  were  the  editors,  and 
the  proprietors  were  L.  C.  Chandler,  L.  P.  Davis,  John  Church  and 
W.  H.  Tobey.  It  was  much  smaller  than  the  present  Bee,  having  but 
five  columns  to  the  page.  April  6,  1857,  it  became  an  evening  paper, 
and  in  the  following  summer  Ridge  retired  and  James  McClatchy  suc- 
ceeded him.  The  firm  changed  in  1858  to  F.  S.  Thompson,  L.  P. 
Davis  and  W.  H.  Tobey  and  the  paper  changed  its  size  to  seven  col- 
umns. April  8,  1860,  Thompson's  interest  was  purchased  by  J. 
O'Leary  and  the  firm  name  changed  to  L.  P.  Davis  &  Co.  Decem- 
ber 28,  1863,  C.  H.  Winterburn  bought  out  Tobey  and  sold  his  in- 
terest to  James  McClatchy,  February  12,  1866.  McClatchy  bought 
the  interest  of  Davis  June  26,  1872,  and  the  firm  name  became,  as 


at  present,  James  McClatchy  &  Co.  Au^st  1,  1872,  J.  F.  Sheehan 
purchased  a  one-third  interest  from  McClatchy.  Since  that  time  the 
paper  has  been  further  enlarged  and  is  today  one  of  the  most  pros- 
perous and  profitable  journals  in  the  history  of  Sacramento.  James 
McClatchy  admitted  his  son,  Charles  K.  McClatchy,  to  a  partner- 
ship in  the  business  and  the  firm  members  were  then  J.  F.  Sheehan, 
James  McClatchy  and  C.  K.  McClatchy.  October  23,  1882,  James 
McClatchy  died  at  Paraiso  Springs,  leaving  his  title  and  interest  in 
the  paper  to  his  wife  and  two  sons.  January  29,  1884,  J.  F.  Shee- 
han sold  his  interest  in  the  paper,  it  being  purchased  by  the  mem- 
bers of  the  McClatchy  family,  the  firm  name  remaining  James  Mc- 
Clatchy &  Co.  From  then  on  the  paper  was  conducted  by  the  two 
sons,  C.  K.  as  managing  editor  and  V.  S.  as  business  manager. 
Steadily  progressing  in  circulation  and  influence,  it  is  one  of  the 
afternoon  papers  that  receive  the  full  Associated  Press  report,  and 
is  regarded  as  one  of  the  most  influential  papers  on  the  coast.  It 
put  in  a  fast  stereotyping  plant  in  1888,  and  was  the  first  evening 
paper  in  California  to  do  so. 

In  July,  1857,  the  Star  of  the  Pacific,  a  religious  journal,  Rev. 
A.  C.  Edmonds,  a  Universalist  minister,  editor  and  proprietor,  re- 
moved from  Marysville  to  this  city.  In  December,  1857,  it  suspended 
animation,  revived  in  May,  1858,  and  iiassed  away  that  fall. 

The  Daily  State  Sentinel,  a  Eepublicah  paper,  was  issued  in  small 
size  July  27,  1857,  by  J.  E.  Atkins  &  Co.,  as  a  morning  paper.  In 
October  C.  D.  Hossach  &  Co.  took  hold  of  it  and  C.  A.  Sumner  be- 
came its  editor.  It  had  bright  prospects  for  a  while,  but  followed  to 
the  charnel  house  in  1858. 

C.  A.  Sumner,  August  22,  1857,  began  the  publication  of  a  sheet 
called  the  Eye  Glass,  but  only  one  number  appeared. 

The  Covenant  and  Odd  Fellotvs'  Magazine,  a  monthly  of  thirty- 
two  pages,  started  August  31,  1857,  with  J.  D.  Tilson  publisher  and 
A.  C.  Edmonds,  editor,  but  gave  up  the  ghost  with  the  tenth  number, 
in  1858. 

The  Temperance  Register,  H.  Davidson  &  Co.,  began  as  a  monthly 
September,  1857,  changed  to  a  semi-monthly  in  October,  and  on  De- 
cember 12  became  a  monthly  again  and  then  died. 

A  Sunday  paper,  the  Herald  of  the  Morning,  appeared  in  De- 
cember, 1857,  with  J.  C.  McDonald  &  Co.,  publishers,  and  Calvin 
McDonald,  literary  editor.  It  was  a  spiritualistic  paper  and  passed 
to  the  spirit  land  in  four  weeks. 

The  Phoenix,  afterwards  the  UUcuitous,  was  a  scurrilous  sheet, 
fathered  by  E.  McGowan,  issued  as  an  occasional  in  the  fall  of  1857. 
and  as  a  weekly  during  the  following  winter.  The  hot  summer 
weather  killed  it. 

The  Watch  Dog,  a  similar  publication,  issued  January  1,  1S58, 
died  in  the  following  March. 


During  the  same  March,  the  Sacramento  Visitor,  by  Brown, 
Ingham  &  Co.,  J.  Coggins,  editor,  a  daily  evening  paper  of  moderate 
size  and  lively  and  independent  in  tone,  began  publication,  but  ceased 
to  exist  Jime  1,  1858. 

The  Sacramento  Mercury,  a  straight-out  Democratic  newspaper, 
began  publication  March  28,  1858,  with  H.  Foushie,  publisher,  and 
W.  S.  Long,  editor.  It  was  about  half  the  size  of  the  Record-Union 
and  in  the  summer  A.  Montgomerv  became  its  editor,  but  it  died 
October  12,  1858. 

The  second  California  Statesman  took  the  place  of  the  old  one 
in  May,  1858,  with  S.  W.  Eavely,  publisher,  and  A.  C.  Russell,  edi- 
tor, as  a  Democratic  daily.     It  succumbed  June  24th,  the  same  year. 

The  Californian,  second  of  that  name,  a  neutral  daily  of  small 
size,  was  edited  by  D.  J.  Thomas.  It  was  born  July  9,  1858,  but  lived 
only  one  week,  departing  Jvily  15th. 

The  Baptist  Circular,  the  third  effort  of  the  Baptists  to  start  a 
paper  in  Sacramento,  commenced  in  August,  1858,  with  Rev.  J.  L. 
Shuck  as  editorial  manager,  but  only  survived  until  the  next  spring. 

In  1858  and  1859  the  Democracy  became  split  into  two  factions 
— the  Lecompton  and  the  anti-Lecompton.  The  contest  between  them 
became  so  hot  that  the  anti-Lecomptonites,  goaded  by  the  assaults 
of  Charles  I.  Botts  from  the  Lecompton  side,  started  a  paper  called 
the  Daily  Register  and  issued  every  morning  except  Monday.  It 
was  about  the  size  of  the  Bee.  Dr.  Houghton  furnished  most  of  the 
money  and  the  firm  was  Harvey,  Houghton  &  Co.  The  editors  were 
J.  C.  Zabriskie  and  William  Bausman,  who  held  small  interests.  It 
was  vigorous,  but  too  scholarly  and  not  lively  enough  for  the  times 
and  Bausman  soon  left  it.  The  Register  office  was  at  the  corner  of 
Fifth  and  J  streets  and  the  outfit  and  dress  of  the  paper  were  good. 
Houghton  sunk  a  large  amount  of  money  in  it,  but  the  second  day 
before  the  general  election  that  fall,  it  died  a  peaceful  death. 

The  Register's  rival,  the  Daily  Democratic  Standard,  a  better 
paper  from  a  purely  journalistic  point  of  view,  was  born  February 
26,  1859.  J.  R.  Hardenbergh  was  its  publisher  and  Charles  T.  Botts 
its  editor.  It  was  a  morning  paper,  about  the  size  of  the  Record- 
Union  and  was  a  vigorous  exponent  of  the  doctrine  of  the  Lecomp- 
ton faction.  In  July,  1859,  Bolts  became  its  proprietor.  Its  office 
was  on  Third  street,  between  I  and  J.  June  2,  1860,  it  ceased  its 
daily  issues,  and  for  some  months  appeared  weekly,  with  M.  Gr. 
Upton  and  Hon.  Gr.  Gorham  as  editors,  but  soon  after  the  fall  elec- 
tion in  1869  it  became  defunct  after  draining  the  pockets  of  its  owners. 

In  June,  1860,  Henry  Bidleman  &  Co.  started  the  Daily  Demo- 
crat, issued  from  the  Standard  office,  with  M.  G.  Upton  as  editor. 
It  made  a  lively  campaign,  but  died  with  the  election. 

June  24,  1860,  F.  R!  Folger  &  Co.  put  forth  the  Daily  Morning 
News,  a  Douglas  Democratic  newspaper   and  the   Folgers   were   its 


first  editors.  Later,  George  C.  Gorliam  and  Albert  S.  Evans  were 
its  editors.     It  continued  about  nine  months. 

The  Evening  Post,  published  by  R.  W.  Lewis  &  Co.  in  October, 
1860,  as  an  independent  paper,  subsequently  became  Republican  in 
politics.  Small  in  size  at  first,  it  was  enlarged  and  when  it  was  five 
months  old  W.  S.  Johnson  &  Co.  took  hold  of  it.  Various  writers 
became  its   editors   and  it  was   discontinued   September,    1861. 

The  Independent  Order  of  Good  Templars  began  the  publication 
of  its  organ.  The  Rescue,  in  San  Francisco,  in  1862,  removing  shortly 
to  Stockton  and  then  to  Sacramento.  Its  first  editor  was  Edwin  H. 
Bishop.  He  was  followed  by  W.  H.  Mills,  1864  to  1871.  Then  came 
Albert  D.  Wood,  of  Vallejo,  who  conducted  it  till  1876  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Rev.  George  Morris  of  Dixon.  It  was  removed  successively 
to  San  Francisco,  Los  Angeles  and  San  Francisco  again.  In  October, 
1855,  it  was  brought  back  to  this  city  and  George  B.  Katzenstein  became 
its  editor.  The  editors  of  the  paper  were  elected  by  the  Grand  Lodge 
of  the  order  or  its  executive  committee.  It  has  been  removed  from  this 
city  since. 

The  Evening  Star  was  started  as  a  daily  by  J.  J.  Beebe,  Alexander 
Badlam,  G.  I.  Foster,  J.  Simpson,  M.  M.  Estee  and  H.  C.  Bidwell,  May 
25,  1864.  It  was  an  independent  journal.  It  sunk  under  financial  diffi- 
culties in  about  three  months. 

The  California  Republican,  a  Democratic  paper  of  the  hard  shell 
variety,  began  publication  January  4,  1863,  and  died  a  natural  death 
that  fall.  The  publishers  were  Conley,  Patrick  &  Co.,  and  the  editor 
Beriah  Brown,  afterwards  of  the  Free  Press  of  San  Francisco,  which 
was  destroyed  by  a  mob  in  the  early  part  of  1863. 

The  Golden  Gate,  a  spiritualistic  weekly  started  by  Ingham  &  Mc- 
Donald in  the  spring  of  1894,  died  soon  after  its  birth,  surviving  only 
a  few  weeks. 

Judd  &  McDonald  started  a  gratuitous  sheet  called  the  Advertiser, 
in  1860,  but  it  lived  only  a  few  weeks. 

December  23,  1866,  Alexander  Montgomery  removed  the  California 
Express,  a  Democratic  journal  he  had  been  publishing  at  Marysville, 
to  this  city,  expecting  patronage  from  the  then  dominant  party.  He 
did  not  receive  it,  however,  and  the  paper,  which  was  issued  as  a  morn- 
ing daily,  died  in  July,  1867. 

The  Sacramento  Daily  Record,  published  by  an  association  of 
printers  composed  of  J.  J.  Keegan,  John  L.  Sickler,  J.  R.  Dray  and 
R.  E.  Draper,  first  appeared  as  an  independent  evening  paper  Felnmary 
9,  1867.  Its  first  editor  was  Draper,  who  was  succeeded  in  about  a 
month  by  W.  S.  Johnson.  He  remained  about  a  year  and  was  succeeded 
by  J.  B.  McQuillan,  who  gave  way  in  a  few  months  to  R.  A.  Bird.  The 
paper  was  subsequently  sold  to  "William  H.  Mills  and  A.  D.  Wood. 
Mr.  Wood  was  afterwards  manager  of  the  Record-Union.  A  portion 
of  the  then  and  subsequent  Record  editorial  staff,  as  also  a  portion  of 


the  Sacramento  Union's  then  and  subsequent  staff,  afterwards  com- 
posed the  Record-Union  staff.  Among  these  was  E.  B.  Willis,  who  had 
been  a  member  of  the  Union  statf,  and  also  of  the  Record  staff.  The 
Record  became  a  morning  paper  December  2,  1867.  At  first  it  was  a 
small  five-column  sheet,  but  after  being  enlarged  several  times  finally 
attained  the  present  size  of  the  Record-Union.  During  the  winter  of 
1871  and  1872  the  Record  distinguished  itself  by  the  fullest  and  most 
elaborate  phonographic  reports  of  legislative  joroceedings  ever  pub- 
lished in  the  United  States,  frequently  printing  morning  after  morning 
nineteen  columns  of  solid  nonpareil  of  the  proceedings  of  the  Senate 
and  House.  For  several  years  the  Union  had  published  annual  New 
Year's  statistical  sheets.  The  Record  entered  the  same  field  January  1, 
]873,  and  eclipsed  its  rival  by  publishing  the  largest  and  fullest  holi- 
day statistical  sheet  ever  published  in  the  United  States  to  that  time. 
Each  year  afterwards  until  1906  it  and  its  successor  issued  a  similar 
mammoth  paper.  It  was  the  first  daily  paper  here  to  publish  and  main- 
tain a  semi-weekly  edition.  The  contest  for  patronage  and  public 
favor  was  very  warm  between  the  Record  and  the  Union  for  years, 
and  until  they  were  consolidated  in  February,  1875.  Thereafter  the 
consolidation  was  known  as  the  Record-Union. 

The  Expositor,  published  by  C.  D.  Semple,  as  a  daily  and  old-line 
Democratic  paper,  appeared  July  23,  1867,  and  died  the  9th  of  Sep- 

February  24,  1864,  Richard  Bowden  published  a  juvenile  paper, 
The  Young  American,  as  a  weekly.  It  ceased  publication  eleven  weeks 
after,  on  the  death  of  Mr.  Bowden,  who  was  accidentally  killed. 

Several  other  weekly  papers,  of  a  local  character,  were  published 
about  this  time,  viz:  My  Paper,  Pioneer,  Blusterer,  The  Anti-Office 
Seeker,  a  lot  of  State  Fair  papers,  the  Sunday  Times,  Hesperian,  Stu- 
dents' Repository,  and  others. 

Charles  De  Young,  afterwards  of  the  San  Francisco  Chronicle, 
began  the  publication  in  the  winter  of  1864,  of  the  Dramatic  Chronicle, 
a  gratuitous  daily  advertising  sheet  of  small  dimensions.  He  removed 
it  to  San  Francisco  about  nine  months  later,  enlarged  it  and  published 
it  until  the  Daily  San  Francisco  Chronicle  grew  up  from  it,  the  old 
Dramatic  Chronicle  being  swallowed  up  by  the  Figaro  of  San  Francisco, 
published  by  J.  P.  Bogardus. 

The  Traveler's  Guide  was  published  as  an  advertising  sheet  weekly 
by  L.  Samuels  and  N.  Towns  in  1865.  T.  W.  Stanwell  began  in  the 
same  year  the  monthlv  Railroad  Gazetter,  published  bv  H.  S.  Crocker 
&  Co.  ' 

The  State  Capital  Reporter,  a  daily  Democratic  paper,  appeared 
January  12,  1868,  with  a  glowing  announcement  of  its  plans,  and  nomi- 
nated H.  H.  Haight  for  President  of  the  United  States.  By  legislative 
enactment  it  became  the  litigant  paper,  in  which  all  summonses  had  to 
be  published.    While  this  gave  it  a  good  income,  it  rendered  it  obnox- 


ious  to  the  entire  press  of  the  State  and  made  it  unpopular  with  the 
people.  The  act  of  February  21,  1872,  repealed  the  litigant  act  and 
deprived  the  Reporter  of  its  fat  job.  It  ceased  to  appear  as  a  daily, 
sending  out  its  last  daily  issue  May  7,  1872,  when  the  law  took  effect. 
Thereafter  it  issued  a  half  sheet  once  a  week,  to  run  out  the  legal  adver- 
tisements on  hand  and  July  30,  1872,  it  gave  up  the  ghost  quietly.  It 
was  23ub]ished  by  a  joint  stock  company  and  lost  money  for  every  one 
who  touched  it.  At  first  it  was  controlled  by  John  Bigler,  and  its  first 
editor  was  Henry  George,  afterward  of  the  San  Francisco  Post,  who 
became  widely  known  to  the  world  as  the  author  of  "Progress  and 
Poverty,"  and  the  chief  ai30stle  of  the  land  theory  of  single  tax.  The 
paper  was  edited  with  much  ability  and  for  a  long  time  was  a  vigorous 
periodical.  J.  F.  Linthicam,  an  old  editor,  still  living  in  this  city,  suc- 
ceeded Mr.  George,  and  kept  up  the  able  tone  of  the  paper.  Jolm  Bigler, 
ex-governor  of  California,  who  about  this  time  had  returned  from  Chile, 
where  he  had  filled  the  post  of  minister,  was  editor  of  the  Reporter  some 
months  before  it  died  and  conducted  it  with  vigor  and  dignity.  O.  T. 
Shuck  was  its  last  editor. 

The  Sacramento  Democrat  was  a  small  daily  born  August  3,  1871; 
died  Sejitember  5,  1871,  just  after  the  election.  It  was  started  under 
the  auspices  of  a  publishing  company,  with  Cameron  H.  King  as  editor 
and  its  office  was  at  the  corner  of  Third  and  J  streets. 

The  Locomotive  was  a  six-column  weekly  advertiser  and  local  pa- 
per which  was  excellent  in  its  way  and  did  a  prosperous  business  for 
some  months  with  E.  L.  Lawrence  as  the  manager  in  the  spring  of  1873. 
Its  office  was  on  J  street  between  Second  and  Third  streets.  T.  F.  Case 
bought  a  half  interest  and  subsequently  the  whole  interest,  selling  half 
of  it  to  Dr.  A.  P.  Truesdell,  who  became  editor.  The  name  of  the 
paper  was  changed  to  that  of  the  People's  Champion,  but  in  the 
summer  of  1874  it  threw  up  the  sponge  and  was  counted  among  the 
dead  ones. 

The  only  foreign  paper,  with  one  exception,  published  in  Sacra- 
mento prior  to  1885,  was  the  Semi-weekly  Sacramento  Journal  (German) 
published  by  K.  F.  Wiemeyer  &  Co.,  and  edited  by  Mr.  AViemeyer.  Its 
first  number  came  out  June  6,  1868,  and  it  had  a  successful  career  for 
many  years.  The  Sacramento  office  was  at  No.  314  J  street  and  about 
1890  Wiemeyer  &  Co.  established  an  office  in  Oakland,  publishing  the 
paper  at  both  places  simultaneously.  It  was  Eepublican  in  tone  and 
independent  in  its  utterances. 

H.  B.  Eddy  early  in  1873  started  a  small  weekly  paper  called  the 
Valley  World.  It  aimed  at  literary  excellence,  and  was  neatly  printed 
and  critical.  Mr.  Eddy  died  that  fall,  and  the  paper  was  continued  for 
a  few  weeks,  being  ably  edited  by  Eev.  J.  H.  C.  Bonte,  Eector  of 
Grace  Church  and  afterwards  secretary  of  the  University  of  California, 
since  deceased. 

The  Evening  News,  a  daily,  Sundays  excepted,  and  neutral,  was 


first  published  March  26,  1869,  by  B.  F.  Huntley  &  Co.  Vincent  Ryan, 
a  member  of  the  firm,  did  most  of  the  writing,  with  Frank  Folger  and 
W.  S.  Johnson  in  the  other  departments.  The  paper  died  in  three 

The  Sunday  Free  Press  was  started  in  February,  1873,  by  Beers 
&  Co.,  but  its  initial  appearance  was  also  its  last,  although  it  was  a 
lively  number,  local  and  jolly,  and  its  proprietors  mourned  its  loss  for 
grave  financial  reasons. 

In  February,  1874,  the  Sacramento  Valley  Agriculturist  began  its 
existence  as  a  monthly,  with  Davis  and  Stockton  as  editors  and  pub- 
lishers. In  June,  1874,  it  changed  to  a  weekly  and  the  next  month  it 
bought  up  the  old  Champion  material  and  was  enlarged  considerably. 
April  15,  1875,  Davis  sold  his  interest  to  W.  T.  Crowell.  The  paper 
was  devoted  entirely  to  agricultural  matters,  with  a  city  edition  on  Sun- 
day mornings,  and  some  local  news.  It  ceased  publication  many 
years  ago. 

The  Occidental  Star,  a  weekly  paper  of  four  pages,  devoted  to  the 
interest  of  the  return  of  the  Jews  to  Palestine,  began  in  January,  1873, 
and  ran  for  about  five  months,  with  Mrs.  L.  I.  L.  Adams  as  proprietor. 

The  Winning  Way  was  a  weekly  paper  edited  and  published  by 
Mrs.  Clark  and  Mrs.  Potter  and  devoted  to  the  cause  of  woman  and 
sociability.  It  was  started  in  September,  1873,  and  went  the  way  of 
many  others  in  February,  1874. 

Common  Sense  was  piiblished  as  a  weekly  of  four  pages  by  Dr. 
A.  P.  Truesdell  in  January,  1873,  and  discontinued  in  March,  1874,  but 
was  afterwards  revived  and  published  in  San  Francisco. 

The  Mercantile  Globe  was  an  advertising  sheet  published  by  Byron 
&  Co.,  August,  1872,  and  changed  to  the  Sacramento  Globe  October  18, 
and  published  by  Kelly  &  Farland.  It  ran  for  several  months,  sus- 
pended, and  was  again  started  by  Raye  &  Ford,  December  5,  continuing 
weekly  until  April  17,  1875,  being  afterwards  published  at  intervals 
by  B.  v.  R.  Raye. 

The  California  Teacher  was  started  by  the  State  Board  of  Edu- 
cation about  1877,  being  purchased  from  the  San  Francisco  Teachers' 
Association.  It  has  had  a  checkered  existence  since,  with  various  pub- 
lishers, as  a  state  journal,  under  various  titles. 

The  State  Fair  Gazette  has  been  published  by  H.  S.  Crocker  & 
Co.  for  a  number  of  years  at  the  annual  State  Fair,  as  an  advertising 
sheet  distributed  gratuitously. 

The  Evening  Herald  was  started  March  8,  1875,  as  a  small  evening 
paper,  independent  in  policy.  The  publishers  were  Gardner,  Larkin, 
Fellows,  and  Major  E.  A.  Rockwell,  a  well-known  journalist  of  wide 
experience,  as  editor.  He  had  formerly  occupied  a  position  on  the 
Morning  Call  of  San  Francisco  and  had  served  a  time  in  the  legislature 

The  Enterprise  was  started  as  a  Sunday  morning  paper,  by  Crites, 


Davis  and  Alexander,  August  29,  1875.  It  was  well  conducted  and  vig- 
orous, but  the  proprietors  were  handicapped  by  not  finding  a  business 
manager  to  suit  them  and  ceased  publication  with  the  ninth  issue.  It 
was  printed  from  the  old  Reporter  t3^e. 

The  Seminary  Budget,  an  occasional  publication  by  the  young  ladies 
of  the  Sacramento  Seminary,  was  issued  for  some  years,  attaining  some 
literary  excellence  and  doing  credit  to  its  student  editors. 

The  Business  College  Journal  was  issued  occasionally  for  a  number 
of  years  by  E.  C.  Atkinson,  lately  deceased. 

The  Sunday  Leader  appeared  in  October,  1875,  issued  by  J.  N. 
Larkin,  who  retained  his  connection  with  it  as  editor  and  proprietor 
until  his  decease  in  May,  1911,  since  which  time  his  son,  W.  H.  Larkin, 
who  had  been  associated  with  him  for  some  years,  under  the  firm  name 
of  J.  N.  Larkin  &  Son,  continues  its  publication.  In  188-4-5  it  was  the 
official  paper  of  the  county.  In  politics  it  has  always  been  straight 
Republican.  Mr.  Larkin  was  a  veteran  of  the  Civil  War,  straightfor- 
ward and  uncompromising,  and  had  a  host  of  warm  friends  who  re- 
gretted his  passing  away.  The  Leader  is  a  neat  sheet,  28x42  inches, 
and  presents  a  creditable  appearance. 

The  Daily  Sun  was  started  as  a  workingTQan 's  organ  immediately 
after  the  adjournment  of  the  legislature  of  1879,  which  provided  for  a 
constitutional  convention.  It  was  published  by  a  company  of  stockhold- 
ers, with  William  Halley  as  manager.  When  the  delegates  to  the  con- 
vention were  elected  and  he  was  defeated,  he  withdrew  from  the  man- 
agement. A  new  company  was  formed  and  J.  F.  Clark  continued  as 
editor  for  a  few  months,  when  the  paper  ceased  publication. 

The  Sunday  Capital  was  started  in  1883  by  J.  L.  Robinette  and 
C.  C.  Goode.  It  was  a  four-page  folio,  independent  in  politics  and 
devoted  to  news  and  literature.  After  about  a  year  Robinette  disposed 
of  his  interest  to  William  Ellery,  but  six  months  later  it  was  discon- 

The  Sacramento  Medical  Times,  afterwards  changed  to  the  Occi- 
dental Medical  Times,  was  a  large  octavo  monthly  started  in  March, 
1887,  by  five  physicians  and  has  been  a  successful  publication.  J.  H. 
Parkinson,  M.D.,  has  been  its  editor-in-chief  for  many  years  and  among 
his  associates  have  been  W.  A.  Briggs,  William  Ellery  Briggs,  W.  R. 
Cluness,  Thomas  A.  Himtington  and  G.  L.  Simmons  of  Sacramento; 
J.  F.  Morse,  W.  H.  Mays,  Albert  Abrams,  W.  Watt  Kerr  and  D.  W. 
Montgomery  of  San  Francisco,  and  J.  W.  Robinson  of  Napa.  Of  late 
years  Drs.  Cluness  and  Hunting-ton  have  been  residents  of  San  Fran- 
cisco.   Dr.  Simmons  died  in  1911. 

The  Daily  Evening  Journal  was  beg-un  July  4,  1888,  by  H.  A. 
Weaver  and  ran  until  October  1  following.  It  was  devoted  to  general 
news  and  literature. 

Charles  Schmitt  issued  the  first  number  of  the  Nord-California 
Herald,  a  German  paper,  September  5,  1885,  and  it  has  taken  front  rank 


among  the  German  papers  of  tlie  state.  Mr.  Schmitt  came  to  this  state 
in  1865,  and  after  mining  several  years,  became  one  of  the  founders 
of  the  Abend  Post,  the  second  German  daily  published  in  San  Francisco. 
In  May,  1868,  he  came  to  Sacramento  and  founded  the  Sacramento 
Journal  (German)  and  continued  with  it  till  1881.  Mr.  Schmitt  is  a 
ready  writer  of  wide  experience  and  intelligence  and  his  paper  has  a 
powerful  influence  in  the  field  it  occupies. 

Themis  was  an  able  eight-page  quarto  Sunday  paper,  published  in 
the  interest  of  Sacramento  and  devoted  to  dramatic  and  governmental 
criticism  and  miscellany.  It  was  printed  with  large  type  and  on  the 
finest  paper.  It  was  started  in  February,  1889,  by  Winfield  J.  Davis, 
W.  A.  Anderson  and  George  A.  Blanchard.  The  editors  were  among 
the  early  residents  of  the  city  and  county,  thoroughly  conversant  with 
its  history  in  all  respects,  and  eminently  fitted  for  the  task  they  had 
undertaken.  The  paper  enjoyed  a  reputation  for  exceptional  literary 
ability  and  the  cessation  of  its  publication  in  1894  on  account  of  a 
division  of  opinion  between  its  proprietors  as  to  the  policy  of  the  paper 
during  the  great  railroad  strike  of  that  year,  was  regretted  by  a  wide 
circle  of  citizens,  who  had  enjoyed  the  perusal  of  its  columns. 

In  the  early  part  of  1856  Dr.  Bradley  established  the  Granite 
Journal  at  Folsom,  Granite  being  at  that  time  the  name  of  what  is  now 
known  as  Folsom.  He  conducted  the  paper  for  several  years  and  it 
became  one  of  the  most  widely  known  papers  in  the  state  in  that  day  of 
only  a  few  newspapers.  When  the  name  of  the  town  was  changed  from 
Granite  to  Folsom,  the  Journal  changed  its  name  to  the  Folsom  Tele- 
graph. The  paper  also  changed  hands  about  the  same  time,  William 
Penry,  afterwards  treasurer  of  Amador  county,  becoming  the  editor 
and  proprietor,  being  succeeded  several  years  later  by  William  Aveling. 
When  Mr.  Aveling  died,  his  widow  conducted  the  paper  for  a  time,  but 
soon  sold  it  to  Peter  J.  Hopper.  About  1872  John  F.  Howe  purchased 
the  paper  and  from  his  death  ten  years  later  until  July  19,  1884,  Mrs. 
Howe  held  ownership.  It  then  passed  into  the  hands  of  Weston  P. 
Truesdell,  and  he  published  it  alone  until  August  1,  1888,  when  I.  Fiel 
joined  him.  Thej^  conducted  the  paper  until  March  16,  1889,  when  Mr. 
Fiel  purchased  the  entire  interest  and  soon  after  sold  out  to  Thad 
McFarland.  Since  the  death  of  Mr.  McFarland,  May  4,  1894,  his  widow 
has  been  the  owner.  The  paper  has  been  ably  conducted  by  their  son, 
R.  D.  McFarland,  as  editor  and  manager,  and  has  been  enlarged  from 
six  columns  to  seven. 

The  Gait  Gazette  has  been  in  existence  for  a  number  of  years  and 
has  a  fair  circulation  in  the  southern  end  of  the  county. 

The  Daily  Evening  Netvs  was  started  in  1890,  by  John  Dormer,  a 
well-known  newspaper  man  of  Nevada,  and  Wells  Drury,  also  a  jour- 
nalist from  the  same  state.  Under  their  management  the  paper  was 
published  for  two  years.  It  was  then  purchased  by  John  A.  Sheehan 
and  June  B.  Harris,  who  had  been  for  many  years  attached  to  the 


editorial  staff  of  the  Daily  Evening  Bee.  Sheehan  and  Harris  were 
very  capable  newspapermen  and  the  Daily  Netvs  prospered  under  their 
management.  Their  financial  backers  became  interested  in  a  plan  to 
have  the  city  water  works  pass  into  the  hands  of  private  interests,  and 
as  parf  of  the  bargain  for  the  support  of  other  newspapers,  the  Daily 
News  was  suspended  immediately  after  an  election  at  which  the  people 
voted  to  substitute  well  water  for  that  supplied  from  the  river  by  their 
own  works.    The  plan  was  blocked  and  ultimately  fell  through. 

Soon  after  the  suspension  of  the  Daily  Evening  Neivs,  in  1893,  the 
Sunday  News  was  started  by  Messrs.  Sheehan  and  Harris,  and  was  a 
pronounced  success  from  the  date  of  the  first  issue.  About  two  years 
later  Harris  died,  and  his  interest  in  the  publication  was  purchased 
by  Winfield  J.  Davis.  In  May,  1897,  the  Sunday  Neivs  was  sold  to  the 
News  Publishing  Co.,  its  present  owner.  Its  size  and  pages  were  en- 
larged and  a  large  modern  iDublishing  plant  was  eqiiipped  for  its  issu- 
ance with  other  printing  and  important  publications.  Mr.  Sheehan 
continued  as  its  editor  until  his  decease  in  1910.  He  was  succeeded 
by  Ennnet  Phillips,  his  former  partner  and  editorial  associate,  who  is 
at  present  editing  the  Sunday  News,  assisted  by  John  H.  Miller,  for- 
merly of  the  Evening  Bee.  The  plant  of  the  News  Publishing  Co.  is 
one  of  the  largest  in  this  part  of  the  state,  and  the  Sunday  Neivs  is 
probably  the  most  widely  read  and  ciuoted  weekl}^  newspaper  in  Northern 
California.  The  present  owners  are  Emmet  Phillips,  A.  A.  Trueblood 
and  John  H.  Miller. 

The  Sacramento  Star  was  started  November  21,  1904,  being  fur- 
nished by  the  Scripps-McRae  telegraphic  service,  the  Associated  Press 
franchise  for  the  city  being  owned  exclusively  by  the  Union  and  the 
Bee.  It  is  under  the  management  of  E.  W.  Scripps,  who  is  the  owner 
of  a  large  number  of  papers  on  the  coast  and  in  the  west.  It  started 
as  a  four-page,  seven-column  paper,  printed  on  a  flat  press  and  in- 
creased successively  to  eight,  ten  and  twelve  pages  of  eight  columns, 
in  June,  1907,  and  subsequently.  Henry  White  is  editor  and  E.  H.  Car- 
penter general  manager.  The  paper  has  grown  steadily  in  prosperity 
and  importance. 

Several  papers  printed  in  foreig-n  languages  are  being  published 
in  this  citj'. 



It  is  an  accepted  fact  among  the  educators  throughout  the  country 
that  Sacramento  has  always  kept  abreast  of  the  times  in  matters  educa- 
tional and  the  events  of  the  past  few  years  haA'e  emphasized  the  fact. 
One  of  the  first  things  noted  in  the  history  of  the  city  in  the  days  of 
the  first  rush  of  immigrants  to  the  land  of  gold,  was  the  establishment 
of  a  school  in  the  summer  of  1849,  when  the  fevered  quest  for  the  yel- 


low  metal  pervaded  all  men's  minds  to  almost  the  total  exclusion  of  all 
other  sentiments.  And  Sacramento  has  fully  kept  pace  with  progress 
along  educational  lines  ever  since,  the  last  action  of  the  city  in  voting 
bonds  to  the  amount  of  $800,000  for  new  schools  and  playgrounds  for 
her  children  being  a  patent  evidence  that  her  people  were  keenly  alive 
to  the  importance  of  directing  the  rising  generation  into  the  pathway 
leading  to  intelligence  and  good  citizenship.  Destroyed  several  times 
by  fire,  grown  decrepit  by  age,  stunted  by  cramped  quarters  and 
needing  more  room  for  the  constantly  increasing  number  of  children 
seeking  knowledge,  the  school  buildings  have  time  after  time  risen 
like  the  Phoenix  from  their  ashes,  or  given  place  to  more  modern 
and  commodious  ones.  Manual  training,  domestic  science  and  gym- 
nastic training  have  usurped  in  late  years  the  time  and  attention  for- 
merly given  to  fossilizecl  studies  and  ideas  and  the  watchword  of 
"Progress"  has  shouldered  out  of  the  way  the  old  and  obsolete  fea- 
tures that  had  retarded  advancement.  Our  boys  are  today  being 
fitted  for  the  battle  of  life  by  the  employment  of  their  minds,  eyes 
and  hands  in  a  practical  way,  instead  of  turning  them  out  upon  their 
struggle  for  a  livelihood  with  their  heads  crammed  with  a  mass  of 
knowledge  that  can  be  utilized  only  in  certain  directions  and  in  a 
very  limited  field.  Our  girls  are  being  trained  in  the  arts  that  pertain 
to  the  home  and  its  comforts  and  conveniences.  The  arts  of  cooking 
and  sewing,  which  have  become  almost  lost  arts  in  the  feminine  part 
of  the  community,  and  on  which  the  comfort  and  harmony  of  the 
household  so  greatly  depend,  have  been  resuscitated  and  given  their 
proper  place  in  the  economy  of  our  daily  lives,  and  the  growing  gen- 
eration of  womanhood  is  being  better  fitted  for  wifehood  and  mother- 

The  influence  for  good  these  things  will  exert  on  the  next  gen- 
eration can  hardly  be  calculated  and  must  result  in  a  great  betterment 
of  future  economic  conditions.  The  struggle  for  existence  is  becoming 
yearly  more  arduous  and  our  children  must  be  so  trained  as  to  be 
better  fitted  to  encounter  its  future  difficulties.  Practical  education, 
then,  is  necessarily  taking  the  place  of  that"  which  in  the  past  was 
largely  theoretical  and  impractical. 

Tlie  first  school  recorded  in  the  liistory  of  our  city  was  opened 
in  August,  1849,  by  C.  T.  H.  Palmer.  Rev.  J.  A.  Benton,  who  was 
the  first  pastor  of  the  Congregational  Church  in  Sacramento,  has 
given  an  interesting  account  of  the  first  educational  ventures  in  Sac- 
ramento, as  follows:  "C.  T.  H.  Palmer,  formerly  of  Folsom,  taught 
the  first  school,  so  far  as  I  know,  that  was  ever  taught  in  Sacramento. 
He  taught  during  the  month  of  August,  1849,  and  then  abandoned  the 
business.'  I  do  not  know  how  many  pupils  he  had,  but  the  number 
could  not  have  exceeded  ten.  I  purchased  from  him  in  September  the 
benches  and  furniture  he  had  used,  and  opened  the  same  school  again 
October  15,  1849,  at  the  same  place  in  which  he  kept  it.     The  place 


was  on  I  street,  in  a  building  owned  by  Prof.  F.  Shepherd.  The  struc- 
ture was  a  one-story  house  about  14x28  feet,  covered  at  the  ends 
with  rough  clapboards,  and  the  roof  and  sides  were  covered  with  old 
sails  from  some  craft  tied  up  at  the  bank  of  the  river.  Some  'shakes' 
and  'pickets'  were  nailed  over  the  places  not  covered  by  the  sails, 
close  to  the  ground.  The  doorway  was  covered  by  a  piece  of  canvas 
fastened  at  the  top  and  dropping  before  the  opening.  There  was  no 
floor  but  the  ground,  and  that  was  by  no  means  level.  The  school  house 
stood  on  the  brink  of  the  slough,  or  'Lake  Sutter,'  near  the  northeast 
corner  of  Third  and  I  streets.  It  was  about  sixty  feet  east  of  the  east 
side  of  Third  street  and  the  southern  side  of  it  encroached  a  few  feet 
on  I  street.  I  street  was  not  then  passable  for  wagons.  The  remains 
of  a  coalpit  were  in  the  middle  of  I  street,  a  few  yards  eastward  from 
the  building.  A  small  and  crooked  oak  tree  stood  at  the  eastern  end 
of  the  schoolhouse,  close  to  it  and  near  the  door.  A  sycamore  tree  and 
some  shrubs  of  ash  and  elder  grew  out  of  the  bank  on  the  northern 
side  and  close  to  the  building.  The  filling  up  of  I  street  and  the 
advent  of  the  Chinese  now  obliterate  every  trace  of  the  building  and 
its  exact  site.  My  school  opened  with  four  pupils,  and  increased  to 
six,  then  to  eight  or  nine.  I  do  not  think  it  ever  exceeded  twelve. 
By  stress  of  weather  and  other  circumstances  I  was  compelled  to  close 
the  school  the  1st  of  December,  1849.  That  was  the  end  of  my  en- 
deavors in  the  way  of  school  teaching.  It  is  my  imiiression  that 
Crowell  opened  a  school  in  the  spring  of  1850,  but  it  might  have  been 
during  the  following  autumn.  In  the  spring  there  were  enough  fami- 
lies to  make  school  teaching  desirable,  and  the  weather  and  other 
circumstances  were  such  as  to  make  it  practicable.  I  know  of  no  other 
schools  in  1849  than  Palmer's  and  mine." 

Up  to  1854  the  public  schools  had  been  merged  into  those  of  the 
county,  and  were  under  the  supervision  of  the  county  assessor,  by 
virtue  of  his  office.  The  state  school  law  provided  for  a  supervising 
school  committee  in  each  city,  town  and  incorporated  village.  The 
attempt  made  in  Sacramento  to  establish  a  common  school  under  that 
law  failed  and  in  1852  the  legislature  repealed  that  law  and  passed 
a  new  one,  which  gave  to  cities  and  incorporated  towns  the  control  of 
the  common  schools  within  their  limits,  with  a  provision  that  if  the 
municipal  authorities  did  not  exercise  that  power  the  county  assessor 
should  have  charge  of  them  and  be  ex-officio  county  superintendent. 
This  act  was  amended  April  26,  1853,  and  in  that  year  the  county 
assessor.  H.  J.  Bidleman,  appointed  under  the  law  as  amended  a  board 
of  school  commissioners  for  the  city  consisting  of  Dr.  H.  W.  Harkness. 
G.  J.  Phelan  and  George  Wiggins. 

Judging  from  the  articles  in  the  newspapers  of  that  dav,  fre- 
quentlv  demanding  that  the  commissioners  do  their  dutv  and  open 
a  public  school,  they  must  have  been  very  dilatory  in  establishing  the 


schools.  At  last,  in  February,  1854,  the  following  advertisement  ap- 
peared : 

"Public  School.  The  citizens  of  Sacramento  are  hereby  notified 
that  the  school  commissioners  for  this  city  will  open  a  public  school  on 
the  southeast  corner  of  Fifth  and  K  streets,  on  Monday  morning, 
February  20,  1854,  at  9  o'clock.  G.  H.  Peck  will  have  charge  of  the 
male  department,  and  Miss  Griswold  of  the  female  department.  By 
order  of  the  Commissioners  of  Common  Schools." 

The  school  was  opened  on  the  day  designated  and  was  the  first 
public  school  opened  in  this  city.  The  day  of  co-education  had  not 
then  arrived,  and  two  rooms  were  occupied,  one  by  the  boys  and  the 
other  by  the  girls.  The  school  opened  on  the  first  day  with  fifty  boys 
and  forty  girls  in  attendance.  Most  of  them  were  between  seven  and 
nine  years  old  and  the  greater  portion  had  never  attended  school 
before.  The  attendance  increased  rapidly  and  on  the  fourth  day 
there  were  ninety  boys  and  seventy  girls  in  attendance.  It  was  found 
that  the  school  was  growing  so  fast  that  there  was  not  room  for 
the  accommodation  of  the  pupils  and  soon  there  were  200  on  the  roll. 
The  building  not  being  large  enough  to  accommodate  all,  another 
school  was  opened  in  an  old  building  known  as  the  Indiana  House  on 
I  street,  near  Tenth,  and  the  board  appointed  A.  R.  Jackson  as 
teacher.  This  school  in  turn  became  too  crowded,  and  another 
building  was  leased,  on  the  corner  of  Tenth  and  G  streets.  The  girls 
of  the  I  street  school  were  removed  to  this  place  and  placed  in  charge 
of  M.  E.  Corby.  On  June  19  a  school  for  girls  and  boys  was  opened 
near  the  corner  of  Seventh  and  K  streets,  W.  A.  Murray  being  placed 
in  charge.  The  attendance  still  increasing,  a  primary  school  was 
opened  in  the  rear  of  the  Fifth  street  school,  in  a  building  formerly 
occupied  as  a  mechanic's  shop,  and  the  care  of  the  pupils  was  con- 
fided to  Miss  A.  E.  Roberts. 

And  still  the  movement  grew.  In  July,  1854,  it  is  stated  that 
there  were  261  pupils  attending  the  public  schools,  and  250  in  private 
schools.  The  day  of  the  children  had  come,  and  the  city  was  becoming 
a  city  of  homes  instead  of  men  only.  From  this  time  on  the  advance 
in  the  cause  of  education  was  rapid.  October  2,  1854,  the  city  council 
passed  an  ordinance  which  had  been  drafted  by  N.  A.  H.  Ball  and 
which  provided  for  the  election  of  a  city  superintendent  of  schools 
and  a  board  of  education.  The  board  was  to  assume  the  control  of 
the  city  schools,  which  had  heretofore  been  controlled  by  the  county 

The  council  elected  Dr.  H.  W.  Harkness  superintendent,  and  N.  A. 
H.  Ball,  George  Wiggins  and  Dr.  T.  A.  Thomas  trustees  or  members 
of  the  board,  which  organized  on  the  1st  of  the  following  month, 
Harkness  occupying  the  chair  and  Ball  being  secretary.  At  this 
meeting  the  board  estimated  the  school  income  and  expenses  necessary 
for  the  ensuing  year  at  $22,000.     A  controversy  arose  between  the 


county  superintendent  and  the  board,  the  former  declining  to  sur- 
render control  of  the  schools  on  the  ground  that  it  would  deprive  him 
of  his  $1,000  salary.  The  jiiatter  was  finally  adjusted  and  on  Decem- 
ber 7th  the  county  commissioners  and  Superintendent  Bidleman  for- 
mally surrendered  all  the  public  schools  in  the  city,  the  city  board 
agreeing  to  liquidate  all  indebtedness.  On  the  11th  the  county  super- 
intendent and  commissioners  resigned  their  offices  and  the  city  board 
assumed  full  control  of  the  schools. 

On  November  25,  1854,  the  following  teachers  were  elected  by 
the  new  board:  For  the  Second  Ward  female  grammar  school,  Miss 
Anderson;  Second  Ward  female  primary  school.  Miss  Frost;  Second 
Ward  Male  grammar  school,  G.  H.  Peck;  Third  Ward  male  grammar 
school,  A.  R.  Jackson.  The  first  common  school  house  was  erected 
on  the  corner  of  Tenth  and  H  streets,  lapon  land  tendered  free  by 
John  H.  Gass,  A.  B.  Asper  contracting  to  build  it  in  fifteen  days  for 
$1,487.  It  was  dedicated  with  appropriate  ceremonies,  January  20, 
1855.  February  5,  1855,  a  primary  school  was  established  at  Eleventh 
and  I  streets,  with  Mrs.  Eliza  A.  Wright  as  teacher.  The  board 
apportioned  scholars  to  the  different  schools,  to  the  number  of  574. 
The  teachers  were  to  register  the  applicants  and  if  the  pupil  absented 
himself  for  more  than  a  week  without  good  cause  the  board  and  the 
parents  were  to  be  notified,  his  name  dropped  and  the  next  applicant 
on  the  list  admitted.  Dr.  Harkness  in  his  first  report  showed  accom- 
modations for  only  414  pupils — 157  boys,  157  girls  and  100  primary 
scholars.  Five  hundred  and  seventy-eight  pupils  had  made  application 
to  enter,  and  the  accommodations  were  insufficient,  there  being  an 
average  attendance  of  46.3. 

In  March,  1855,  the  authority  to  elect  the  board  was  taken  from 
the  council  and  given  to  the  people  by  legislative  act,  the  number  of 
commissioners  being  increased  to  six.  At  the  first  election  in  April, 
1855,  Francis  Tukey  was  elected  superintendent,  and  R.  P.  Johnson, 
H.  Houghton,  F.  A.  Hatch,  J.  F.  Morse,  George  W.  Wooley  and  George 
Wiggins  commissioners.  The  new  board  organized  April  11th,  the 
salaries  of  teachers  being  at  that  time  $1,350  monthly.  On  the  15th 
Lee  &  Marshall's  circus  gave  a  benefit  to  the  schools,  netting  $321, 
and  subsequently  gave  other  benefits.  The  schools  grew  rapidly  and 
on  May  5th  the  new  board  elected  teachers,  there  being  ten  principals 
and  two  assistants.  In  February,  1856,  Tukey  resigned  as  superin- 
tendent and  F.  W.  Hatch  was  elected  in  his  place,  William  E.  Cham- 
berlain being  elected  commissioner  in  place  of  Hatch.  The  report  of 
Superintendent  Hatch  on  March  18th  showed  that  in  the  six  grammar 
schools  there  were  199  boys  and  267  girls,  a  total  of  466;  average 
attendance  254.  In  the  five  primary  schools  there  were  270  boys  and 
234  girls;  total  504,  average  attendance  250.  Twelve  of  the  pupils 
were  born  in  California  and  one  in  Cliina.     From  Illinois  came  93. 


Early  this  year  came  W.  H.  Watson  who  succeeded  Mr.  Wooiey  as 
a  member  of  the  board. 

A  superintendent  and  board  of  commissioners  were  elected  in 
April,  1856,  and  met  on  the  11th.  It  consisted  of  F.  W.  Hatch,  re- 
elected superintendent;  Dr.  C.  Burrell,  David  Maddux,  John  F.  Dre- 
man,  J.  F.  Thompson,  A.  Montgomery  and  C.  H.  Bradford.  On  May 
12th  the  board  apportioned  $25  a  month  for  the  colored  school,  which 
was  to  be  taught  by  J.  B.  Anderson.  This  was  the  first  aid  the  colored 
school  had  received.  In  November  J.  B.  Harmon  succeeded  Burrell. 
The  report  of  Superintendent  Hatch  showed  studies  pursued  in  the 
various  schools  as  follows :  Grammar,  312 ;  arithmetic,  612 ;  reading, 
821 ;  spelling,  843 ;  writing,  538 ;  geography,  372 ;  history,  103 ;  algebra, 
63;  Latin,  28;  chemistry,  39;  geometry,  4;  composition,  227;  declama- 
tion, 151. 

A  new  board  consisting  of  J.  G.  Lawton,  superintendent;  Samuel 
Cross,  R.  A.  Pearis,  David  Murray,  H.  J.  Bidleman,  P.  W.  S.  Rayles 
and  J.  G.  Simmons,  commissioners,  took  their  places.  In  the  latter 
part  of  1857  the  building  of  the  Franklin  grammar  school,  at  Sixth 
and  L  streets,  now  known  as  the  old  Armory,  was  begun.  December 
22nd  the  corner  stone  was  laid  in  the  presence  of  a  large  assemblage, 
under  the  auspices  of  the  Masons.  The  lot  cost  $4,500  and  the  building 

May  4,  1858,  the  school  directors,  composed  of  the  board  of  educa- 
tion appointed  under  the  Consolidation  Act,  held  their  first  meeting 
and  elected  Samuel  Cross  president  and  Dr.  Simmons  secretary. 
Daniel  J.  Thomas  was  appointed  a  director  by  the  board  of  super- 
\dsors  in  place  of  Dr.  R.  A.  Pearis,  but  the  board  of  education  de- 
clared the  appointment  illegal. 

The  board  of  education  organized  October  4,  1858,  consisted  of 
G.  J.  Phelan,  A.  G.  Richardson,"H.  J.  Bidleman,  T.  M.  Morton,  H.  B. 
Osborne,  G.  I.  N.  Monell,  John  Hatch  and  G.  L.  Simmons;  Phelan, 
president.  Hatch  did  not  qualify  and  the  board  of  supervisors  elected 
David  Meeker  to  fill  his  place.  Dr.  Simmons  resigned  in  January, 
1859,  and  was  succeeded  by  C.  A.  Hill.  Early  in  1859  a  school  build- 
ing was  erected  at  a  cost  of  $3,800,  at  Thirteenth  and  G  streets  and 
named  the  Washington  school  house.  Secretary  Bidleman  was  re- 
moved May  9th,  and  was  succeeded  by  Monell. 

A  new  board  met  October  3,  1859,  consisting  of  Cyril  Hawkins, 
H.  J.  Bidleman,  J.  M.  Frey,  G.  L.  Simmons,  J.  J.  Murphy,  G.  I. 
N.  Monell,  D.  J.  Thomas  and  Henry  McCreary.  Dr.  Frey  was  presi- 
dent and  Monell  secretary.  An  unsuccessful  attempt  was  made  to 
establish  a  Normal  School,  to  be  taught  two  days  in  the  week.  At  the 
close  of  the  year  there  were  one  high,  four  grammar,  two  pri- 
mary and  intermediate,  and  six  primary  schools  in  the  city.  Scholars 
enrolled,  1031,  with  an  average  attendance  of  790.  Fifteen  teachers 
were  employed,  one  assistant  and  ten  monitors,   salaries  amounting 



to  $1,850  a  month,  the  board  believing  the  monitorial  system  less 
expensive  and  giving  more  teachers. 

The  board  of  education  for  1860  met  December  3rd,  with  G. 
Taylor,  J.  F.  Crawford,  H.  Miller,  J.  M.  Frey,  J.  M.  Milliken,  A.  C. 
Sweetzer,  S.  M.  Mouser  and  J.  Bithell  members;  Miller  president  and 
Sweetzer  secretary.  It  discharged  all  the  teachers  and  monitors, 
graded  the  schools,  decided  that  male  teachers  should  be  employed 
as  principals  of  the  high  school  and  of  the  first  grade  of  the  grammar 
school.  J.  W.  Anderson  was  elected  principal  of  the  Franklin  gram- 
mar school  and  Miss  Doyle  his  assistant.  June  7,  1861,  Anderson 
was  elected  principal  of  the  high  school,  and  Mr.  Templeton  to  fill 
his  place  in  the  Franklin  school. 

January  6,  1862,  the  board  organized  was  composed  of  J.  P. 
Dreman,  D.  J.  Thomas,  W.  Bidwell,  H.  Miller,  W.  H.  Hill,  J.  M. 
Milliken,  S.  M.  Mouser  and  Edward  Collins ;  Hill,  president.  In  March 
Mrs.  Folger  was  elected  teacher  of  the  colored  school,  the  board  vot- 
ing to  pay  her  salary  whenever  the  building  and  furniture  should  be 
furnished  by  the  parents  interested.  On  the  3rd  of  March  the  schools, 
which  had  been  considerably"  damaged  by  the  flood,  reopened,  except 
the  one  at  Sixteenth  and  N  streets,  which  was  still  surrounded  by 
water.  Mouser  resigned  and  his  place  was  filled  by  J.  T.  Peck.  The 
schoolhouse  at  Tenth  and  P  streets  was  erected,  at  a  cost  of  $2,500. 

The  board  elected  in  January,  1863,  comjDrised  Edward  Collins, 
John  F.  Dreman,  W.  H.  Hill,  H.  H.  Hartley,  Paul  Morrill,  D.  J. 
Thomas,  W.  Bidwell  and  H.  J.  Bidleman.  Hill  was  president.  At  the 
close  of  the  year  1093  pupils  were  enrolled,  average  attendance,  795. 
The  graduating  class  numbered  215.  Pupils  in  the  colored  school,  32, 
average  attendance  27.  A  building  for  the  colored  school  was  erected 
at  Fifth  and  0  streets,  but  was  set  on  fire  by  an  incendiary  and  con- 
sumed with  its  contents.  Total  disbursements  for  the  eleven  schools, 

In  January,  1864,  W.  Bidwell,  M.  C.  Briggs,  J.  H.  Carroll,  J.  F. 
Crawford,  Henry  H.  Hartley,  Paul  Morrill,  O.  D.  Lambard  and  II.  J. 
Bidleman  composed  the  board,  which  elected  Briggs  president.  When 
the  year  closed  the  number  of  schools  had  increased  to  thirteen—- 
six  primary,  three  intermediate,  one  high,  one  grammar,  one  ungraded 
and  one  colored,  with  1202  pupils  in  attendance,  919  of  whom  were 
born  in  the  state.  The  intermediate  school  at  Thirteenth  and  G  streets 
was  opened,  as  also  an  ungraded  one  at  Twenty-ninth  and  J  streets. 
The  board,  in  compliance  with  a  petition  from  the  colored  people, 
placed  their  school  on  the  same  footing  as  the  white  schools,  except 
as  to  grade.  The  expenses  for  the  vear  were  $28,660.08;  receipts, 

The  board  of  1865  organized  in  January,  with  M.  C.  Briggs, 
W.  E.  Chamberlain,  0.  D.  Lambard,  Eugene  Soule,  J.  W.  Avery, 
J.  li.  Carroll,  J.  W.   Crawford  and  Paul  Morrill.     Briggs  was   re- 


elected  president.  The  Union  schoolhouse  at  Seventh  and  G  streets 
was  completed  and  accepted  February  7th.  J.  L.  Fogg  was  chosen 
principal  of  the  gTammar  school,  Mr.  Templeton  being  made  prin- 
cipal of  the  high  school.  The  total  number  of  pupils  had  increased  to 
1458,  of  which  870  were  born  in  the  state.  The  first  story  of  the 
Union  high  school  was  completed  May  1st,  and  two  schools  moved  in. 
Cost,  $15,786.56.     Receipts,  $31,489.35.     Expenses,  $34,459.68. 

In  January,  1866,  the  new  board  organized,  with  J.  W.  Avery, 
W.  E.  Chamberlain,  Paschal  H.  Coggins,  John  F.  Dreman,  G.  R. 
Moore,  0.  D.  Lambard,  Paul  Morrill  and  Eugene  Soule,  directors; 
president,  W.  E.  Chamberlain.  The  close  of  the  year  showed  1524 
pupils  enrolled,  1010  born  in  the  state.  There  were  now  fourteen 
schools  in  the  city.  H.  H.  Howe  was  elected  principal  of  the  grammar 
school,  Fogg  having  resigned.  A  schoolhouse  for  colored  children 
was  erected  costing  $700,  and  a  frame  schoolhouse  at  Ninth  and  M 
streets,  costing  $3946,  and  school  was  opened  there  Augl^st  1st.  Re- 
ceipts for  the  year,  $34,443.31;  expenditures,  $32,136.43,  receipts  for 
the  first  time  exceeding  expenses. 

The  board  of  1867  was  composed  of  the  same  members,  Paul 
Morrill  being  president.  At  the  close  of  the  year  1736  children  were 
on  the  rolls,  1227  born  in  California  and  457  elsewhere.  Early  in 
the  year  the  Lincoln  school  building  was  erected,  the  cost  being 
$8049.69.  In  March  $200  was  set  aside  from  the  state  apportion- 
ment for  a  school  library.  About  250  volumes  were  purchased  and 
the  number  has  increased  yearly  since.  Lambard  resigned  and  was 
replaced  by  John  F.  Crawford,  and  Soule  resigning,  David  S.  Ross 
was  elected  in  his  place.    Receipts,  $33,639 ;  expenditures,  $44,207. 

In  1868  the  board  was:  J.  F.  Crawford,  Joseph  Davis,  J.  W. 
Avery,  Henry  Miller,  D.  S.  Ross,  F.  A.  Gibbs,  Paschal  H.  Coggins 
and  Horace  Adams.  Miller  was  president.  The  year  closed  with 
1727  names  enrolled, — 920  boys  and  807  girls, — with  an  average  at- 
tendance of  1142.  Born  in  the  state  1241.  Receipts,  $43,194.68;  ex- 
penses, $48,362. 

In  Februarv,  1869,  the  board  was :  J.  F.  Crawford,  J.  W.  Avery, 
P.  B.  Redding,"  Henry  Miller,  David  S.  Ross,  F.  A.  Gibbs,  W.  L. 
Campbell  and  Henry  McCreary;  Miller,  president.  The  year  closed 
with  2200  pupils  enrolled — 1128  boys  and  1072  girls;  average  at- 
tendance 1584.  A  wooden  addition  was  made  to  the  school  building 
at  Thirteenth  and  G  streets,  but  within  a  fortnight  it  was  destroyed 
by  an  incendiary  fire,  together  with  the  old  building,  and  the  school 
had  to  be  continued  in  other  quarters  until  the  new  two-story  brick 
building  for  the  school  could  be  completed.  It  cost  $13,720  and  was 
known  as  the  Washington  school.  A  wooden  addition  was  also  made 
to  Franklin  schoolhouse.  In  November  400  German  citizens  peti- 
tioned the  board  to  introduce  the  German  language  into  the  schools, 
which  was  done.     Arnold   Dulon  being  elected  teacher,  with  fifteen 


pupils  iu  the  high  school  and  one  hundred  and  ninety  in  the  grammar 
school.  At  the  close  of  the  year  there  were  seventeen  schools  in  the 
city — one  high,  one  grammar  with  four  grades,  four  intermediate, 
nine  primaries,  one  ungraded  and  one  colored.  Recepits,  $78,000.94; 
expenditures,  $77,840.44. 

In  1870  the  board  was  composed  of  John  H.  Dreman,  J.  W.  Avery, 
Henry  Miller,  David  S.  Eoss,  F.  A.  Gibbs,  Daniel  Brown,  J.  F.  Mont- 
gomery and  B.  B.  Redding,  with  Miller  as  president.  H.  H.  Howe 
resigned  the  principalship  of  the  grammar  school  and  A.  H.  Mc- 
Donald was  elected  to  the  position,  two  new  departments  being  added. 
A  two-story  brick  schoolhouse  was  erected  at  Sixteenth  and  N  streets, 
at  a  cost  of  $9,000,  but  a  few  days  after  its  completion  it  was  set  on 
fire  and  destroyed.  The  board  immediately  erected  another,  which 
was  completed  the  following  year.  The  yearly  roll  showed  1219  boys 
and  1137  girls;  total,  2356.  Eeceipts,  $81,115.51.  Expenditures.  $80,- 

The  next  board  organized  January  26,1871,  was  composed  of  W. 

C.  Stratton,  J.  W.  Avery,  E.  T.  Taylor,  D.  S.  Eoss,  Henry  Miller, 
Daniel  Brown,  J.  F.  Montgomery  and  Henry  C.  Kirk,  Montgomery 
being  president.  The  pupils  increased  in  number  to  2458 — 1249  boys 
and  i209  girls.  There  were  now  twenty  schools  in  the  city  and  receipts 
for  the  year  were  $72,810  and  expenses,  $71,351. 

In  i872  the  board  was:  Henry  C.  Kirk,  W.  C.  Stratton,  Henry 
Miller,  E.  T.  Taylor,  E.  I.  Eobinson,  John  F.  Dreman,  C.  H.  Cum- 
mings  and  H.  K.  Snow;  Miller,  president.  Judge  E.  B.  Crocker  ac- 
quired the  ground  on  which  the  schoolhouse  at  Second  and  P  streets 
stood,  and  the  school  was  removed  to  Fourth  and  Q  streets.  The 
city  donated  the  public  square  between  I  and  J,  Fifteenth  and  Six- 
teenth streets,  and  the  present  commodious  brick  building,  known  as 
the  Sacramento  granmiar  school,  was  erected  at  a  cost  of  $60,000,  to 
accommodate  the  other  grammar  schools.  George  Eowland  was 
elected  a  member  of  the  board,  vice  Stratton,  resigned.  Underwood 
resigned  as  principal  of  the  grammar  school  and  A.  H.  McDonald  suc- 
ceeded him.  The  board  decided  to  open  a  night  school  in  the  two 
lower  rooms  of  the  Franklin  grammar  school,  at  Sixth  and  K  streets. 

In  1873  the  board  consisted  of  C.  H.  Cummings,  J.  F.  Dreman, 
James  I.  Felter,  E.  I.  Eobinson,  H.  K.  Snow,  George  Eowland,  Felix 
Tracy  and  B.  B.  Eedding;  Cummings  presiding.  The  census  showed 
3389  children  between  five  and  fifteen  years  of  age,  with  3053  en- 
rolled; average  attendance,  1810.    Receipts,  $73,952;  expenses,  $67,300. 

The  board  as  organized  in  1874  consisted  of  C.  H.  Cummings, 

D.  W.  Welty,  J.  F.  Dreman,  J.  I.  Felter,  George  Eowland,  Felix 
Tracy,  George  Waite  and  W.  F.  Knox;  Tracy  presiding.  A  new 
course  of  study  gave  two  grades  in  the  primary  schools,  instead  of 
three.  Intermediate  School  No.  5  and  Primary  School  No.  10  were 
organized  and  an  additional   assistant  was   employed    at   the  gram- 


mar  school.  The  high  school  opened  with  a  new  corps  of  teachers  and 
118  ]mpils.  ■  A  truant  officer  was  employed  in  September  with  good 
results.  Mr.  Straube  resigned  as  German  teacher  and  A.  H.  linger 
was  elected.  The  receipts  were  $95,041;  disbursements,  $122,249,  and 
the  deficit  of  $27,208  was  met  with  borrowed  money. 

January,  1875,  the  new  board  as  organized  consisted  of  C.  H. 
Cummings,  J.  F.  Dreman,  Albert  Hart,  W.  F.  Knox,  T.  M.  Lindley, 
J.  F.  Montgomery,  Felix  Tracy  and  George  S.  Waite;  Tracy  pre- 
siding. Superintendent  Hinkson  reported  the  receipts  as  $68,946.05 
and  the  expenditures,  $57,579.72.  Total  number  enrolled,  2633;  av- 
erage attendance,  2143;  born  in  California,  2134.  The  cost  for  each 
pupil  was  estimated  at  $21.86.  The  Union  and  Lincoln  and  other 
schoolhouses  were  re]iaired  during  the  year.  The  superintendent's 
report  showed  the  schools  to  compare  favorably  with  those  of  the 
other  states,  and  the  system  of  weekly  and  monthly  examinations  was 
instituted  with  satisfactory  results. 

In  1876  the  board  was  composed  of  John  F.  Dreman,  Albert  Hart, 
F.  M.  Lindley,  T.  B.  McFarland,  J.  F.  Montgomery,  A.  T.  Nelson, 
J.  F.  Richardson,  Felix  Tracy,  and  Secretary  Hiukson.  School  Cen- 
sus Marshal's  report  showed  an  increase  of  355  children  during  the 
past  year.  Total  number  of  children  attending  school,  2850;  average 
attendance,  1982;  born  in  California,  1843:  number  enrolled  for 
the  German  class,  191.  Expenses,  $64,894.35.  The  superintendent 
reported  against  any  change  in  text  books. 

The  board  for  1877  organized  with  J.  F.  Dreman,  J.  I.  Felter, 
H.  H.  Linnell,  T.  B.  McFarland,  John  Stevens  and  J.  N.  Young. 
Felter  presided.  The  superintendent's  report  showed  that  there  were 
in  the  city  4011  white  and  71  colored  children  between  five  and  seven- 
teen years  of  age.  Of  these  2458  were  attending  public  schools.  There 
were  55  public  school  classes  in  the  city  and  the  high  school  was 
maintained  for  ten  months  during  the  year.  There  were  in  all,  twelve 
school  buildings;  boys  enrolled,  1627;  girls,  1496;  average  attendance, 
ninety  per  cent.  The  high  school  erected  this  year  was  a  fine  struc- 
ture with  four  class  rooms,  library  room,  laboratory,  etc. 

The  board  of  1878  organized  with  J.  F.  Dreman,  J.  I.  Felter, 
E.  Greer,  Matt  F.  Johnson,  H.  H.  Linnell,  John  Stevens  and  J.  N. 
Young  as  directors;  Felter  presiding.  Sixty-eight  teachers  were  em- 
ployed, including  one  of  French  and  German.  Several  new  school 
rooms  were  rendered  necessary  this  year  by  the  accession  of  pupils. 
The  number  of  pupils  enrolled  was  3148.  Current  expenses  were  $69,- 
872.  The  superintendent  recommended  that  school  books  be  fur- 
nished to  all  children  under  restrictions  that  would  prevent  abuses. 
Eight  additional  teachers  were  employed  and  two  new  classes  estab- 
lished in  the  grammar  grades. 

In  1879  the  board  organized  with  Director  S.  W.  Butler,  E. 
Greer,    Matt    F.    Johnson,   J.   F.    Dreman,    John    T.    Griffitts,    F.    A. 


Hornblower,  James  McClatchy  and  T.  B.  McFarland.  The  latter  pre- 
sided. The  superintendent  reported  the  value  of  school  property 
at  $198,000.  Number  of  pupils  enrolled,  3539.  Receipts,  $78,947.26; 
expenditures,  $74,082.94.  He  recommended  the  erection  of  an  addi- 
tional school  building  in  the  southern  part  of  the  city,  the  grading  of 
teacher's  salaries,  and  free  supply  of  books  to  the  pupils;  of  the 
sixty-three  class  rooms  one  had  been  abandoned  on  account  of  its 
unhealthy  location.  Seventy-three  teachers  were  employed,  with  an 
average  salary  of  $72.83.  Prof.  Albert  H.  linger,  principal  of  the 
German  classes,  died  this  year.  The  night  school  had  one  hundred 
pupils  enrolled,  under  Professor  Brier,  and  was  reported  as  in  a 
high  condition  of  efficiency. 

The  board  of  1880  organized  with  Directors  S.  W.  Butler,  J.  T. 
Griffitts,  F.  A.  Hornblower,  W.  R.  Knights,  J.  D.  Lord,  James  Mc- 
Clatchy,    W.    D.    Stalker    and   K.    F.    Wiemeyer.      Griffitts    presided. 

Knights  resigned  and  Felix  Tracy  was  elected  to  the  vacancy. 
F.  L.  Landes  succeeded  A.  C.  Hinkson  as  superintendent.  The  latter 
reported  receipts  for  the  previous  year  as  $82,380.32;  disbursements, 
$81,014.95 ;  one  new  schoolhouse,  a  fine  ten-class  primary  school  on 
Q  street,  between  Ninth  and  Tenth,  costing  $9,413,  and  other  build- 
ings, amounting  in  all  to  $10,733  and  furniture  to  the  amount  of 
$1852  were  among  the  items,  giving  ample  accommodations  for 
pupils.  The  sale  of  the  Franklin  grammar  school,  at  Sixth  and  L 
streets,  occupied  only  as  a  night  school,  was  recommended.  Total 
number  of  pupils  enrolled,  3489;  teachers  employed,  79,  two  of  them 
lieing  in  the  evening  school.  The  ]:)rineipal  of  the  high  school  was 
0.  M.  Adams;  vice-principal.  Kirk  W.  Brier,  who  afterwards  became 
principal.  A.  H.  McDonald  was  principal  of  the  Sacramento  gram- 
mar school  and  Joseph  W.  Johnson  principal  of  the  Capital  gram- 
mar; W.  J.  Hyde,  principal  of  the  night  school. 

Up  to  this  time  there  had  been  four  superintendents — W.  H. 
Hill,  S.  C.  Denson,  A.  C.  Hinkson  and  F.  L.  Landes. 

Since  1880  the  boards  have  been  as  follows: 

1881— K.  F.  Wiemeyer,  W.  D.  Stalker,  J.  D.  Lord,  L.  K.  Ham- 
mer, S.  W.  Butler,  Felix  Tracy,  Philip  Herzog  and  W.  S.  Mesick. 
Mesick  resigned  and  C.  H.  Stevens  was  elected  to  succeed  him. 

1882— John  F.  Slater,  Philip  Herzog,  C.  H.  Stevens,  W.  D. 
Stalker,  S.  W.  Butler,  Felix  Tracy,  Mathew  C.  Cooke,  L.  K.  Ham- 
mer; G.  H.  Hancock  succeeded  Hammer,  resigned. 

1883— John  F.  Slater,  C.  H.  Stevens,  Mathew  C.  Cooke,  W.  D. 
Stalker,  0.  P.  Goodhue,  Felix  Tracy,  George  W.  Hancock  and  S. 
W.  Butler.  Goodhue  died  and  Elwood  Bruner  was  elected  to  the 

1884— John  F.  Slater,  C.  H.  Stevens,  Mathew  C.  Cooke,  J.  L. 
Chadderdon,  Richmond  Davis,  D.  Johnson,  Elwood  Bruner,  Frank 


1885— W.  M.  Petrie,  John  F.  Slater,  A.  Conklin,  J.  L.  Chadder- 
don,  Richmond  Davis,  Frank  Avery,  C.  H.  Stevens,  E.  K.  Alsip. 

1886— A.  Conklin,  C.  H.  Stevens,  J.  W.  Todd,  W.  M.  Petrie, 
Richmond  Davis,  O.  W.  Erlewine,  John  F.  Slater,  E.  K.  Alsip. 
Stevens  resigned  and  B.  F.  Howard  was  elected  to  fill  the  vacancy. 

1887— A.  Conklin,  W.  M.  Petrie,  J.  W.  Todd,  Richmond  Davis, 
John  F.  Slater,  A.  S.  Hopkins,  H.  C.  Chipman  and  0.  W.  Erlewine. 

1888— Richmond  Davis,  W.  M.  Petrie,  E.  M.  Martin,  A.  Conk- 
lin, J.  W.  Todd,  A.  S.  Hopkins,  H.  C.  Chipman,  John  Skelton. 

1889— J.  W.  Todd,  A.  J.  Senatz,  E.  I.  Martin,  Joseph  Hopley, 
R.  Davis,  A.  C.  Tufts,  H.  C.  Chipman,  John  Skelton. 

1890— H.  C.  Chipman,  W.  H.  Sherburn,  A.  C.  Tufts,  A.  J.  Senatz, 
Joseph  Hopley,  J.  N.  Pajme,  0.  W.  Erlewine,  Win  J.  Davis. 

1891—0.  W.  Erlewine,  M.  Gardner,  W.  H.  Sherburn,  C.  M.  Har- 
rison, J.  N.  Payne,  R.  Davis,  A.  C.  Tufts,  H.  C.  Chipman. 

1892— A.  C".  Tufts,  W.  H.  Sherburn,  C.  M.  Harrison,  Eugene  A. 
Crouch,  H.  J.  Davis,  0.  W.  Erlewine,  H.  C.  Chipman,  M.  Gardner. 

1893 — No  election.     Same  board  held  office.     Sherburn,  president. 

1894-95— Win  J.  Davis,  W.  H.  Sherburn,  E.  A.  Crouch,  J.  H. 
Dolan,  A.  N.  Buchanan,  T.  W.  Huntington,  D.  D.  Whitbeck,  M.  J. 
Dillman,  P.  S.  Driver. 

1896-97— Win  J.  Davis,  E.  A.  Crouch,  J.  H.  Dolan,  T.  W.  Hunt- 
ington, D.  D.  Whitbeck,  M.  J.  Dillman,  P.  S.  Driver,  W.  H.  Sher- 
burn, A.  N.  Buchanan. 

1898-99— P.  S.  Driver,  W.  H.  Sherburn,  George  B.  Stack,  C.  A. 
Elliott,  F.  L.  Atkinson,  C.  C.  Perkins,  H.  K.  Johnson,  H.  S.  Ranson, 

E.  S.  Panabaker. 

1900-01— P.  S.  Driver,  Ed.  J.  Kay,  George  B.  Stack,  J.  A.  Green, 

F.  L.  Atkinson,  Herman  Mier,  H.  K.  Johnson,  H.  S.  Ranson,  E.  E. 

1902-03— P.  S.  Driver,  Ed.  J.  Kay,  J.  A.  Green,  Herman  Mier, 
H.  S.  Ranson,  Edward  McEwen,  W.  M.  Petrie,  Howard  K.  Johnson, 
Robert  Martyr. 

1904-05— Howard  K.  Johnson,  B.  M.  Hodson,  Daniel  FhTin,  J. 
A.  Green,  W.  M.  Petrie,  John  T.  Skelton,  L.  G.  Shepard,  Robert 
Martvr,  William  Lampert. 

1906-07— J.  A.  Green,  B.  M.  Hodson,  Daniel  Flynn,  W.  M.  Petrie, 
William  Lampert,  J.  M.  Henderson,  Jr.,  John  T.  Skelton,  W.  F. 
Jackson,  L.  G.  Shepard. 

1908-09— W.  J.  Taylor,  R.  L.  Wait,  D.  Flynn,  J.  A.  Green,  W. 
M.   Petrie,   T.   D.   Littlefield,   J.   M.   Henderson,  W.  F.   Jackson,   W. 

G.  McMiUin. 

1910-11— J.  A.  Green,  R.  L.  Wait,  J.  R.  Garlick,  W.  M.  Petrie, 
T.  D.  Littlefield,  S.  A.  Smith,  W.  J.  Taylor,  Thomas  Coulter,  W. 
G.  McMillin. 

The    superintendents    since    1880    have    been :      Dr.    J.    R.    Lane, 


January,  1882,  to  January,  1886;  M.  R.  Beard,  1886  to  1890;  Albert 
Hart,  1890  to  1894;  0.  W.  Erlewine,  elected  under  the  new  charter, 
February  3,  1894,  was  subsequently  re-elected  and  served  continuously 
as  superintendent  under  the  commission  until  he  resigned  early  this 
year,  being  succeeded  by  C.  C.  Hughes. 

Under  the  new  charter  adopted  in  1911,  changing  the  govern- 
ment of  the  city  to  the  commission  form,  the  commissioners  con- 
stituted the  city  board  of  education,  Mrs.  Luella  B.  Johnston  being 
the  commissioner  of  education  for  the  ensuing  year,  and  being  suc- 
ceeded this  year  by  E.  J.  Carragher. 


The  embryo  of  the  high  school  was  created  May  22,  1855,  when 
it  was  proposed  by  Dr.  F.  W.  Hatch  that  Willson's  History,  astron- 
omy, bookkeeping,  Latin,  French  and  Spanish  be  added  to  the  course 
of  study.  An  order  to  add  these  studies  to  the  course  was  adopted 
at  that  time,  but  was  not  put  in  force  till  the  following  year,  when 
the  classes  in  these  studies  were  taught  in  the  schoolhouse  on  M 
street,  between  Eighth  and  Ninth,  by  J.  M.  Howe.  Eighteen  girls  and 
twenty-one  boys  were  enrolled  the  first  year  and  the  remarkably  high 
average  attendance  of  36.8  out  of  39  was  attained.  May  8,  1857. 
Howe  declined  to  be  examined  in  Greek  and  was  succeeded  by  C. 
A.  Hill.  Hill  resigned  in  August  following  and  was  succeeded  by 
A.  E.  Jackson,  and  early  in  1858  the  school  was  removed  to  Fifth 
and  K  streets  and  J.  P.  Carleton  was  elected  to  teach  French  and 

May  20,  1858,  Charles  A.  Swift  was  elected  principal,  with  a 
salary  of  $200  a  month,  and  Professor  Lefebre  was  chosen  to  teach 
French  and  Spanish  in  place  of  Carleton.  As  soon  as  the  Franklin 
grammar  school  was  completed,  the  high  school  was  removed  to  it. 
In  June,  1859,  Professor  Lefebre  left  the  state  and  was  succeeded  by 
Professor  Jofre.  In  November,  1859,  the  natural  sciences  were 
added  to  the  course  by  the  board,  and  A.  E.  Jackson  was  elected  to 
teach  them.  The  next  October  Swift  showed  evidences  of  insanity 
and  a  vacancy  in  the  principalship  was  declared  and  Jackson  was 
appointed  to  the  position,  but  refused  the  following  April  to  serve 
longer  as  principal,  declaring  the  salary  insufficient,  and  J.  W.  An- 
derson was  appointed  in  his  place.  Anderson  was  succeeded  Sejitem- 
ber,  18,  1862,  by  E.  K.  Marriner  and  the  latter  resigned  March  27, 
1865,  and  was  succeeded  by  J.  L.  Fogg,  who  served  till  April  29th  fol- 
lowing and  was  succeeded  by  Milo  L.  Templeton  as  principal. 

The  school  was  removed  to  Seventh  and  G  streets  July  25,  1865, 
and  in  November  Alexander  Goddard  was  elected  teacher  of  French 
and  in  April,  1870,  Jourdon  W.  Eoper  was  appointed  principal.  He 
resigned  in  April,  1872,  and  was  succeeded  by  H.  H.  Howe,  and  early 
in  the  year  Edward  P.  Howe  was  appointed  to  take  his  brother's 


place.  His  successors  to  date  have  been  Oliver  M.  Adams,  who  re- 
signed in  June,  1884;  W.  W.  Anderson  from  that  date  until  the  close 
of  the  school  year  in  June,  1888,  when  James  H.  Pond  was  elected 
principal.  Pond  resigned  in  1901  to  take  the  principalship  in  the 
Oakland  high  school  and  was  succeeded  by  Frank  Tade,  who  con- 
tinued as  principal  until  the  close  of  the  school  year  in  June,  1910. 
when  he  resigned  to  take  the  principalship  of  the  Night  High  School 
and  was  succeeded  by  H.  0.  Williams,  the  present  principal. 

The  high  school  building  at  the  corner  of  Ninth  and  M  streets 
was  completed  September  2,  1876,  at  a  cost  of  $10,687,  and  the  school 
was  opened  in  it  January  1,  1877.  An  addition  was  made  to  it  in 
1904,  nearly  doubling  its  size,  and  in  1909  it  was  burned.  In  1907-08 
a  new  high  school  building  was  erected  on  the  block  between  K  and 
L,  Eighteenth  and  Nineteenth  streets,  which  had  been  purchased  for 
the  purpose  by  the  board  of  education  from  the  directors  of  the 
Protestant  Orphan  Asylum.  The  building  is  a  fine  one,  the  lower 
story  being  of  cement,  and  .the  remainder  of  brick.  It  is  four  stories 
in  height,  with  thirty-five  class  rooms,  and  cost  in  round  numbers 
a  little  over  $254,500.  It  is  strictly  up  to  date,  has  ample  apparatus 
for  the  scientific  classes,  and  a  gynmasium  for  the  boys  in  the  lower 
story.  It  was  calculated  to  furnish  accommodations  for  about  eight 
hundred  pupils,  and  that  it  would  be  ample  for  all  the  needs  of  the 
school  for  ten  years,  but  the  growth  of  the  city  since  has  been  so 
rapid  that  it  is  alreadj'  overcrowded,  the  classes  for  the  first  semester 
of  1912  showing  that  about  one  thousand  pupils  must  be  taken  care 
of.  The  bond  issue  of  $800,000  for  the  schools  sanctioned  by  the 
people  in  1911,  has  provided  for  an  addition  to  the  high  school  facili- 
ties, and  it  is  advocated  by  many  that  a  new  high  school  building  be 
erected  in  the  suburlian  district  recently  annexed  by  the  city,  al- 
though an  addition  may  be  built  to  the  present  building. 


In  1873  a  colored  pupil  applied  for  admission  to  the  night  school 
and  two  colored  girls  applied  for  admission  to  the  grammar  school. 
The  question  arose  as  to  whether  under  the  statute  prohibiting  tlie 
attendance  of  colored  children  at  the  white  schools  they  could  be 
admitted  without  endangering  the  receipt  of  the  state  and  county 
monevs  for  the  support  of  the  schools.  The  board  granted  the  re- 
quests, pending  the  decision  of  the  supreme  court  on  the  constitu- 
tionality of  the  law. 

January  7,  1874,  Su])erintendent  Hinkson  served  on  Princijial 
McDonald  of  the  grammar  school  the  following  notice: 

"You  are  hereby  instructed  to  admit  no  children  of  African  de- 
scent or  Indian  children  into  your  school,  and  if  any  make  applica- 
tion for  arbrission,  direct  them  to  the  superintendent,  who  will  issue 


permits  for  their  admission  into  the  schools  provided  for  them  by 

The  admission  of  colored  children  to  white  schools  had  been 
made  an  issue  in  the  election  of  December,  1873,  and  Ilinkson  had 
been  elected  superintendent,  with  W.  F.  Knox  and  George  S.  Wait, 
Democrats.  J.  F.  Dreman,  Republican,  had  previously  voted  against 
admitting   colored   children. 

The  notice  called  attention  to  the  statute  on  the  subject.  The 
])rincipal  refused  to  obey  the  order  and  was  suspended  by  the  super- 
intendent and  a  special  meeting  was  called,  the  principal  stating  that 
the  orders  of  the  superintendent  were  in  conflict  with  the  resolution 
adopted  by  the  board,  and  asked  which  he  should  obey. 

Director  Welty  offered  the  following  resolution:  ''That  the  teach- 
ers are  instructed  that  the  paramount  source  of  power  rests  with 
the  board,  in  reference  to  the  subject  matter  embraced  in  the  com- 
munication from  the  principal  of  the  grammar  school." 

The  resolution  was  adopted  by  a  vote  of  five  to  three  and  the 
principal  reinstated.  Director  Dreman  offered  a  resolution  as  fol- 
lows, which  was  lost  by  a  vote  of  three  to  five : 

"That  it  is  the  duty  of  Superintendent  Hinkson  to  redeem  his 
pledge  to  the  people  of  Sacramento  City  by  using  all  legal  means  to 
prevent  the  admission  of  colored  children  into  the  wdiite  schools." 
Director  Knox  offered  the  following  resolution: 

"That  the  resolution  of  December  29,  1873,  by  the  board  of  edu- 
cation, admitting  certain  colored  children  into  the  white  grammar 
school,  is  a  palpable  violation  of  the  statute  of  the  state." 

Director  Welty  offered  this  in  addition: 

"But  is  in  strict  harmony  with  the  constitution  and  laws  of  the 
United  States." 

The  resolution  as  amended  was  adopted.  The  supreme  court 
soon  after  declared  the  statute  constitutional  and  a  plan  was  dis- 
cussed for  establishing  separate  schools,  but  was  deemed  impractic- 
able and  colored  pupils  were  admitted  to  the  grammar  and  high 


In  1882  a  resolution  was  adopted  by  the  board  that  thereafter, 
when  high  school  exercises  were  held,  a  premium  of  $20  would  be 
offered  to  the  young  lady  pupil  who  would  attend  in  the  least  ex- 
jiensive  and  most  appropriate  dress.  It  seems  therefore,  that  the 
evil  of  expensive  dressing  on  such  occasions  was  even  then  prevalent. 

In  1881  the  Fremont  primary  school  at  Twenty-fourth  and  X 
streets  was  erected. 

In  1882  a  two-roojii  frame  building,  the  Marshall  primary,  was 
erected  at  Twenty-seventh  and  J  streets  and  afterwards  enlarged. 
It  stood  on  one  of  the  city  blocks  reserved  for  plazas  by  General 


Sutter  and  when  the  city  resolved  to  make  a  park  there,  the  school 
was  removed  and  a  new  one  erected  on  G  street. 

In  1884  it  was  proposed  to  purchase  the  Perry  Seminary  build- 
ing for  a  high  school  and  $9000  was  offered  for  it,  but  Mrs.  Perry 
asked  $10,000.  It  was  finally  purchased  for  $9620  and  used  for  years 
for  the  night  school,  but  was  converted  last  year  into  a  manual  train- 
ing school.  In  February,  1890,  the  board  of  trustees  asked  that  the 
Perry  Seminary  property  be  deeded  to  the  city,  but  the  board  of 
education  declined,  saying  it  had  no  power  to  cede  it.  In  1891  a 
similar  request  was  made  and  again  denied. 

In  1904  the  first  Chinese  school  was  opened  in  the  Perry  Sem- 
inary building. 

In  1885  the  Harkness  grammar  school  at  Tenth  and  P  streets 
was  erected  at  a  cost  of  $14,992,  and  the  building  at  Tenth  and  L 
streets,  erected  in  1879,  named  the  Capital  grammar  school  and  at  first 
used  as  a  grammar  school,  was  named  the  Capital  primary  school. 
In  1889  the  Sutter  grammar  school  at  Twenty-first  and  L  streets 
was  erected,  at  a  cost  of  $15,444.  In  that  year,  also,  the  business  men 
of  the  city  presented  twelve  American  flags  to  the  board  of  educa- 
tion, with  the  request  that  they  be  displayed  on  all  legal  holidays, 
on  the  first  day  of  each  term  and  on  other  occasions  as  the  board 
might  deem  proper.  Today  Old  Glory  floats  over  every  schoolhouse 
in  the  city  and  county  while  the  schools  are  in  session. 

In  this  connection  it  may  be  stated  that  the  first  flag  raised  over 
a  schoolhouse  in  the  county  outside  of  the  city  was  in  the  Capital 
school  district,  on  the  old  schoolhouse  that  stood  on  the  Upper  Stock- 
ton road  at  Swiss  station,  a  short  distance  south  of  the  county  hospital, 
W.  L.  Willis  being  the  teacher,  and  the  school  children  and  trustees 
contributing  money  for  the  flag  and  flagstaif.  On  the  same  day, 
but  several  hours  later,  a  flag  was  raised  on  the  American  river  dis- 
trict schoolhouse.  Miss  Agnes  Burns,  teacher.  Neither  district  knew 
that  the  other  contemplated  such  action,  and  the  raising  of  the  first 
two  flags  in  the  county  was  a  remarkable  coincidence.  Both  school- 
houses  have  since  been  demolished,  and  more  commodious  ones  built 
on  other  sites  to  accommodate  the  growing  needs  of  the  districts. 

Besides  the  high  school,  we  have  now  three  grammar  schools, — 
the  Watson,  Harkness  and  Sutter,  the  Newton  Booth  school,  which 
is  mixed,  and  eight  primary  schools, — the  McKinley,  Lincoln,  Capital, 
Washington,  Jefferson,  Marshall,  Fremont  and  Eugene  Field  pri- 
maries,— within  the  old  city  limits.  Since  the  suburbs  were  annexed 
they  have  brought  into  the  city  school  system  the  Oak  Park  grammar 
and  primary  schools,  the  Highland  Park,  Franklin,  East  Sacramento, 
Riverside  and  Palmetto  Heights  schools,  the  latter  being  the  school 
of  the  Protestant  Orphan  Asylum  on  the  Lower  Stockton  road. 
There  is_  also  a  night  high  school,  and  a  night  school  with  twelve 
teachers.    In  addition  to  this,  the  old  Perry  Seminary  has  been  fitted 


up  as  a  manual  training  school,  with  foui-  teachers.  The  schools  also 
liave  a  sui^ervisor  of  drawing,  a  supervisor  and  assistant  supervisor  of 
music,  a  teacher  and  assistant  teacher  for  the  deaf  and  dumb,  and 
four  teachers  of  domestic  science  and  home  economics.  In  addition 
to  these  there  are  several  kindergarten  schools. 

In  the  spring  of  1911  the  Capital  primary  school,  on  L  street, 
between  Ninth  and  Tenth,  was  burned,  the  work,  it  is  generally  be- 
lieved, of  an  incendiary.  The  Lincoln  primary  school,  at  Fourth 
and  Q  streets,  has  been  twice  burned  within  the  past  ten  years,  both 
fires  being  supposedly  incendiary. 

There  are  at  present  eig'hty  school  districts  in  Sacramento  county, 
as  follows:  Arcade,  Alabama,  Alder  Creek,  Andrus  Island,  A  mo, 
Brighton,  Buckeye,  Brown,  Brannan,  Courtland,  Capital,  Carroll, 
Center-Joint,  Carson  Creek-Joint,  Colon}',  Davis,  Dry  Creek-Joint, 
Elk  Grove,  Elk  Grove  Union  High,  East  Sacramento,  Elder 
Creek,  Enterprise,  Excelsior,  Freeport,  Florin,  Franklin  Union,  Fair 
Oaks,  Gait,  Granite,  Grand  Island,  Georgiana,  Good  Hope,  Goldberg, 
Highland,  Highland  Park,  Howard,  Hutson,  Isleton,  Jackson,  Junc- 
tion, Kinney,  Lisbon,  Lee,  Lincoln,  Laguna,  Michigan  Bar,  Moke- 
lumne,  Ney,  Natoma-Joint,  Onisbo,  Oak  Grove,  Orangevale,  Oulton, 
Prairie,  Point  Pleasant,  Pleasant  Grove,  Pacific,  Palmetto  Heights, 
Richland,  Roberts,  Reese,  Rio  Vista,  Rhoads,  Riverside,  Sylvan, 
Sutter,  Stone  House,  Sacramento  City,  San  Joaquin,  San  Juan, 
Sherman  Island,  Union,  Victory,  Vorden,  Wilson,  Washington,  Walnut 
Grove  and  Waker.  Two  new  ones  have  been  made  b}^  the  board  of 
supervisors  within  the  past  few  mouths — Twin  Cities  district  taken 
from'  Gait  and  Arno  districts,  and  one,  not  yet  named,  taken  from 
Brighton,  Washington,  Enterprise  and  Excelsior  districts.  The  num- 
ber of  teachers  in  the  city  schools  is  267,  and  in  the  schools  oiatside 
of  the  city  ninety-one. 


Wlien  Agesilaus,  King  of  Sparta,  gave  utterance  to  the  precept 
"Teach  your  boys  that  which  they  will  practice  when  they  become 
men,"  he  sounded  the  keynote  of  practical  education  and  stamped  the 
pattern  for  the  commercial  training  of  the  present  generation.  This 
terse  and  epigrammatic  injunction  is  the  motto  of  one  of  the  oldest  and 
most  firmly  established  educational  institutions  on  the  Pacific  Coast. 
Founded  February  28th,  1873,  by  Edmund  Clement  Atkinson,  one  of 
the  pioneer  business  educators  of  the  state,  it  has  for  nearly  forty 
years  inculcated  sound  business  principles  into  the  minds  of  the  young 
men  and  young  women  of  California,  and  maintained  first  rank  among 
the  institutions  of  learning  of  the  community. 

For  the  first  twenty  years  of  its  existence,  the  college  occupied 
the  upper  floor  of  the  present  city  library  building  on  I  street,  be- 
tween Seventh  and  Eighth,  after  which  the  third  floor  of  the  Hale 


block  at  Ninth  aud  K  streets,  where  it  was  for  sixteen  years  one  of 
the  prominent  features  of  the  city's  life.  In  1909  it  was  moved  to 
the  present  commodious  and  well-lighted  building  at  the  north-east 
corner  of  Thirteenth  and  J  streets,  where  it  continues  to  expound  the 
sound  principles  of  business,  impressing  them  upon  the  receptive 
minds  of  its  students  along  the  strongly  characteristic  lines  laid  down 
by  its  eminent  founder,  and  on  completion  of  the  course  of  instruction 
installs  its  graduates  in  responsible  positions  in  the  commercial  world. 
In  fidelity  to  its  announcements  it  "puts  thousands  into  business." 

The  college  celebrated  its  twenty-fifth  anniversary  in  1898  by 
incorporating  imder  the  laws  of  California.  Since  the  death  of  its 
founder,  and  in  fact  for  a  short  time  previous  thereto,  it  had  been 
under  the  direct  control  of  its  president  and  manager,  William  E. 
Cogswell,  for  eighteen  years  connected  with  the  institution  in  various 



The  inception  of  railroad  building  in  the  county  of  Sacramento, 
as  well  as  in  the  whole  state,  has  made  very  interesting  history.  The 
building  of  the  Sacramento  Valley  Eailroad  which  ran  from  Sacra- 
mento to  Folsom,  a  distance  of  twenty- two  miles,  in  1855-56,  (it  being 
the  first  railroad  constructed  in  the  state)  was  the  direct  cause  of  the 
construction  of  the  western  half  of  the  great  transcontinental  railroad 
known  as  the  Central  Pacific. 

As  far  back  as  1846  the  building  of  a  railroad  across  the  plains 
and  over  the  mountains  had  been  agitated  in  Congress  and  out  of  it 
by  Asa  Whitney,  until  1850.  He  was  supported  in  his  effort  by  Sena- 
tors Benton  of  Missouri  and  Breese  of  Illinois.  Februarv  7,  1849, 
Senator  Benton  introduced  a  bill  in  Congress  for  the  building  of  a 
Pacific  railroad,  this  bill  being  really  the  first  tangible  effort  made 
in  that  direction.  The  formation  of  a  company  of  citizens  of  Sacra- 
mento, Nevada  and  Placer  counties  was  the  first  effort  made  in  Cali- 
fornia for  the  building  of  an  overland  railroad.  Articles  of  incor- 
poration of  the  Sacramento,  Auburn  and  Nevada  Eailroad  Company 
were  filed  in  the  o.'lice  of  the  secretary  of  state,  August  17,  1852. 
They  contained  the  names  of  twenty-six  subscribers  of  twenty-ei^ht 
shares  each,  at  a  A^alue  of  $100  a  share,  with  the  names  of  the  follow- 
ing directors:  S.  W.  Lovell,  Placer  county;  F.  O.  Dunn,  John  E. 
Coryell,  Charles  Marsh,  Isaac  Williamson  and  William  IT.  Lvons  of 
Nevada  county;  John  A.  Eead,  J.  B.  Haggin  and  Lloyd  Tevis  of 
Sacramento  countv.  A  survey  was  made  of  a  line  from  Sacramento 
City,  through  Folsom,  Auburn  and  Green  Vallev,  to  Nevada  City. 
The  line  was  sixtv-eiffht  miles  long,  and  the  estimated  cost  of  con- 
struction  was   $2,000,000.      The   survey   was   continued    from    Nevada 


City  through  the  Henness  Pass.  But  the  enterprise  assumed  too 
gigantic  i^roportions  for  the  means  of  the  incorporators,  and  they  were 
forced,  much  against  their  will,  to  abandon  the  undertaking. 

In  March,  1853,  congress  passed  an  act  providing  for  a  survey, 
by  the  topographical  engineers  of  the  army,  of  three  routes  of  a  trans- 
continental railway — the  northern,  southern  and  middle  routes.  The 
surveys  were  made  as  ordered,  and  the  report  submitted  to  congress 
and  published,  with  elaborate  engravings  of  the  scenery  along  the 
routes,  topographical  maps  and  representations  of  the  animals  and 
plants  discovered.  These  reports  were  doubtless  valuable,  but  they 
did  not  demonstrate  the  fact  that  a  railway  route  was  practicable  over 
the  Rocky  and  Sierra  Nevada  mountain  ranges.  The  demonstration 
of  that  fact  was  to  be  made  later  by  Theodore  D.  Judah,  who  had 
been  the  chief-engineer  of  the  Sacramento  Valley  Railroad — the  first 
railroad  built  in  California.  Mr.  Judah  became  convinced,  while  en- 
gaged from  1854  to  1856  in  building  this  road,  that  it  was  practicable 
to  build  a  road  over  the  Sierra  Nevada  mountains,  the  only  range 
that  had  before  been  deemed  impracticable.  He  made  at  his  own 
expense  trial  surveys  over  several  of  the  supposed  passes  over  the 
Sierra  Nevadas.  While  these  were  only  barometrical  surveys,  they 
were  sulKciently  accurate  to  convince  him  that  there  was  a  practicable 
route,  and  that  a  road  could  be  built. 

Armed  with  the  data  he  had  thus  obtained,  Mr.  Judah  lost  no 
time  in  presenting  his  views  and  ideas  at  all  times  in  order  to  awaken 
interest  and  advance  the  project  of  a  Pacific  railroad.  In  1856  he 
succeeded,  through  a  concurrent  resolution  of  the  California  legisla- 
ture, in  having  a  railroad  convention  called,  to  meet  in  San  Francisco, 
September  20,  1859.  Many  prominent  men  of  California  composed 
this  convention,  among  them  being  Hon.  J.  A.  McDougall,  Hon.  J.  B. 
Crocket,  Major  John  Bidwell,  Hon.  J.  B.  Axtell,  Hon.  James  T. 
Farley,  Sherman  Day  and  others,  of  California,  together  with  dele- 
gates from  Oregon  and  adjoining  territories.  The  convention  sent 
Mr.  Judah  to  Washington,  D.  C,  to  endeavor  to  procure  legislation 
favoring  the  building  of  a  railroad,  and  he  proceeded  thither,  arriving 
in  time  to  be  present  at  the  opening  of  the  Thirty-sixth  Congress.  He 
lost  no  time  after  arriving  in  Washington,  in  visiting  the  various  de- 
partments and  collecting  from  each  one  all  the  information  that  was 
likely  to  be  of  assistance  to  him  in  presenting  plainly  and  clearly  to 
congress  the  importance  and  feasibility  of  the  enterprise  which  he 
desired  them  to  take  favorable  action  ujion.  While  this  session  was 
unfortunately  so  fully  occupied  with  political  matters  that  he  was 
unable  to  gain  an  effective  hearing,  and  therefore  made  but  little 
impression  on  congress  as  a  body,  a  great  deal  of  good  was  effected  bv 
him  through  iiersonal  interviews  and  the  presentation  of  his  views  and 
aims,  backed  up  by  the  data  gathered,  with  the  different  members 
and  many  prominent  men.     He  had  acquired  such  a  thorough  knowl- 


edge  of  his  subject  that  he  rarely  failed  to  convince  his  auditors 
of  the  entire  feasibility  of  the  project  he  had  espoused.  In  conjunction 
with  Hon.  John  C.  Burch,  then  a  member  of  congress  from  California, 
he  drew  up  a  bill  which  contained  nearly  all  the  provisions  of  the 
bill  finally  passed  in  1862.  It  was  printed  at  private  expense  and  a 
copy  sent  to  each  member  of  congress  and  senate. 

In  1860  Mr.  Judah  returned  to  California  and  immediately  set 
about  making  a  more  thorough  survey  of  the  Sierra  Nevadas  for  a 
pass  and  the  approach  to  it,  than  he  had  hitherto  attempted.  He  was 
accompanied  on  this  work  by  Dr.  D.  W.  Strong  of  Dutch  Flat,  who 
contributed  much  from  his  private  means  toward  pajonent  of  the  ex- 
penses incurred  in  prosecuting  the  survey,  as  well  as  aiding  it  by  his 
intimate  knowledge  of  the  mountains.  When  the  Central  Pacific 
Railroad  Company  was  incorporated  Dr.  Strong  became  one  of  its 
first  directors. 

On  completion  of  these  surveys,  which  were  made  with  a  baro- 
meter, Mr.  Judah  made  a  trip  to  San  Francisco  for  the  purpose  of 
laying  his  plans  before  a  number  of  the  capitalists  of  that  city  and 
trying  to  induce  them  to  form  a  company  to  finance  the  work  and 
carry  it  to  completion.  He  was  chagrined  to  find  his  ideas  coldly  re- 
ceived, and  at  obtaining  no  financial  support  in  that  city.  He  returned 
to  his  hotel  one  evening,  after  becoming  convinced  that  it  was  futile 
to  make  any  further  trial  to  obtain  financial  aid  in  San  Francisco, 
and  remarked  to  a  friend :  ' '  The  capitalists  of  San  Francisco  have 
refused  this  night  to  make  an  investment,  for  which,  in  three  years, 
they  shall  have  ami)le  cause  to  blame  their  want  of  foresight.  I  shall 
return  to  Sacramento  tomorrow,  to  interest  merchants  and  others  of 
that  place  in  this  great  work,  and  this  shall  be  my  only  other  effort 
on  this  side  of  the  continent. ' ' 

Mr.  Judah  had  previously  placed  his  plans  and  estimates  before 
James  Bailey,  a  Sacramento  friend,  who  was  struck  by  the  force  of 
his  arguments  and  calculations.  By  Mr.  Bailey  he  was  introduced  to 
Governor  Stanford,  Mark  Hopkins,  E.  B.  Crocker  and  Charles  Crock- 
er. He  was  already  acquainted  with  C.  P.  Huntington.  A  meeting 
of  the  business  men  of  Sacramento  was  called.  Mr.  Judah  laid  his 
plans  and  statistics  before  them  and  steps  preliminary  to  the  organ- 
ization of  a  company  were  immediately  taken.  The  organization  was 
perfected  and  the  articles  of  incorporation  filed  with  the  secretary  of 
state  June  28,  1861.  The  name  chosen  for  the  company  was  the 
Central  Pacific  Railroad  Company  of  California,  and  the  officers  elected 
were  as  follows:  Leland  Stanford,  president;  C.  P.  Huntington,  vice- 
president;  Mark  Hopkins,  treasurer;  Theodore  D.  Judah,  chief  engi- 
neer; Leland  Stanford,  C.  P.  Huntington,  Mark  Hopkins,  Charles 
Crocker,  James  Bailey,  L.  A.  Booth,  D.  W.  Strong,  of  Dutch  Flat,  and 
Charles  Marsh,   of  Nevada  City,  directors.     The   capital   stock  was 


$8,500,000  and  $148,000  was  subscribed,  just  enough  to  brin;>-  tlieiii 
within  the  limit  as  set  by  the  laws  of  California. 

That  all  but  the  last  two  named  were  citizens  of  Sacramento 
demonstrates  conclusively  that  to  Sacramento  and  her  citizens  belongs 
the  honor  of  inaugurating  and  carrying  to  successful  completion  the 
Pacific  railroads ;  for  had  not  Judah  spent  his  time  and  talents  in  col- 
lecting data,  making  surveys  and  proving  that  such  an  undertaking 
was  possible,  it  is  an  open  question  if  the  Pacific  railroads  would  be 
in  existence  today.  The  country  from  the  Mississippi  river  to  the 
Rocky  mountains  was  generally  known  in  those  days  and  appeared  on 
the  maps  as  "The  Great  American  Desert."  The  lofty  and  inhospit- 
able Rocky  Mountain  range  was  on  its  western  border,  di'ficult  to 
surmount.  Beyond  them  was  the  valley  and  table  land  of  Utah  and 
Nevada,  bleak  and  uninviting,  and  still  beyond  that,  the  lofty  and 
rugged  Sierra  Nevadas  to  be  surmounted.  The  prospect  was  not  in- 
viting to  the  eastern  investor.  The  barren  and  unpromising  country 
to  be  traversed  gave  but  little  prospect  of  being  settled  for  many  a 
j'ear  and  the  prospect  of  financial  profit  from  the  construction  of  a 
railroad  across  a  scope  of  such  country  nearly  two  thousand  miles 
in  extent  was  not  a  brilliant  one,  or  one  calculated  to  draw  the  dollars 
from  the  pockets  of  capitalists.  Had  the  railroad  not  been  begun  at 
this  end  of  the  line,  it  is  doubtful  if  the  line  would  have  been  built, 
even  to  this  day.  To  the  men  then,  who  threw  themselves  into  the 
breach  and  periled  their  fortunes  and  those  of  their  friends,  accrues 
the  honor  of  being  foremost  in  the  work  of  developing — not  only  the 
Pacific  coast,  but  two-thirds  of  the  width  of  the  continent.  Mr. 
Judah 's  engineering  work  in  constructing  the  most  difficult  parts  of 
the  road  was  regarded  as  the  wonder  of  the  age,  for  he  was  forced 
to  employ  methods  not  before  used  in  his  profession. 

His  coadjutors  in  the  work,  who  have  all,  or  nearly  all,  passed 
away,  deserve  full  credit  for  their  faith  in  the  enterprise,  their  in- 
domitable energy  and  their  masterly  manner  of  managing  and  over- 
coming the  financial  difficulties  that  they  encountered  during  the  years 
that  elapsed  between  the  organization  of  the  company  and  the  com- 
pletion of  the  road,  which  was  often  sneeringly  alluded  to  by  the  San 
Franciscans  as  "Stanford's  Dutch  Flat  Road."  We  cannot  forget, 
however,  that  Mr.  Judah  had  spent  all  his  time  and  money  and  energy 
for  three  or  four  years  previous  to  the  organization  of  the  company, 
in  collecting  data,  without  which  no  prudent  man  would  have  felt 
justified  in  investing  a  dollar  in  the  undertaking  that  was  so  generally 
regarded  as  chimerical  and  impracticable. 

After  the  company  was  organized  Mr.  Judah  was  instructed  to 
make  a  thorough  instrumental  survey  of  the  route  across  the  Sierras, 
which  he  did.  The  previous  surveys  or  reconnoissances  made  had 
covered  three  routes,  one  through  Eldorado  county  via  Georgetown, 
another  via  Illinoistown   and   Dutch  Flat,  and  a  third  via  Nevada 


and  Henness  Pass.  The  observations  had  demonstrated  the  existence 
of  a  route  across  the  Sierras  bj'  which  the  summit  could  be  reached 
by  maximum  grades  of  one  hundred  and  five  feet  to  the  mile.  The 
instrumental  survey,  however,  developed  a  route  with  lighter  grades, 
less  distance  and  fewer  obstacles  than  the  previous  observations  had 
shown.  The  first  report  of  the  chief  engineer  to  the  officers  of  the 
company  gave  the  following  as  topographical  features  of  the  Sierras, 
which  rendered  railroad  building  and  operating  over  them  so  for- 
midable : 

1.  "The  great  elevation  to  be  overcome  in  crossing  its  summit, 
and  the  want  of  uniformity  in  its  western  slope. ' '  The  average  length 
of  the  western  slope  of  the  Sierras  is  about  seventy  miles,  and  on 
this  distance  the  altitude  increases  seven  thousand  feet,  making  it 
necessary  to  maintain  an  even  gTade  on  the  ascent  to  avoid  creating 
some  sections  with  excessive  grades. 

2.  "From  the  impracticability  of  the  river  crossings."  These 
rivers  run  through  gorges  in  many  places  over  one  thousand  feet 
deep,  with  the  banks  of  varying  slopes  from  perpendicular  to  forty- 
five  degrees.  A  railroad  line,  therefore,  must  avoid  crossing  these 
canyons.  The  line,  as  established  by  the  surveys  of  1861,  pursued 
its  course  along  an  unbroken  ridge  from  the  base  to  the  summit  of  the 
Sierras,  the  only  river  crossing  in  the  mountains  being  that  of  Little 
Bear,  about  three  miles  above  Dutch  Flat.  Another  prominent  feature 
of  the  location  is  the  fact  that  it  entirely  avoids  the  second  sununit 
of  the  Sierras.  The  estimated  cost  per  mile  of  the  road  from  Sacra- 
mento to  the  state  line  was  $88,000  per  mile. 

October  1,  1861,  the  board  of  directors  of  the  Central  Pacific  Rail- 
road Company  adopted  a  resolution  as  follows: 

"Resolved,  that  Mr.  T.  D.  Judah  the  chief  engineer  of  this  com- 
pany, proceed  to  "Washington  on  the  steamer  of  the  11th  of  October 
instant,  as  the  accredited  agent  of  the  Central  Pacific  Railroad  Com- 
pany of  California  for  the  purpose  of  procuring  appropriations  of  land 
and  United  States  bonds  from  the  government,  to  aid  in  the  construc- 
tion of  this  road."  Mr.  Judah  proceeded  to  the  east  on  his  mission 
and  that  he  accomplished  his  pur])ose  this  time  is  shown  by  the  bill 
that  was  passed  by  congress  in  July,  1862.  This  bill  granted  a  free 
right  of  way  to  the  roads  of  four  hundred  feet  wide  over  all  govern- 
ment lands  on  their  line.  The  government  also  agreed  to  extinguish 
the  Indian  title  to  all  the  land  donated  to  the  company  either  for 
right  of  way  or  to  the  granted  land. 

Tlie  lands  on  either  side  of  the  road  were  to  be  withdrawn  from 
settlement,  by  pre-emption  or  otherwise,  for  a  distance  of  fifteen 
miles,  until  the  final  location  of  the  road  should  be'  made,  and  the 
United  States  surveys  had  determined  the  location  of  the  section  lines. 
This  map  of  the  route  was  made  by  Mr.  Judah,  filed  in  the  office 
of  the  secretary  of  the  interior,  and  the  lands  withdrawn  in  accordance 


with  the  terms  of  the  bill.  When  the  bill  had  passed,  Mr.  Judah 
telegraphed  to  his  associates  in  Sacramento:  "We  have  drawn  the 
elephant.    See  if  we  can  harness  him  up." 

This  bill  also  provided  for  the  issue  to  the  company  of  United 
States  thirty-year  six  per  cent,  bonds,  to  be  issued  to  the  company  as 
each  forty  mile  section  of  the  road  was  completed,  at  the  rate  of 
$16,000  per  mile  for  the  line  west  of  the  western  base  of  the  Sierra 
Nevadas,  and  at  the  rate  or  $48,000  per  mile  from  the  western  base 
east  to  the  eastern  base  of  the  Sierras,  the  latter  subsidy  to  be  paid 
on  the  completion  of  each  twenty  mile  section. 

To  secure  the  government  from  loss,  and  insure  the  pajmient  of 
these  bonds,  they  were  made  a  first  lien  on  the  road.  The  state  of 
California  also  donated  $10,000  per  mile  to  the  road,  by  an  act  ap- 
proved April  25,  1863.  The  engineering  difficulties  were  great,  and 
had  been  considered  unsurmountable,  but  the  financial  difficulties  also 
were  great,  and  undoubtedly  required  more  labor  and  thought  than 
the  engineering,  though  of  a  different  kind.  That  all  these  difficulties 
were  surmounted,  and  the  originators  of  the  etfort  still  retained  the 
ownership  and  control  of  the  road,  and  in  addition  to  the  original 
line  have  built  thousands  of  miles  of  road  in  California  and  Arizona 
and  elsewhere,  proves  the  ability  of  the  leaders  in  this  movement. 

These  men  were  mei'chants  in  a  city  that  could  not  be  classed 
among  the  large  ones  of  the  land,  and  were  consequently  not  largely 
known  to  the  financial  world;  they  had  never  been  engaged  in  the 
railroad  business,  and  were  supposedly  ignorant  of  the  magnitude  of 
the  undertaking  in  Avhich  they  engaged.  Aside  from  the  natural  dif- 
ficulty of  the  situation,  they  encountered  the  opposition  of  the  moneyed 
men  of  San  Francisco  and  other  places,  who  gave  their  enterprise  the 
name  of  the  "Dutch  Flat  Swindle."  C.  P.  Huntington,  vice-president 
of  the  company,  was  next  sent  to  the  east,  with  full  power-of-attorney 
to  do  any  acts  he  might  think  for  the  interest  of  the  company.  One 
of  the  main  objects  of  this  trip  was  to  see  that  the  bill  which  was  then 
before  congress  should  not  oblige  the  company  to  pay  interest  on 
the  bonds  received  of  the  government  for  at  least  ten  years  from  their 
date  of  issue.  After  the  passage  of  the  bill,  the  books  were  opened 
for  stock  subscriptions,  to  the  amount  of  eight  and  one-half  million 
dollars.  Of  this  amount,  "six  hundred  thousand  dollars  were  sub- 
scribed at  the  first  rush,  but  after  that,  for  a  long  time,  the  sub- 
scriptions came  in  very  slowly. 

When  Huntington  attempted  to  dispose  of  the  bonds  of  the  com- 
pany in  New  York,  he  was  informed  that  they  had  no  mai'ketable  value 
until  some  part  of  the  road  was  built.  Before  he  could  dispose  of 
them,  therefore,  he  was  obliged  to  give  the  personal  guarantee  of 
himself  and  his  four  partners,  Hopkins,  Stanford  and  the  Crockers, 
for  the  money,  until  such  time  as  they  could  lie  exchanged  for  United 
States  bonds. 


After  spending  the  summer  of  1861  in  making  additional  surveys 
of  the  three  routes  under  consideration,  Judah  had  finally  decided 
on  the  Dutch  Flat  route,  ascertaining  that  the  maximum  grade  on 
that  line  would  be  one  hundred  feet  to  the  mile.  He  thought  the 
line  could  be  kept  free  from  snow  by  the  use  of  snow  plows  and  that 
eighteen  tunnels,  aggregating  17,100  feet  in  length,  would  be  suffi- 
cient. "Lightning  expresses"  and  "limited"  trains  did  not  enter 
into  his  calculations.  He  outlined  a  schedule  for  trains  going  east 
as  follows: 

Sacramento  to  Barrimore's,  thirty-one  miles,  one  hour.  Stop  at 
Barrimore's,  half  hour. 

Barrimore's  to  Summit,  eiglity-one  miles,  four  hours.  Pour 
stops  en  route,  fifteen  minutes  eacli,  one  hour.  Stop  at  Summit, 

Summit  to  Truckee  river,  eleven  miles,  tliree-quarters  of  an 

Total  for  one  hundred  and  twenty-three  miles,  seven  and  one- 
half  hours,  including  stops  aggregating  an  hour  and  three-quarters. 

He  estimated  the  cost  of  construction  from  Sacramento  to  the 
state  line,  one  hundred  and  forty  miles,  at  $12,880,000,  an  average  of 
$88,248  a  mile. 

The  bill  as  passed  gave  the  company  two  years  to  comjilete  the 
first  fifty  miles,  none  of  their  land  grant  or  government  bonds  being 
available  until  they  liad  finished  the  first  forty.  This  latter  provir^iou 
nearly  doomed  them  to  failure,  as  it  turned  out.  The  first  fifty  milos, 
as  rejiorted  by  the  engineers  were  described  as  a  line  from  "Sacra- 
mento to  Grider's  (Roseville)  eighteen  miles;  thence  California  Cen- 
tral Railroad  to  the  Auburn  Railroad,  opposite  Polsom,  nine  miles; 
thence  Auburn  Railroad  to  Auburn,  fifteen  miles;  thence  eight  miles 
to  Clipper  Gap."  Evidently  it  was  the  intention  to  use  the  two 
roads  named,  but  that  intenion  was  abandoned  later. 

Por  the  purpose  of  providing  means  for  commencing  the  work, 
the  seven  principal  stockholders  formed  a  partnership,  each  one  con- 
tributing $34,000  in  gold;  the  amount  thus  received,  $238,000,  was 
thought  to  be  sufficient  to  build  at  least  to  Newcastle.  Everything 
being  ready  to  begin  they  decided  to  have  a  celebration  and  it  was 
held  at  Front  and  K  streets  in  this  city  January  8,  1863.  The  ground 
was  very  muddy,  and  hay  was  scattered  over  it  to  make  better  foot- 
ing. At  12  M.  Charles  Crocker  introduced  Governor  Stanford,  who 
spoke  briefly  as  to  his  gratification  at  being  chosen  to  cast  the  first 
dirt  on  what  was  to  be  to  the  west  what  the  Erie  canal  was  to  the 
eastern  and  central  states,  "the  tie  that  bound."  He  assured  those 
assembled  that  the  work  would  go  on  without  cessation  or  interrup- 
tion. Rev.  J.  A.  Benton,  at  the  close  of  Stanford's  remarks,  offered 
a  ]ietition  that  the  Divine  blessing  might  rest  on  the  enterprise,  and 
that  the  road  here  inaugurated  in  His  name,  might  go  forward  to 


speedy  completion  and  prove  a  highway  for  the  people  that  would 
niake  the  wildnerness  and  the  solitary  places  blossom  like  a  rose. 
Then  two  wagons  decorated  with  red,  white  and  blue,  and  filled  with 
dirt  were  driven  in  front  of  the  speakers'  stand  and  Governor 
Stanford  shoveled  their  contents  on  the  ground,  while  the  "Sacra- 
mento Union  Brass  band"  played  the  national  airs,  and  closed  with 
"Wait  for  the  Wagon."  Presiding  officers  of  the  legislature  and 
others  made  remarks,  Mr.  Crocker  winding  up  with  the  statement 
that  even  while  he  was  speaking  the  contractor  was  hauling  piles  to 
the  American  river,  for  the  bridge  across  it;  that  the  road  was  going 
through,  and  that  all  he  had  was  devoted  to  the  section  he  had  under- 
taken to  build. 

The  Central  Pacific  issued  a  statement  that  they  had  ordered  eight 
first-class  locomotives  from  Norris  &  Co.,  of  Philadelphia,  two  of 
them  being  of  the  heaviest  class  used  by  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Rail- 
road on  its  mountain  grades,  capable  of  hauling  thirty  loaded  cars 
or  three  hundred  and  sixty  tons  over  the  heaviest  grades  that  would 
be  on  the  Central  Pacific.  Eight  passenger  coaches  were  also  ordered, 
four  combined  mail  and  baggage  cars,  thirty  box  cars,  thirty  platform 
cars,  and  six  hand  cars,  and  that  they  were  on  their  way  round  the 
Horn.  The  freight  on  these  cost  it  was  stated  $4,000  each,  making 
their  cost  set  up  in  Sacramento,  $32,000  each. 

The  shipment  of  these  engines  was  delayed  by  an  army  officer 
who  appeared  at  the  locomotive  works  when  they  were  about  ready 
and  took  possession  of  them  and  of  all  others  that  were  on'  hand, 
for  use  of  the  army,  in  the  name  of  the  government.  Protest  was 
made  Ijy  the  company  and  the  authorities  at  Washington,  when  they 
learned  that  the  engines  seized  were  for  the  use  of  the  Central  Pacific, 
ordered  them  released,  on  the  ground  that  no  military  necessity  was 
more  important  than  the  completion  of  the  Pacific  Railroad.  They 
were  partially  paid  for  by  a  fund  of  $1,250,000  raised  by  the  directors, 
five  of  them  becoming  responsible  for  the  loan  by  endorsing  the  com- 
])any's  notes. 

None  of  the  government's  subsidy  aid  had  as  yet  been  received. 
Subscriptions  by  individuals  for  stock  amounted  to  $600,000.  Bonds 
had  been  received  from  Sacramento  county  for  $300,000  and  from 
Placer  county  for  $250,000,  railroad  bonds  being  given  in  exchange 
for  them.  The  city  of  San  Francisco  had  by  a  large  majority  voted 
a  $600,000  subsidy,  but  it  was  being  held  up  temporarily  by  officials 
hostile  to  the  road.  Engineer  Judah  reported  that  the  company 
would  have  to  abandon  the  original  plan  of  using  the  California 
Central  and  Sacramento,  Placer  and  Nevada  roads,  as  they  were 
not  laid  with  American  iron,  as  specified  in  the  bill,  nor  could  any 
existing  roads  count  in  aiding  the  Central  Pacific,  under  the  bill. 
He  reported  also  that  the  road  was  being  laid  on  redwood  ties, 
68,000  of  them  being  contracted  for,  and  that  6,000  tons  of  iron  bad 


been  purchased.     He  estimated  the  cost   of  the  first  fifty  miles   at 

In  1862  the  company  was  granted  the  right  of  way  into  the  city 
of  Sacramento  and  was  also  granted  the  Slough  or  Sutter  lake.  The 
contract  for  building  the  road  from  Sacramento  to  Grider's  on  the 
California  Central  Eailroad  was  let  December  22,  1862,  to  C.  Crocker 
&  Co.,  who  sublet  the  contract  to  different  parties.  Twenty  miles  of 
road  each  year  were  completed  in  1863,  1864  and  1865,  thirty  miles 
in  1866,  forty-six  miles  in  1867,  three  hundred  and  sixty-four  miles  in 
1868,  one  hundred  and  ninety  and  one-half  miles  in  1869 ;  making  six 
hundred  and  ninety  and  one-half  miles  from  Sacramento  to  Promon- 
tory, where  the  roads  met.  May  10,  1869. 

The  difficulties  were  many  and  great.  All  of  the  materials  except 
the  cross  ties,  including  a  large  proportion  of  the  men  employed,  were 
brought  from  the  east  via  Cape  Horn.  Toward  the  latter  part  of  the 
great  enterprise  several  thousand  Chinamen  were  put  at  work.  Be- 
sides this,  it  was  war  times,  and  marine  insurance  was  very  high ;  iron 
and  railroad  materials  were  held  at  tremendous  figures  and  the  price 
of  the  subsidy  bonds  was  very  low.  All  of  these  conditions  combined 
to  make  the  building  of  the  road  very  costly. 

.  The  state  of  California  agreed  to  paj^  the  interest  on  $1,500,000 
of  the  bonds  for  thirty  years,  and  in  return  the  company  gave  to  the 
state  a  very  valuable  stone  quarry.  A  number  of  the  counties  along 
the  road  bonded  themselves  in  exchange  for  stock.  Sacramento  county 
gave  her  bonds  to  the  amount  of  $300,000.  These  bonds  were  exchanged 
for  money  and  the  work  was  pushed  forward.  Then  there  was  delay 
in  obtaining  the  subsidy,  and  the  money  ran  short.  When  Mr.  Hunt- 
ington returned  from  New  York  he  found  the  treasury  almost  destitute 
of  coin,  and  it  became  evident  that  there  was  a  necessity  for  raising 
more  funds  or  stopping  the  work.  "Huntington  and  Hopkins  can,  out 
of  their  own  means,  pay  five  hundred  men  for  a  year;  how  many  can 
each  of  you  keep  on  the  line,"  was  the  characteristic  declaration  with 
which  he  met  the  emergency.  Before  the  meeting  adjourned  these  five 
men  had  resolved  that  they  would  maintain  eight  hundred  men  on  the 
road  during  the  year  out  of  their  own  private  resources. 

Mr.  Judah  had  sold  out  his  interest  in  the  company  about  this 
time  (1863)  and  gone  east.  On  the  way  he  was  stricken  with  Panama 
fever,  dying  from  it  shortly  after  his  arrival  in  New  York,  in  1863,  at 
the  age  of  only  thirty-seven  years.  Dr.  Strong  of  Dutch  Flat,  although 
a  sincere  and  earnest  believer  in  the  enterprise,  was  not  able  to  furnish 
what  was  considered  his  share  of  the  expenses  necessary  to  be  ad- 
vanced, and  retired  from  the  board  of  directors.  Messrs.  Bailey,  Booth 
and  Marsh  were  compelled,  like  Judah,  to  sell  out  after  the  enterprise 
was  well  under  way,  though  it  is  known  that  they  were  all  earnest 
workers  for  its  success  at  the  commencement. 

Mr.  Judah  was  succeeded  by  S.  S.  Montague  as  chief  engineer  of 


the  road.  The  location  surveys  were  made  under  his  directions.  The 
road  to  Colfax,  or  Lower  lUinoistown  Gap,  was  located  on  the  line  run 
by  Mr.  Judah  in  1861;  from  Colfax  to  Long  Ravine  the  line  was 
changed  materially;  from  Long  Ravine  to  Alta  the  line  ran  on  Mr. 
Judah 's  survey  and  from  Alta  to  the  Summit  on  an  entirely  new  line, 
located  by  L.  M.  Clement,  engineer  in  charge  of  the  second  division 
from  Colfax  to  the  Summit.  This  final  location  gave  better  grade 
line,  and  one  more  free  from  snow  in  the  winter,  two  very  desirable 
objects.  The  value  of  these  changes  is  plainly  shown  by  the  report 
of  George  E.  Gray,  formerly  chief  engineer  of  the  New  York  Central 
Railroad.  Mr.  Gray  was  requested  by  Leland  Stanford,  in  a  letter 
dated  July  10,  1865,  to  inspect  the  line  of  road  and  surveys  then  made, 
and  report  to  the  board  of  directors  of  the  company  his  opinion  as 
to  the  quality  of  the  work  and  the  economical  location  of  that  portion 
not  then  built.  Mr.  Gray,  in  his  report,  gave  as  his  opinion  that  tlie 
road  already  constructed  would  compare  favorably  with  any  road  in 
the  United  States.  Of  that  portion  of  the  road  not  constructed,  he 
reported  that  Mr.  Judah's  line  had  been  altered  materially,  saving  in 
distance  nearly  five  thousand  feet  and  also  reducing  the  aggregate 
length  of  the  tunnels  nearly  five  thousand  feet,  a  saving  in  cost  of 
construction  of  at  least  $400,000.  Some  very  skillful  engineering  was 
done  on  this  Colfax  division.  The  road  bed  ran  around  the  promontory 
at  Cape  Horn,  over  twelve  hundred  feet  above  the  bottom  of  a  nearly 
perpendicular  canyon,  the  banks  of  which  were  so  steep  that  the 
Chinamen  during  the  work  had  to  be  let  down  in  baskets  over  the 
face  of  the  cliff  in  order  to  construct  the  grade. 

President  Lincoln  made  a  decision  of  great  moment  to  the  com- 
pany during  the  summer  of  1863,  in  regard  to  the  mountain  section. 
By  the  terms  of  the  bill,  the  company  was  to  receive  bonds  to  the 
amount  of  $16,000  per  mile  for  its  line  west  of  the  Sierras,  and  $48,000 
per  mile  for  the  section  through  the  mountains.  The  trouble  was  to 
decide  where  the  two  sections  joined  each  other. 

The  Interior  department  showed  a  disposition  to  place  the  divid- 
ing line  at  the  end  of  the  first  section  of  fifty  miles.  The  matter  being 
brought  to  the  president's  attention,  he  decided  that  it  should  be  seven 
and  eighteen-hundredths  miles  east  of  Sacramento,  saying  that  "this 
was  a  case  where  Abraham's  faith  had  moved  mountains."  This 
meant  a  difference  of  over  a  million  dollars  to  the  com]iany.  The 
tracks  reached  Grider's,  or  Roseville,  on  April  26,  1864,  and  the 
company  commenced  the  operation  of  that  much  of  the  road. 

Another  factor  was  about  to  come  to  the  aid  of  the  financiers, 
whose  funds  were  exhausted,  but  whose  courage  was  not  daunted.  The 
Union  Pacific  Company  had  been  unable  to  raise  funds  to  prosecute 
its  construction,  operating,  as  it  did,  under  the  same  law  as  the 
Central.  It  therefore  made  another  appeal  to  congress,  and  an  act 
granting  more  liberal  terms  was  passed  in  April,  1864.    By  its  terms 


the  land  grant  was  doubled,  the  government  bonds  were  made  a  second 
mortgage  instead  of  the  first,  and  the  companies  were  authorized  to 
issue  their  own  first  mortgage  bonds  to  the  same  amount  as  the  gov- 
ernment bonds.  Two-thirds  of  these  were  made  available  when  evi- 
dence was  presented  to  the  secretary  of  the  treasury  that  the  neces- 
sary grading  for  the  road  bed  had  been  done.  The  sections  on  which 
bonds  were  to  be  issued  were  also  reduced  from  forty  to  twenty  miles. 
These  provisions  applied  equally  to  the  Central  Pacific  road.  The 
right  of  the  road  was  also  confirmed  to  lay  track  one  hundred  and  fifty 
miles  east  of  the  state  boundary. 

These  things  effected  a  great  change  in  the  financial  status  of  the 
company.  Heretofore  they  had  borrowed  money  in  currency  in  the 
east,  and  paid  it  out  in  gold  in  the  west,  at  a  heavy  discount.  Their 
first  mortgage  bonds  now  sold  almost  at  par  and  the  government 
bonds  were  available  immediately  on  completing  the  grading.  Their 
credit  was  further  aided  by  the  operation  of  the  road  to  Roseville, 
which  brought  in  $103,557  from  April  26  to  December  31,  1864— from 
passengers  $63,403;  freight  $38,667  and  from  express  $1487.  It  gave 
them  a  standing  at  home  that  they  liad  heretofore  lacked. 

The  road  progressed  slowly  at  first,  but  along  toward  the  last,  it 
progressed  more  rapidly,  until,  on  the  10th  day  of  May,  1869,  the  last 
spike  was  down,  completing  the  railroad  connection  between  the  At- 
lantic and  Pacific  oceans.  A  large  party  gathered  at  Promontory  Point 
to  witness  the  ceremony.  Telegraph  wires  had  been  connected  with 
the  large  cities  of  the  Union,  so  that  the  exact  moment  of  driving  the 
last  spike  could  lie  made  known  to  all  at  the  same  time.  At  the  hour 
designated,  Leland  Stanford,  ])resident  of  the  Central  Pacific,  and 
other  officers,  came  forward.  T.  C.  Durant,  president  of  the  Union 
Pacific,  accompanied  by  General  Dodge  and  others  of  the  same 
company,  met  them  at  the  end  of  the  rail,  where  they  paused,  while 
Rev.  Dr.  Todd,  of  Massachusetts,  made  a  short  prayer.  The  last  tie, 
made  of  California  laurel,  with  silver  plates  bearing  suitable  inscrip- 
tions, was  put  in  place,  and  the  last  connecting  rails  were  laid  by 
persons  from  each  company.  The  last  spikes  were  made,  one  of  gold 
from  California,  one  of  silver  from  Nevada,  and  one  of  gold  and 
silver,  from  Arizona.  President  Stanford  then  took  the  hammer  of 
solid  silver,  to  the  handle  of  which  was  attached  the  telegraph  wires, 
by  which,  at  the  first  tap  on  the  head  of  the  gold  spike,  at  12  M.,  the 
news  of  the  event  was  flashed  all  over  the  American  continent. 

Then  a  locomotive  of  the  Central  Pacific  Railroad  Company  and 
another  of  the  Union  Pacific  Railroad  Company  approached  from 
each  way,  and  rubbed  their  pilots  together,  while  bottles  of  cham- 
pagne were  passed  from  one  to  the  other. 

During  the  building  of  this  road  the  track  laying  force  of  the 
Central  Pacific  laid  ten  miles  and  two  hundred  feet  in  one  day,  com- 
pleting their  work  at  seven  p.  m.     The  date  when  this  herculean  task 


was  performed  was  the  20tli  of  April,  1869,  when  only  fourteen  miles 
of  track  remained  to  be  laid  to  connect  with  the  Union  Pacific. 

By  mutual  agreement  between  the  roads,  Ogden  was  made  the 
terminus  for  each ;  by  this  agreement  the  Union  Pacific  sold  fifty-three 
miles  of  its  road  to  the  Central  Pacific,  making  the  length  of  road 
owned  by  the  Central  Pacific  proper  seven  hundred  and  forty-three 
miles  and  a  half,  from  Sacramento  to  Ogden.  Aug-ust  22,  1870,  the 
Western  Pacific,  San  Joaquin  Valley,  California  and  Oregon,  and  San 
Francisco,  Oakland  and  Alameda  Railroads,  which  had  been  built  in 
the  meantime,  were  all  consolidated  under  the  name  of  the  Central 
Pacific  Railroad. 

The  death  of  Mrs.  Clara  W.  Prentice,  September  U,  1912,  at  the 
age  of  eighty-eight  years,  recalled  the  interesting  fact  that  the  first 
inception  of  the  Central  Pacific  road  took  place  at  the  home  of  Edwin 
D.  Prentice,  her  husband,  on  K  street,  between  Ninth  and  Tenth.  At 
this  meeting  there  were  present,  C.  P.  Huntington,  Mark  Hopkins,  T. 
D.  Judah,  W.  H.  Stoddard  and  Mr.  Prentice.  Mr.  Prentice  took  part 
in  the  early  history  of  the  road,  but  died  in  1862. 


On  December  13,  1862,  the  Western  Pacific  Railroad  Company 
was  incorporated  for  the  purpose  of  constructing  a  railroad  from  San 
Jose,  through  the  counties  of  Alameda  and  San  Joacjuin,  to  the  city 
of  Sacramento.  Its  capital  stock  was  $5,400,000.  The  road  was  one 
hundred  and  thirty-seven  and  one-half  miles  in  length,  and  made  the 
wliole  length  of  the  Central  Pacific  eight  hundred  and  eighty-one 
miles.  This  road  was  not  completed  until  1870.  The  franchise  is  said 
to  have  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  Central  Pacific  Railroad  Com- 
pany a  year  before  the  date  of  consolidation.  The  road  did  not  enter 
Sacramento  City,  as  it  connected  with  the  Sacramento  Valley  Railroad 
at  Brighton  Junction. 

The  San  Joaquin  Valley  Railroad  is  now  the  property  of  the 
Southern  Pacific  and  forms  a  part  of  the  second  overland  system. 

The  California  and  Oregon  Railroad  leaves  the  original  Central 
Pacific  Railroad  at  Roseville  and  runs  thence  through  Redding.  It 
was  incorporated  June  30,  1865,  and  consolidated  with  the  Central 
Pacific  August  22,  1870. 

The  California  Pacific  Railroad  Company  was  for  some  time  a 
very  active  competitor  for  the  carrying  trade  of  the  state,  and  at 
one  time  it  was  thought  that  its  owners  intended  to  construct  a  second 
line  of  railroad  to  connect  with  the  Union  Pacific.  It  bought  boats 
and  franchises  of  the  California  Steam  Navigation  Company,  and  for 
some  time  really  controlled  the  rates  of  freight  between  Sacramento 
and  San  Francisco.  The  comjiany  was  incorporated  January  10,  1865, 
with  a  capital  stock  of  $3,500,000,  and  work  was  begun  in  Vallejo  in 
1867.  The  road  was  finished  to  Washington,  Yolo  County,  November 
11,  1868,  and  to  Marvsville  in  November,  1869.     In  June,  1869,  the 


company  purchased  the  Napa  Valley  Railroad,  and  the  two  roads  were 
consolidated  in  December,  1869,  with  a  capital  of  $12,000,000. 

In  1869  and  1870  the  Central  Pacific  and  California  Pacific  Rail- 
roads were  at  war  with  each  other.  The  California  Pacific  wished  to 
come  into  Sacramento,  but  the  Central  Pacific  having  its  track  on  the 
levee,  it  was  impossible  for  the  California  Pacific  to  cross  the  river 
and  secure  depot  and  switching  facilities  without  crossing  the  Central 
Pacific  track.  Various  attempts  were  made  by  the  California  Pacific 
to  lay  the  track  and  form  the  crossing  of  the  two  lines,  but  they  were 
resisted  and  it  looked  for  a  time  as  if  bloodshed  would  be  the  result. 
Finally,  however,  the  crossing  was  accomplished  and  passengers  were 
landed  in  Sacramento  by  the  California  Pacific,  January  29,  1870. 
A  regular  ovation  awaited  the  train.  Guns  were  fired,  the  fire  depart- 
ment turned  out,  and  there  was  intense  enthusiasm  on  all  sides. 

Commissioners  were  appointed  to  assess  the  damage  to  the  Cen- 
tral Pacific  and  reported  in  June,  1870,  that  the  damages  were  as 
follows:  for  about  six  acres  of  land,  $40,680;  damages  for  crossing 
track,  $70,000;  for  consequential  damages,  $250,000,  making  a  total  of 
$360,680.  The  report  was  thrown  out,  however,  by  the  court,  on  sev- 
eral grounds,  the  principal  one  being  that  it  was  excessive.  The  war 
between  the  companies  continued  until  August,  1871,  during  which 
time  freight  and  passenger  rates  were  very  low,  greatly  curtailing  the 
profits  of  both  companies.  The  roads  were  consolidated  in  August 
of  that  year,  since  which  time,  with  the  exception  of  competition  by 
river,  the  Central  Pacific  and  the  Southern  Pacific  Company,  its  suc- 
cessor, have  had  the  monopoly  of  the  carrying  trade  of  Sacramento 
until  the  coming  of  the  new  overland  road,  the  Western  Pacific,  in 

The  California  Pacific  gave  the  route  to  San  Francisco. 
The  trip  was  made  to  Vallejo  by  rail  and  thence  to  San  Francisco  by 
boat,  making-  a  shorter  and  popular  route  which  for  many  years 
monopolized  the  majority  of  travel  between  Sacramento  and  San  Fran- 
cisco, until  the  building  of  the  route  to  Benicia  and  the  construction 
of  an  immense  ferry  boat  to  carry  the  trains  across  Carquinez  Straits 
to  Port  Costa,  whence  they  continued  their  journey  to  San  Francisco 
along  the  shore  of  San  Pablo  and  San  Francisco  Bays  to  Oakland 
Mole.  The  new  road  was  opened  December  28,  1879,  and  the  Vallejo 
line  as  a  route  to  San  Francisco  was  abandoned,  although  passengers 
going  that  way  are  still  transported  across  the  bay  to  meet  trains 
on  the  Benicia  route. 


This  was  the  first  railroad  constructed  in  California,  being  organ- 
ized Ausinst  4,  1852,  when  ten  per  cent  of  the  stock  was  paid  in, 
amounting  to  $5,000.  The  company  reorganized  November  9,  1854. 
and  made  immediate  preparation  for  building  the  road.     The  first 


shovelful  of  dirt  was  thrown  in  February,  1855,  the  first  tie  came  in 
May,  and  the  first  vessel  load  of  material  and  rolling  stock  arrived 
from  Boston  in  June.  The  first  work  done  on  a  railroad  car  in  Cali- 
fornia was  done  on  this  road,  July  4,  1855.  The  first  rail  was  laid 
August  9,  1855,  and  the  first  train  was  placed  on  the  track  August  14. 
The  road  had  some  little  trouble  with  its  finances,  but  its  progress 
»vas  not  materially  delayed. 

On  November  10,  1855,  an  excursion  train  was  run  to  Patterson's, 
ten  miles  from  Sacramento,  the  fare  being  one  dollar  for  the  round 
trip.  By  January  1,  1856,  the  road  was  completed  to  Alder  creek,  and 
on  February  22  was  finished  to  Folsom,  the  length  of  the  road  being 
twenty-two  and  a  half  miles.  Its  cost  was  $1,568,500.  The  capital 
stock  was  $800,000,  of  which  $792,000  was  issued.  The  road  was  a 
ver}^  profitable  one  from  the  time  of  its  completion,  its  effect  being 
to  move  the  terminus  of  the  freight  and  stage  lines  running  to  the 
northern  mines  from  Sacramento  to  Folsom  and  building  up  quite  a 
town  there.  At  one  time  twenty-one  stage  lines  ran  from  Folsom  to 
other  places;  all  leaving  shortly  after  the  arrival  of  the  train  from 

The  Central  Pacific  Company  purchased  the  Sacramento  Valley 
road  in  August,  1865,  the  purchase  being  made  by  George  F.  Bragg 
(on  behalf  of  himself  and  others)  of  the  entire  stock  held  by  L.  L. 
Robinson  and  Pioche  and  Bayerque.  The  price  paid  for  this  stock  was 
$800,000.  Soon  after  coming  into  possession  Bragg  transferred  the 
stock  to  the  owners  of  the  Central  Pacific.  The  latter  company  had 
been  forced  to  do  this  in  order  to  secure  the  whole  of  the  Washoe 
trade,  which  at  this  time  was  very  great,  amounting  to  several  million 
dollars  per  annum.  The  short  line  of  the  Sacramento  Valley  road 
alone,  declared  an  annual  profit  of  nearly  half  a  million  dollars  the 
year  previous  to  its  purchase,  most  of  which  came  from  the  freight 
going  to  Washoe  and  other  mining  districts. 

In  the  spring  of  1857  a  company  was  formed  in  Marysville  to  build 
a  railroad  from  that  city  to  the  terminus  of  the  Sacramento  Valley 
Railroad  at  Folsom.  Col.  C.  L.  Wilson,  who  was  one  of  the  con- 
tractors for  the  Sacramento  Valley  road,  was  sent  east  to  procure 
funds  for  building  the  road.  He  effected  this  and  the  construction 
commenced  immediately.  The  road,  however,  was  never  finished  to 
Marysville  by  the  original  company.  By  1861  the  track  had  been  laid 
as  far  as  Lincoln.  The  original  name,  the  California  Central  Railroad, 
was  subsequently  changed  to  the  California  and  Oregon  Division  of 
the  Southern  Pacific.  Shortly  after  the  completion  of  the  Central 
Pacific  Railroad  to  Roseville,  that  company  purchased  the  California 
Central  Railroad;  that  portion  of  the  road  between  Roseville  and 
Polsom  was  abandoned  and  the  bridge  across  the  American  river  at 
Polsom  was  condemned  and  sold  in  1868. 

During  1862  the  Sacramento,  Placer  and  Nevada  Railroad  was 


built  from  Folsom  to  a  point  near  Newcastle.  The  road  had  been 
organized  in  1859  to  build  an  extension  of  the  Sacramento  Valley 
Railroad  from  Folsom  via  Auburn  to  Grass  Valley  and  Nevada  City. 
The  public-spirited  citizens  of  Auburn  furnished  funds  which  enabled 
it  to  be  constructed  from  Folsom  to  Wildwood  Station,  a  distance  of 
about  eleven  miles,  and  it  stopped  there.  The  Robinson  Brothers,  who 
had  built  the  Sacramento  Valley  Railroad,  and  were  largely  interested 
in  it,  were  the  promoters  of  this  road,  which  cost  for  the  eleven  miles 
$278,000.  It  proved  a  losing  venture,  and  was  sold  under  foreclosure 
in  the  spring  of  1864;  Robinson  Brothers  purchased  some  of  the  stock, 
intending  to  use  it  as  part  of  their  road.  When  the  purchasers  under 
foreclosure  attempted  to  take  up  the  rails  and  ties,  they  were  bitterly 
fought  by  the  Central  Pacific  and  the  Auburn  people  who  had  con- 
tributed to  build  it.  The  courts  were  appealed  to  and  resort  was  also 
made  to  force.  On  account  of  the  violence  engendered,  the  militia  was 
called  out,  but  the  Robinsons  were  successful,  and  the  material  was 
removed  and  relaid  on  the  road  from  Folsom  to  Latrobe.  About  a 
hundred  workmen  who  removed  the  rails,  including  Robinson,  were 
arrested  for  contempt  of  court,  which  was  a  poor  satisfaction  for  the 
Auburn  people  who  subscribed  toward  building  the  road. 

The  Placerville  and  Sacramento  Valley  Railroad,  commencing  at 
Folsom,  was  constructed  as  far  as  Latrobe  in  1864  and  1865,  and  hung 
fire  there  for  several  years,  finally  being  carried  on  to  Shingle  Springs. 
In  1887-88  the  work  was  taken  up  again  and  the  road  completed  to 
Placerville,  under  the  name  of  the  Shingle  Springs  and  Placerville 
Railroad.  The  road  as  far  as  Latrobe  was  laid  with  the  ties  and  rails 
taken  up  from  the  Auburn  road.  It  was  through  a  rich  country,  where 
the  principal  industry  in  former  days  was  mining  and  stock-raising, 
but  at  the  present  day  the  capability  of  the  foothills  for  producing  fine 
fruit  and  grapes  has  been  proved,  and  El  Dorado  county  is  fast  be- 
coming the  home  of  the  orchardist  and  vineyardist. 

The  Amador  branch,  running  from  Gait  in  this  county,  to  lone  in 
Amador  county,  a  distance  of  twenty-seven  miles,  was  built  by  the 
Central  Pacific  Company  in  1876,  in  order  to  gain  access  to 'some 
mines  of  lignite  coal  near  lone. 

The  Freeport  road  originated  in  a  plan  to  divert  the  northern  and 
eastern  trade  from  Sacramento  by  building  wharves,  etc.,  at  Freeport 
and  a  railroad  from  there  to  some  point  on  the  Sacramento  Valley 
road.  The  road  bed  was  graded  for  a  distance  of  nine  miles  from 
Freeport,  and  the  track  laid.  It  was  intended  as  part  of  the  Sacra- 
mento Valley  road,  and  was  purchased  with  it  by  the  Central  Pacific 
and  the  track  taken  up. 

In  the  ensuing  quarter  of  a  century  a  number  of  roads  were  in- 
corporated, some  part  of  whose  lines  would  touch  the  county  of  Sacra- 
mento, but  none  of  them  proceeded  to  construction. 


In  1909  and  1910  the  Southern  Pacific  Company  constructed  the 
Sacramento  Southern  Railroad,  running  down  the  Sacramento  river, 
with  the  intention  of  tapi)ing  tlie  rich  fruit  orchards  and  other  lands 
between  the  city  of  Sacramento  and  Isletou  and  the  country  lying  back 
of  them,  and  developing  a  country  rich  in  freight  possibilities,  and 
also  opening  a  short  route  to  San  Francisco.  The  work  of  con- 
struction is  still  going  on,  trains  being  run  daily  as  far  as  Wal- 
nut Grove.  The  road  will  also  develop  the  river  section  of  Yolo 
county.  It  was  incorporated  July  7,  1903,  and  will  run  down  the  river 
to  Antioch,  to  connect  with  the  San  Pablo  railroad,  which  was  con- 
solidated with  the  Northern  and  afterwards  taken  over  by  the 
Southern  Pacific. 

The  Southern  Pacific  Railroad  Company  of  California  was  incor- 
l)orated  in  San  Francisco,  December  2,  1865,  with  a  capital  of 
$50,000,000.  The  Southern  Pacific  Branch  Company  was  incorporated 
in  Sacramento  December  23,  1870,  with  a  capital  of  $20,000,000,  and 
was  consolidated  with  the  Southern  Pacific  Railroad  Company  of  Cali- 
fornia Aug-ust  19,  1873. 

The  Northern  Railway  Company  was  incorporated  in  Sacramento 
July  19,  1871.  On  May  15,  1888,  it  acquired  by  consolidation  the  Win- 
ters and  Ukiah,  the  Woodland,  Capay  and  Clear  Lake,  the  AVest  Side 
and  Mendocino,  the  Vaca  Valley  and  Clear  Lake,  the  San  Joaquin  and 
Sierra  Nevada,  the  Sacramento  and  Placerville,  the  Shingle  Springs 
and  Placerville,  the  Amador  Branch  and  the  Berkeley  Branch  rail- 
roads. The  stock  was  increased  to  $26,175,000.  April  12,  1898,  it 
was  consolidated  with  the  Southern  Pacific  Railroad  Company  of 

The  San  Pablo  and  Tulare  Railroad  Company  was  incorporated 
in  Sacramento  July  19,  1871,  and  was  consolidated  with  the  Southern 
Pacific  Railroad  Company  of  California  May  4,  1888. 

The  Southern  Pacific  Company  of  Kentucky  was  incorporated  in 
that  state  March  7,  1884.  It  immediately  took  over  on  a  lease  for 
ninety-nine  years  all  the  roads  mentioned,  as  an  operating  company,  as 
well  as  systems  in  other  parts  of  the  state. 

On  January  1,  1903,  the  Southern  Pacific  Company  instituted  a 
system  of  pensions  for  its  superannuated  employes  who  had  been  in 
its  service  continuously  for  twenty-five  years  or  more.  The  eni]iloves 
had  previously  had  a  system  of  insurance  among  themselves,  to  which 
many  belonged,  and  the  various  brotherhoods  of  employes  also  have  a 
life  insurance  feature  in  their  orders.  Under  the  pension  svstem  of 
the  company  it  has  paid  to  the  employes  retired  on  account  of  age,  up 
to  June  30,  1912,  the  sum  of  $1,049,250,  and  on  that  date  there  were 
four  hiuidred  and  ninety-one  pensioners  on  the  list. 


Many  old  residents  who  look  on  the  railroad  shops  of  the  Southern 


Pacific  Company  today  can  recall  the  memory  of  a  far  different  aspect 
which  the  site  presented  in  1860  and  the  earlier  years  of  the  city's 
history.  As  far  back  as  the  early  '70s,  the  Central  Pacific  Railroad 
Company  had  made  overtures  to  the  city  to  the  effect  that  if  the  city 
would  deed  the  site  of  Sutter's  lake  to  it,  the  company  would  fill  it  in 
as  a  site  for  a  depot,  shops,  and  for  other  uses.  With  prophetic  vision 
the  founders  of  the  first  great  overland  railroad  saw  that  its  growth 
would  be  rapid  and  sure,  and  that  before  long  it  would  need  a  large 
space  for  its  shops,  depot  and  yards.  Sacramento  was  the  birthplace 
of  the  road.  Its  principal  offices  were  here.  What  more  logical  place 
could  be  found  for  the  center  of  its  activities  on  this  coast?  San 
Francisco  had  spurned  its  opportunity  and  had  fought  in  every  way 
in  its  power  the  sturdy  group  of  men  who  had  given  their  energies  and 
their  fortunes  to  build  the  way  across  the  cratinent.  Why  should  they 
place  their  shops  and  spend  their  money  in  a  hostile  city?  And  be- 
sides, with  the  shops  a  hundred  miles  inland,  the  distance  to  haul  dis- 
abled cars  and  engines  for  repairs  would  be  just  that  much  less.  There 
were  other  good  reasons  besides,  so  the  shops  arose  in  this  city. 

But  in  the  early  days,  Sutter  slough,  or  China  slough,  as  it  be- 
came later  known,  when  Chinatown  was  located  on  its  banks,  covered 
a  much  greater  area  than  it  did  at  the  close  of  the  last  century. 
Practically,  it  extended  from  the  levee  of  the  American  river  to  I 
street,  and  from  Sixth  street  to  the  American  river,  at  its  old  mouth. 
It  was  not  an  ornamental  place,  and  when  the  project  of  issuing  fifty 
year  bonds  for  the  purpose  of  filling  it  iip  was  broached,  the  citizens 
who  looked  at  its  area  and  figured  on  filling  in  a  depression  that  was 
forty  feet  deep  in  places  felt  the  cold  shivers  travel  along  their  spines. 
Then  the  railroad  company  stepped  to  the  front  with  the  proposition 
to  fill  it,  if  the  site  was  deeded  to  it.  The  offer  was  accepted  tenta- 
tively, and  the  company  began  its  work,  but  it  was  not  fully  completed 
until  1908,  a  contract  having  been  definitely  made  between  the  city  and 
the  Southern  Pacific  in  1904,  by  which  the  city  reserved  a  certain  site 
on  the  north  side  of  I  street  for  a  park. 

The  first  beginning  was  in  1863,  when  a  building,  16x2-!-  feet,  was 
erected  by  the  Central  Pacific  Railroad  Company  at  the  foot  of  I 
street  for  the  storage  of  tools  and  of  sections  of  locomotives  and  cars 
which  had  been  sent  around  the  Horn  for  the  use  of  the  infant  rail- 
road. The  locomotives  were  set  up  just  outside  of  this  shop.  In  the 
same  year  a  rough  building,  20x150  feet,  was  constructed  at  Sixth  and 
II  streets  and  was  used  as  a  shop  for  overhauling  cars  that  needed 
repairs.  Another  shop  was  erected  soon  after,  on  the  curve  lending  to 
I  street,  and  was  used  for  overhauling  the  locomotives.  It  was  20x60 
feet,  and  at  one  end  of  it  was  a  single  forge  that  constituted  the  entire 
blacksn^ithing  department  of  the  company.  In  1864.  the  car  shop  prov- 
ing too  narrow  for  convenience,  another  one,  34x130  feet,  was  erected 
at  Sixth  and  E  streets,  and  just  west  of  it  a  larger  shop  was  erected 


wliicli  would  hold  three  locomotives  for  repairs,  and  the  blacksmithing 
facilities  were  also  increased.  Soon  the  first  boiler  shop  of  the  com- 
pany, 40x50  feet,  was  erected,  but  this  in  turn  became  too  small,  and 
was  turned  over  to  the  foreman  of  the  lumberyard  as  a  dry-house  for 
seasoning  timber. 

Heretofore,  all  the  rolling  stock  had  been  brought  from  the  east, 
but  as  the  road  grew  the  company  concluded  to  build  its  own  cars,  and 
in  1866  the  first  car  construction  shop  was  erected,  68x250  feet,  and 
business  increased  so  rapidly  that  for  many  months  it  turned  out  a 
dozen  cars  a  day.  Still  the  work  expanded,  immense  amounts  of  lum- 
ber being  used,  and  the  fine  woodwork  for  the  cars  demanded  atten- 
tion. So  in  1868,  the  planing  mill,  cabinet  shop,  the  engine  room  and 
the  blacksmith  shop  were  erected,  also  the  roundhouse,  with  a  capacity 
of  twenty-nine  engines,  was  constructed.  In  the  same  year  the  larger 
machine  shop,  160x200  feet,  was  begun,  and  subsequently  315  feet  were 
added.  In  an  L,  the  offices  of  the  motive-power  and  machinery  depart- 
ment were  located.  In  the  same  year  the  car  shop  was  extended  230 
feet,  and  a  new  blacksmith  shop  was  constructed.  As  scrap  iron  ac- 
cumulated, the  experiment  of  setting  up  a  set  of  rolls  in  the  black- 
smith shop  was  tried,  and  later,  in  1881,  the  present  rolling  mill  was 
erected.  The  paint  shop,  having  five  L's,  was  built  in  1872,  but  soon 
proved  too  small,  so  in  1888  an  addition  to  hold  eight  coaches  was 
built.  The  transfer  table  was  also  constructed  in  1872,  and  in  1873  the 
present  car  shop  No.  5  was  erected.  In  1889  the  present  boiler  shop 
was  constructed.  Other  buildings  followed,  of  substantial  brick  and 
iron,  under  the  supervision  of  the  master  car  builder,  Benjamin  Welch, 
and  the  veterans  of  the  shops  call  the  plant  "the  city  built  by  Uncle 
Ben."  From  a  small  beginning  the  plant  has  increased  imtil  it  is 
the  finest  equipped  railroad  shop  plant  west  of  Chicago.  Up  to  1896 
there  had  been  expended  for  labor  alone  in  the  shops  over  $31,000,000, 
this  estimate  being  a  very  conservative  one,  while  in  the  same  time 
over  $50,000,000  was  expended  for  material,  and  in  the  same  time  7131 
cars  had  been  built  in  the  shops,  besides  seventy-three  engines. 

As  stated,  the  plant  covers  more  than  twenty  acres,  and  is  being 
enlarged  every  year.  It  gives  employment  to  from  2500  to  3000  men, 
in  busy  seasons  often  exceeding  the  latter  number.  At  present  the 
principal  shops  are:  the  machine  shop,  car  repair  shop,  blacksmith 
shop,  boiler  shop,  spring  shop,  brass  foundry,  carpenter  shop,  round- 
house, copper  shop,  locomotive  shop,  hammer  shop,  bolt  shop,  rolling 
mill,  upholstery  shop  and  car  machine  shop,  pianino-  mill,  cabinet  shop, 
car  shop  No.  5,  paint  shop,  wheel  foundry,  general  foundry,  pipe  shop, 
shear  shop,  pattern  shop,  and  a  nuirber  of  smaller  shops.  These  are 
all  equinne-l  with  the  finest  machiuerv,  much  of  it  of  the  latest  pattern. 
One  who  is  interested  in  n^achinerv  could  spend  several  davs  profitablv 
in  inspecting  the  wonders  to  be  seen  there.    In  each  of  the  shops  the 


method  of  carrying  on  the  work  of  construction  is  interesting  to  those 
not  familiar  with  it. 


Sacramento  is  connected  with  other  cities  of  the  valle;y  at  present 
by  three  electric  roads — the  Northern  Electric,  the  Central  California 
Traction  and  the  Sacramento  and  Woodland  electric  roads,  and  the 
Vallejo  and  Northern,  and  Sacramento  and  Sierra  are  in  course  of 
construction,  with  one,  the  Sacramento  and  Eastern,  to  run  to  Folsom 
by  way  of  Fair  Oaks,  and  another,  the  Oakland,  Antioch  and  Eastern, 
to  run  to  San  Francisco,  incorporated  and  will  probably  be  under  way 
in  a  year  or  two.  The  West  Side  railroad  is  also  incorporated,  as 
well  as  one  to  run  to  Folsom  on  the  south  side  of  the  American  River. 

Of  these  the  Northern  Electric  Railway  is  the  oldest,  having  been 
conceived  by  the  late  Henry  A.  Butters,  who  was  impressed  with  the 
need  of  transportation  facilities  between  Chico  and  Oroville.  He 
associated  with  himself  Messrs.  Louis  Sloss,  N.  D.  Rideout,  J.  Downey 
Harvey  and  E.  R.  Lilienthal,  and  the  Northern  Electric  Company 
was  formed,  with  a  capitalization  of  $3,000,000  wliich  was  later  in- 
creased to  $6,000,000.  The  initial  action  was  the  acquisition  of  the 
street  railroads  of  Chico,  and  the  road  from  Chico  to  Oroville  was 
comi^leted  and  the  first  train  run  over  it  April  25,  1906.  The  advisa- 
bility of  extending  the  road  to  Marysville  being  apparent,  W.  P.  Ham- 
mond and  E.  J.  de  Sabla  joined  in  the  undertaking,  Mr.  Rideout 
retiring.  On  January  31,  1907,  the  road  to  Marysville  was  completed, 
and  the  line  was  completed  and  the  first  train  to  Sacramento  was 
run  on  August  1st  of  that  year.  On  December  2,  1907,  the  Northern 
Electric  Railway  Company  was  organized,  with  an  authorized  bond 
issue  of  $25,000,000,  taking  over  the  original  company. 

The  Sacramento  Terminal  Company  was  formed  in  1908,  for  the 
purpose  of  building  a  belt  line  in  this  city  from  Eighteenth  and  C 
streets  to  the  water  front,  and  was  immediately  leased  by  the  North- 
ern Electric.  Later  the  Northern  Electric  entered  into  an  arrange- 
ment with  the  Vallejo  Northern  for  full  exchange  of  traffic,  and  the 
joint  construction  of  a  bridge  over  the  Sacramento  river  at  M  street, 
the  counties  of  Yolo  and  Sacramento  bearing  a  proportion  of  the 
cost.  Later  tlie  Sacramento  and  Woodland  Railroad  Company  joined 
with  them,  and  that  road  being  finished,  the  first  train  was  run  over 
it  July  4,  1912.  The  Vallejo  Northern  is  rapidly  pushing  its  construc- 
tion along  and  exjiects  to  have  the  road  in  ojieration  by  the  beginning 
of  1913. 

The  Central  California  Traction  is  operating  from  Sacramento  to 
Stockton,  and  is  also  working  under  a  traffic  agreement  with  the  Santa 
Fe  railroad,  which  will  probably  absorb  it  in  the  course  of  time,  thus 
adding  another  transcontinental  line  to  those  running  through  this 
citv  and  as  it  is  announced  that  the  Great  Northern  has  a  traffic  agree- 


meut  with  the  Northern  Electric,  there  is  a  strong  probabiHty  that  in 
a  few  years  Sacramento  will  have  four  transcontinental  lines  carrying 
produce  to  the  east. 



At  tlie  door  of  Sacramento  flows  a  magnificent  river  of  the  same 
name,  and  which,  in  fact,  gave  its  name  to  the  city  in  its  early  his- 
tory. Its  influence  on  both  city  and  county  has  been  a  most  important 
factor  in  tlieir  development.  For  the  city  it  was,  prior  to  the  con- 
struction of  the  railroad  lines,  the  sole  medium  of  transportation  that 
provided  the  interior  with  supplies  for  the  settler  and  miner,  and  as 
an  outlet  for  conveying  the  products  of  the  interior  to  the  bay  city 
and  the  east  and  foreign  countries.  Even  when  the  railroads  came, 
they  served  as  an  outlet  for  only  a  small  portion  of  the  territory 
drained  by  and  contiguous  to  the  river,  and  millions  of  bushels  of 
grain,  hay  and  other  products  continued  to  be  transported  by  the 
river  route,  and  even  today  an  immense  amount  of  traffic  and  pro- 
ducts are  carried  on  the  steamers  and  barges,  as  well  as  by  sailing 
vessels.  The  amount  of  fruit  carried  to  this  city  and  the  bay  city 
has  for  many  years  been  enormous. 

Any  section  of  a  country  which  has  a  waterway  connecting  it  with 
tidewater  is  fortunate  indeed,  and  no  section  could  be  more  fortunate 
in  that  respect  than  the  Sacramento  valley.  The  Sacramento  river 
flows  through  the  whole  extent  of  the  vallej^,  from  Shasta  county  on 
the  north,  to  Solano  county  on  the  south,  a  distance  of  about  three 
hundred  miles.  The  twelve  counties  embraced  in  this  area  have  a 
combined  acreage  of  11,456,528  acres,  and  an  aggregate  population  of 
about  a  quarter  of  a  million,  the  area  of  the  valley  being  seventeen 
thousand,  eight  hundred  and  fifteen  square  miles.  The  distance  to 
Red  Bluff,  the  head  of  navigation,  is  two  hundred  and  one  miles  from 
Sacramento,  and  to  the  mouth  of  the  river,  near  Collinsville,  is  al)out 
sixty-five  miles.  The  debris  from  hydraulic  mining  has  filled  the 
river — which  in  the  early  days  afforded  plenty  of  water  for  ocean 
going  steamers  and  vessels  to  come  to  this  city — so  that  navigation 
became  difficult  for  vessels  drawing  over  about  four  feet  of  water, 
during  the  late  summer  and  fall,  but  the  government,  by  the  use  of 
a  snagl>oat  and  the  erection  of  wing  dams,  has  deepened  the  channel 
so  that  even  the  large  steamers  put  on  by  the  Southern  Pacific  Com- 
pany during  the  past  year  or  two  very  rarely  have  trouble,  and 
there  is  a  prospect  that  in  the  near  future,  the  channel  will  be  deep- 
ened by  the  government  and  state  to  nine  feet,  as  far  as  this  city. 

Undoubtedly  the  Russians  were  the  first  to  navigate  the  river,  as 
they  had  posts  at  Fort  Ross  and  Bodega,  and  were  engaged  in  trade 
in  tallow,  hides,  furs,  etc.,  and  were  in  this  region  prior  to  1840,  trading 


in  the  interior  up  to  the  time  they  sold  out  to  Captain  Sutter.  At 
that  time,  also,  there  was  in  this  section  an  agency  of  the  Hudson 
Bay  Company.  In  1841  the  Russians  sold  out  to  Sutter,  including 
a  small  schooner  of  forty  tons  burden.  The  first  record  we  have  of 
its  appearance  up  the  river  was  in  August  of  that  year,  although 
it  had  probably  made  voyages  on  the  river  prior  to  that.  After  the 
purchase,  by  the  terms  of  which  Sutter  was  to  furnish  a  certain 
amount  of  grain  each  year  to  the  Russian  settlements,  this  schooner, 
manned  by  Sutter's  Indians,  made  regular  trips.  She  was  taken  down 
to  San  Francisco  in  1848,  to  carry  thither  the  news  of  the  discovery 
of  gold,  and  continued  to  be  the  largest  schooner  on  the  river  until 
the  trade  to  the  mines  began.  At  that  time  the  voyage  from  New 
Helvetia,  as  this  city  was  then  called,  to  San  Francisco  and  back 
took  from  two  to  four  weeks. 

In  the  spring  of  1848  the  rush  for  gold  set  in,  and  the  San  Fran- 
cisco Star  of  May  20th  sarcastically  alluded  to  it  as  follows:  "Fleet 
of  launches  left  this  place  on  Sunday  and  Monday  last,  bound  'up  the 
Sacramento  river,'  closely  stowed  with  human  beings  led  by  the  love 
of  filthy  lucre  to  the  perennial-yielding  gold  mines  of  the  north,  where 
'a  man  can  find  upward  of  two  ounces  a  day'  and  'two  thousand  men 
can  find  their  hands  full'^of  hard  work."  May  27th,  the  Star  said: 
"Launches  have  plied  without  cessation  between  this  place  and  New 
Helvetia,  during  this  time  (from  the  discovery  of  gold).  The  Sacra- 
mento, a  first-class  craft,  left  here  Thursday  last,  thronged  with  pas- 
sengers for  the  gold  mines — a  motley  assemblage,  composed  of  law- 
yers, merchants,  grocers,  carpenters,  cartmen  and  cooks,  all  possessed 
with  the  desire  of  becoming  suddenly  rich."  At  the  same  time  it 
stated  that  over  three  hundred  men  were  engaged  in  washing  out 
gold,  and  parties  from  all  over  the  country  were  constantly  arriving. 
On  account  of  the  departure  of  her  principal  citizens  for  the  gold 
mines,  San  Francisco  soon  assumed  a  desolate  appearance.  A  quar- 
ter of  a  million  in  gold  was  taken  to  that  citv  in  the  first  eight  weeks,- 
and  during  the  second  eight  weeks,  $600,000  worth.  By  September 
six  thousand  persons  were  at  the  diggings,  and  the  editor  of  the  Star 
exclaimed:    "An  export  at  last,  and  it  is  gold." 

In  April,  1849,  the  schooner  Providence,  one  hundred  tons,  Hinck- 
ley, master,  came  up  the  river,  and  the  Eliodora,  purchased  by  Sam 
Brannan  and  loaded  with  goods,  started  up  the  river.  The  Joven 
Guipuzcoana,  a  Peruvian  vessel,  and  other  large  sailing  vessels  of 
first  class  dimensions  followed.  At  that  time  there  were  about  a 
dozen  stores  and  tenements  here.  On  the  success  of  the  Joven  Guip- 
uzcoana were  founded  the  plans  of  the  first  steam  navie'ation  com- 
panies, and  the  McKim  and  the  Senator  soon  followed.  In  May  the 
crowning  success  with  sailing  vessels  came  with  the  trip  of  the  bark 
Whiton,  Gelston,  master,  in  seventy-two  hours  from  San  Francisco. 
She  was  of  two  hundred  forty-one  tons  burden,  and  came  with  her 


royal  yards  crossed,  without  any  detention,  although  she  drew  nine 
and  one-half  feet  of  water. 

The  first  steamboat  that  plowed  the  waters  of  either  the  bay  or 
river  was  one  that  arrived  in  San  E^rancisco,  October  14,  1847,  owned 
by  Captain  Leidesdorff  and  packed  on  a  Russian  bark  from  Sitka. 
Leidesdorff  had  for  seven  years  carried  on  trade  with  the  Russians, 
and  hearing  that  they  had  a  small  steamboat,  he  sent  up  and  pur- 
chased it  for  his  hide  and  tallow  commerce  on  the  small  streams  run- 
ning into  the  bay.  It  did  not  exceed  forty  tons  burden,  was  put 
together  under  the  lee  of  Yerba  Buena  island,  and  was  named  the 
Little  Sitka.  She  was  cranky,  and  the  weight  of  a  person  on  her 
guards  would  throw  one  wheel  out  of  order.  Her  second  trip  for 
business  was  to  Sacramento,  where  she  remained  for  a  month,  her 
proprietor  insisting  in  answer  to  the  jibes  launched  at  him,  that  he 
would  soon  make  the  smoke  fly  on  the  bay,  and  hand  the  name  of  his 
first  steamboat  "down  to  dexterity"  as  he  pronounced  it.  She  was 
swamped  by  a  norther  in  San  Francisco  bay  in  February,  1848,  was 
raised  and  the  engine  taken  out,  and  was  transformed  into  a  sailing 
vessel.  A  steamer  brought  around  the  Horn  and  put  together  at 
Benicia,  made  a  trip  to  this  city  August  17,  1849,  and  another  one 
from  Philadelphia  began  on  August  25th,  to  ply  on  the  river,  accom- 
modating about  thirty  passengers  and  steaming  "about  seven  knots 
an  hour." 

About  the  first  boat  advertising  for  regular  runs  on  the  river 
appears  to  have  been  the  Sacramento,  in  September,  1849,  commanded 
by  Captain  Van  Pelt,  and  carrjdng  one  hundred  passengers,  besides 
freight.  She  was  built  opposite  the  city,  where  Washington  now 
stands,  and  Van  Pelt  made  regular  trips  down  to  "New  York  of  the 
Pacific,"  where  passengers  and  freight  had  to  be  transferred.  About 
the  same  time  a  little  steam  dredge,  brought  out  by  the  Yerba  com- 
pany, was  set  up  on  a  scow,  and  started  on  a  trip  up  the  Feather 
river,  carrying  a  number  of  bricks,  at  one  dollar  apiece,  for  freight, 
and  lumber  at  $150  per  thousand.  Two  months  after  her  arrival  she 
was  sold  for  $40,000  at  auction.  The  next  boat  was  the  Mint,  also 
a  small  one,  and  really  the  first  boat  to  make  successful  regular  trips 
with  i^assengers  and  freight  to  and  from  San  Francisco,  beginning 
in  October,  1849. 

A  little  steamer  named  the  Washington  was  the  first  to  ascend 
the  river  as  far  as  Vernon,  at  the  month  of  the  Feather  river,  and 
she  afterwards  made  regular  tri]-)s  to  that  point.  In  1850  the  Aetna, 
another  small  steamer,  ascended  the  American  as  far  as  Norristown, 
the  first  time  a  steamer  had  ever  reached  that  point.  Mav  8,  1850, 
the  Jack  Hays  reached  Redding,  at  the  headwaters  of  the  Sacra- 
mento river,  within  forty-five  miles  of  the  Trinity  Diggings.  The 
little  steamboat  Linde  was  among  the  first  to  take  a  place  between 
here  and  Yuba  Citv,  in  the  fall  of  1849. 


The  steamer  New  AVorld  was  built  iu  New  York  in  the  fall  of  1849 
and  spring  of  1850,  purposely  for  a  trip  to  California.  She  was  320 
feet  long,  and  of  530  tons  burden.  William  H.  Brown  was  the  pro- 
prietor, and  as  he  became  financially  embarrassed,  he  was  forced  to 
take  the  sheriff  into  silent  partnership.  The  latter  placed  deputies 
on  board  to  remain  during  the  launching,  and  to  make  things  sure, 
went  on  board  himself,  being  unknown  to  Ed  Wakeman,  the  captain. 
The  vessel  was  held  in  the  port  of  New  York,  the  launching  being 
ostensibly  for  the  purpose  of  getting  the  boat  into  the  water  only, 
but  steam  was  raised  previous  to  the  launching.  When  the  sheriff 
asked  what  it  meant,  he  was  informed  that  it  was  "to  wear  the  rust 
off  the  bearings  and  see  that  the  engine  worked  well."  But  after 
steaming  around  the  harbor  for  awhile,  the  captain  put  to  sea,  against 
the  protests  of  the  sheriff.  As  the  captain  and  crew  were  more 
numerous  than  the  sheriff  and  his  deputies,  they  put  the  latter  on 
shore  in  rowboats,  and  came  to  California  around  Cape  Horn,  making 
a  fine  voyage,  and  arriving  in  San  Francisco  July  11,  1850.  The 
New  World  and  the  Senator  made  alternate  trips  to  Sacramento  for 
a  long  time.  Afterwards,  the  New  World  was  employed  in  the  coast- 
ing and  ocean  trade  and  later  was  overhauled  and  put  into  service 
at  San  Francisco  as  a  magnificent  ferryboat,  and  used  as  such  for 
many  years.  The  Senator  was  an  ocean  steamer  and  arrived  in  Sac- 
ramento November  6,  1849,  with  a  load  of  passengers  and  freight. 
She  was  755  tons  measurement,  and  drew  nine  and  a  half  feet  of 
water.  The  steamer  Miner  brought  passengers  and  freight  in  De- 
cember, and  afterwards  continued  her  trips  to  Mecklenlierg,  now 
Marys\'ille,  on  the  Feather  river. 

In  1850  there  were  twenty-eight  steamers  in  operation  on  the 
Sacramento  and  Feather  rivers,  and  in  the  same  year  twenty-three 
barks,  nineteen  brigs  and  twenty-one  lirigantines  arrived  in  Sacra- 

The  California  Steam  Navigation  Company  was  organized  in 
March,  1854,  with  a  capital  stock  of  $2,500,000,  and  began  operations 
on  the  Sacramento  and  San  Joaquin  rivers,  with  a  large  number  of 
steamboats.  In  1850  the  company  launched  the  Chrysopolis,  1625  tons 
measurement,  and  the  largest  steamer  ever  run  on  the  river  until  the 
Seminole  and  Navajo  were  placed  on  the  route  in  1911. 

In  1867  the  steamers  operating  on  the  river  and  its  tributaries 
were  as  follows:  eleven  steamers  to  San  Francisco;  three  steamers 
to  Knight's  Landing;  two  steamers  to  Red  Bluff;  one  steamer  to 
Chico;  one  steamer  to  Colusa;  one  steamer  to  Princeton;  one  steamer 
to  Cache  Creek,  and  three  steamers  to  Marysville.  In  1867  one  hun- 
dred and  three  steamers  arrived  in  Sacramento. 

In  1869,  when  the  Central  Pacific  railroad  was  completed,  that 
company  bought  out  the  California  Steam  Navigation  Company,  and 
for  years  the  Southern  Pacific  Company  has  been  operating  the  line 


of  steamers.  The  mail  boats  leaving  for  San  Francisco  in  the  morn- 
ing are  the  Apache  and  Modoc.  During  the  year  1911  two  magnifi- 
cent floating  palaces,  the  Navajo  and  the  Seminole,  were  put  on, 
leaving  this  city  in  the  evening. 

The  Sacramento  Wood  Company  was  organized  May  1,  1869,  with 
the  late  Captain  Thomas  Dwyer  as  president,  and  the  late  Captain 
J.  H.  Eoberts  as  secretary.  The  company  put  on  the  steamer  San 
Joaquin  No.  1,  and  several  barges,  and  engaged  in  general  freight 
business  between  San  Francisco  and  Butte  City,  one  hundred  and 
eighteen  miles  above  Sacramento.  During  the  '70s  the  company  added 
three  steamers  to  its  fleet — the  Varuna,  San  Joaquin  No.  l!,  and  San 
Joaquin  No.  3,  and  extended  its  route  to  Mcintosh's  Landing,  one 
hundred  and  sixty  miles  above  this  city.  It  also  operated  seven 
barges  and  had  several  traction  engines  of  the  Roberts-Doane  pat- 
tern, running  from  the  foothills  on  both  sides  of  the  river,  carrying 
grain  from  these  distant  points  to  the  river  landings  for  shipment  on 
the  comjDany's  barges  to  tidewater.  Each  engine  drew  a  train  of  from 
fifteen  to  twenty  wagons  over  the  county  roads,  the  capacity  of  each 
wagon  being  about  six  tons. 

The  Sacramento  Transportation  Company  was  organized  in  1882, 
succeeding  the  Sacramento  Wood  Company,  and  under  the  same  man- 
agement. It  is  now  operating  seven  steamers  and  twenty-three  barges 
in  the  grain-carrying  trade  between  points  on  the  Upper  Sacramento 
river  and  Port  Costa  and  San  Francisco,  and  also  in  freighting  at  the 
various  landings  along  the  river  as  far  as  Red  Bluff.  In  tlie  low 
water  season  the  company's  steamers  and  barges  are  only  alile  to 
ascend  as  far  as  Chieo  Landing,  one  hundred  and  forty-eight  miles 
above  Sacramento. 

In  1874  the  firm  of  Miller  and  Eaton  placed  two  steamers  and 
several  barges  on  the  Upper  Sacramento  in  the  grain-carrying  busi- 
ness. In  the  same  year  Messrs.  D.  E.  Knight,  N.  D.  Rideout  and 
W.  T.  Ellis,  prominent  Marysville  citizens,  established  a  weekly 
freighting  service  between  Marysville  and  San  Francisco.  They  had 
two  steamers  and  several  barges  in  service,  and  continued  in  the 
business  till  1889. 

In  1875  the  California  Transportation  Company  was  organized, 
with  Capt.  A.  Nelson  as  president  and  Capt.  N.  Anderson  as  secre- 
tary. The  two  captains,  as  far  back  as  1856,  had  schooners  on  the 
river,  and  in  1866  began  to  operate  the  steamer  Reform.  On  its 
organization  the  California  Transportation  Company  put  several 
steamers  in  service  between  Clarksburg  and  San  Francisco  and  also 
on  the  lower  tributaries,  engaging  heavily  in  the  transportation  of 
fruits,  vegetables  and  perishable  products  generally,  which  the  river 
lands  below  the  city  produce  so  bountifully.  They  also,  in  October, 
1907,  established  a  freight  and  passenger  service  between  Sacramento 
and  San  Francisco.     The  Chin-Du-Wan  and  S.  M.  Whipple  were  also 


steamers  in  tlie  river  service  in  the  '70s,  and  the  calliope  of  the  former 
woke  the  echoes  along  the  river  for  a  number  of  years. 

In  1901  the  Farmers'  Transportation  Company  was  organized  and 
one  steamer  was  put  on  the  run  between  Colusa  and  San  Francisco. 
The  Lauritzen  brothers'  Weitchpec;  the  Oriole  and  Sea  Gull,  L.  M. 
Brainard  &  Son,  owners;  the  Sentinel,  H.  W.  Crosbj^,  owner;  the 
Gretta  A.  and  Albatross,  Liuggi  Bros.,  owners ;  the  San  Jose,  Stand- 
ard Oil  Company,  owner;  the  Neponset,  No.  2,  a  trading  boat,  Ryan 
&  Cleary,  owners,  and  a  number  of  schooners,  are  operating  on  the 
river,  in  addition  to  the  boats  of  the  organizations  mentioned. 

An  immense  amount  of  produce  of  all  kinds  is  transported  on 
the  river.  Indeed,  the  statement  has  been  made  that  the  Sacramento 
river  carries  as  great  an  annual  tonnage  as  the  Mississippi.  It  is 
an  inspiring  sight  to  see  a  steamer  towing  barges  loaded  with  eight 
hundred  tons  of  wheat  each,  when  the  stage  of  the  river  will  permit 
loading  to  that  amount,  and  gives  the  beholder  a  practical  illustration 
of  the  bounteous  production  of  the  valley  uplands. 

But  the  tale  of  the  river  is  not  all  one  of  prosperity.  Steamboat 
explosions  and  other  accidents  were  fretjuent  in  the  early  days,  and 
some  of  them  were  very  disastrous.  The  machinery  was  often  defect- 
ive in  those  days.  During  the  first  few  years  subsequent  to  the  dis- 
covery of  gold  and  the  introduction  of  steam  vessels  into  the  state, 
it  was  estimated  that  on  San  Francisco  bay  and  its  tributaries  alone, 
there  were  two  or  three  explosions  a  week.  Indeed,  they  became  so 
common  that  the  newspapers  ceased  to  give  details  unless  they  were 
peculiarly  disastrous. 

The  first  explosion  of  which  there  is  any  account  was  that  of  the 
steamer  Fawn,  which  occurred  August  18,  1850,  and  the  Sagamore 
suffered  similarly  in  the  following  October,  the  Major  Tompkins  fol- 
lowing, January' 23,  1851.  During  the  early  part  of  1853,  the  Jack 
Hays  was  overhauled  and  repaired  expressly  for  the  traffic  between 
Sacramento  and  Marysville,  in  opposition  to  the  Governor  Dana, 
and  was  renamed  R.  K.  Page.  On  her  first  trip  up  the  river,  March 
23rd,  she  came  alongside  of  her  opponent  and  the  crew  and  passengers 
began  cheering,  each  one  hurrahing  for  his  boat.  They  began  racing, 
and  the  engineer  of  the  Page  tossed  in  a  barrel  of  oil.  As  they  were 
passing  Nicolaus  her  boiler  exploded,  being  driven  forward.  Daniel 
Moore,  the  former  captain  of  the  boat,  Thomas  Kirbey  and  Lieut. 
Harry  Moore  were  standing  on  the  hurricane  deck,  and  were  never 
seen  afterward. 

The  Jennie  Lind,  while  on  a  trip  to  Alviso,  on  San  Francisco  bay. 
suffered  a  terrible  explosion  April  11,  1853.  Between  forty  and  fifty 
of  her  passengers,  most  of  whom  were  at  dinner  at  the  time,  were 
killed  or  badly  scalded. 

On  October  18,  1853,  the  boiler  of  the  American  Eagle  exploded, 
on  the  San  Joaquin  river,  at  a  point  known  as  the  Three  Sloughs. 



twenty-five  miles  below  Stockton,  rending  the  vessel  to  pieces,  killing 
one  of  the  crew  and  three  passengers.  There  were  fifty-three  pas- 
sengers on  board,  and  Hardiston  was  the  captain.  On  the  afternoon 
of  the  same  day  the  steamer  Stockton,  while  passing  New  York  land- 
ing, burst  its  boiler,  killing  one  person  and  scalding  eight  more.  One 
of  the  latter,  Capt.  J.  B.  Sharp,  died  the  next  day. 

The  Sanger's  boiler  exploded  on  January  8,  1854,  on  San  Fran- 
cisco bay,  killing  three  and  scalding  severely  five  more,  and  wrecking 
the  vessel.  On  the  10th  of  the  same  month  a  boiler  of  the  Helen 
Hensley  exploded  at  San  Francisco,  just  as  she  was  going  to  leave 
for  Benicia,  and  killed  two  men.  One  passenger  was  thrown  upon  a 
bed,  and,  with  it,  clear  over  upon  the  wharf.  He  picked  himself  up 
and  coolly  remarked  that  he  guessed  he  would  not  go  to  Benicia  that 
day.  The  Secretary,  Capt.  E.  W.  Travis,  exploded  April  15,  1854, 
when  between  the  islands  in  San  Francisco  bay  known  as  the  "Broth- 
ers and  Sisters."  She  was  racing  with  the  Nevada,  and  the  engineer 
was  seen  to  lay  an  oar  across  the  lever  of  the  safety  valve,  and  that 
was  bending  up  just  before  the  explosion  took  place.  Of  sixty  per- 
sons on  board,  sixteen  were  killed  and  thirty-one  wounded.  The 
Nevada  picked  up  the  survivors. 

The  Pearl,  of  the  Combination  Line,  burst  a  boiler  January  27, 
1855,  just  below  the  mouth  of  the  American  river,  on  her  way  from 
Marysville,  and  while  racing  the  Enterprise  of  the  Citizens'  Line. 
There  were  ninety-three  persons  on  board,  and  fifty-six  were  killed, 
including  the  captain,  E.  T.  Davis.  Most  of  the  passengers  were  on 
the  front  part  of  the  boat,  as  she  approached  the  landing.  James 
Eobinson  would  have  been  drowned  had  not  a  large  •  bloodhound 
jumped  into  the  water  and  saved  him.  Of  four  ladies  on  board,  none 
were  injured,  but  the  vessel  was  a  total  wreck.  The  legislature,  which 
was  in  session,  adjourned  in  consequence  of  the  terrible  event. 

On  February  5,  1856,  the  Belle,  running  between  San  Francisco 
and  Marysville,  exploded  her  boiler,  when  about  nine  miles  above  this 
city.  The  captain,  Charles  H.  Houston,  was  killed,  as  well  as  between 
twenty  and  thirty  others.  The  steamer  G-eneral  Eedington,  which 
was  coming  down  the  river,  picked  up  the  survivors,  and  the  vessel 
sunk  almost  immediately. 

On  August  25,  1861,  the  boiler  of  the  J.  A.  McClelland,  Capt.  C 
Mills  commanding,  exploded  when  about  six  miles  by  water  and  two 
by  land  from  Knight's  Landing.  There  were  about  thirty  persons  on 
board,  and  fifteen  were  killed  outright,  several  fatally  injured  and 
all  the  rest  but  one  were  more  or  less  injured.  The  whole  forward 
portion  of  the  deck  was  torn  away,  and  a  large  piece  of  the  boiler 
was  rolled  up  like  a  piece  of  paper  and  thrown  across  the  river,  a 
distance  of  two  hundred  or  three  hundred  yards.  Sheldon  S.  Bald- 
win, the  pilot,  was  blown  into  the  air  with  the  pilothouse  and  several 
companions.     He  averred  that  he  must  have  gone  up  at  least  two 


Irandred  feet,  and  came  strais'lit  down  into  the  place  where  the  l)oiler 
had  lieen,  "not  much  hurt."  The  hnll,  which  sank  immediately  after- 
wards, was  raised,  the  vessel  rebuilt,  christened  the  Rainbow,  ran  for 
a  time  as  a  strong  opposition  boat,  and  was  finally  bought  off  by  the 
Steam  Navigation  Company. 

The  Washoe  exploded  a  boiler  September  5,  1864,  thirty-five 
miles  below  this  city,  and  ten  miles  above  Rio  Vista,  with  about  one 
hundred  seventy-five  people  on  board,  killing  about  half  of  them  and 
severely  injuring  more  than  half  of  the  remainder.  Capt.  Albert 
Foster,  with  the  steamer  Antelope,  picked  up  the  survivors  and 
hastened  toward  Sacramento,  but  ran  aground  on  a  bar  opposite  R 
street  and  was  delayed  there  for  some  hours.  Captain  Foster  tolled 
the  bell  to  notify  the  citizens  of  the  disaster,  and  the  levee  was  crowded 
with  anxious  people,  the  fire  bells  having  been  tolled  in  response  to 
his  notice. 

The  Yosemite,  Capt.  Poole,  suffered  an  explosion  of  a  boiler 
on  the  first  revolution  of  her  wheels,  as  she  left  the  wharf  at  Rio 
Vista  October  12,  18fi5,  with  about  one  hundred  fifty  people  on  board. 
The  cause  of  the  explosion  was  defective  iron,  all  the  best  iron  having 
been  ke]it  in  the  east  during  the  war  for  military  purposes.  About 
one  hundred  lives  were  lost,  thirty-two  of  them  being  Chinamen. 
The  bulkheads  were  too  strong  to  permit  the  steam  to  expand  into 
the  hull,  so  it  iiushed  upward,  making  a  great  vacancy,  into  which 
the  iieoi^le  fell.  Ca])tain  Fourat,  who  recently  retired  from  the  river, 
pensioned  by  the  Southern  Pacific  Company,  was  the  pilot  on  that 
occasion,  and  the  steamer  Chrysojiolis,  upward  bound,  brought  the 
dead  and  wounded  to  this  city. 

The  Julia  exploded  in  San  Francisco  bay,  nearly  opposite  Al- 
catraz,  in  September,  1866,  while  rounding  it  on  her  return  trip  to 
Stockton.  Thirteen  were  killed,  among  them  the  engineer,  Mr.  Long. 
Captain  Fourat,  being  near  with  a  boat,  picked  up  some  of  the  dead. 
There  have  been  a  number  of  minor  accidents,  but  conditions  have 
so  improved  in  these  days  that  serious  ones  seldom  happen. 

A  river  tragedy  which  occurred  more  than  fifty  years  ago,  bring- 
ing death  to  thirty,  the  evidence  of  which  the  waters  of  the  Sacra- 
mento river  have  covered  for  years,  was  brought  to  mind  again  when 
the  buckets  of  the  dredger  Vulcan,  working  at  the  Monument  ranch 
eight  miles  up  the  river  brought  u]i  the  boxing  of  the  shaft  of  the 
steamboat  Belle  which  was  blown  to  ])ieces  at  that  spot  in  the  late 
'50s  by  an  explosion  of  the  boilers. 

Coated  with  quartz,  rusted  in  i)laces  but  still  in  fair  sha]ie  con- 
sidering its  long  immersion,  the  boxing  is  one  of  the  few  relics  which 
have  ever  been  discovered  from  the  remains  of  the  Belle. 

The  steamer  Belle,  Capt.  Charles  H.  Houston  in  command,  left 
tliis  city  Fel)ruary  5,  1856,  for  Red  Bluff  with  sixty  souls  aboard. 
When  opposite  the  jiresent  Monument  ranch  the  boilers  exploded  with- 


out  auy  warning.  The  Belle  was  shattered  from  stem  to  stern  and  all 
but  forty  feet  of  the  rear  end  of  the  boat  sank  immediately.  The  pas- 
sengers, men,  women  and  children,  were  blown  into  the  water,  many 
frightfully  mangled.  Thirty-two  were  saved  out  of  the  total  sail- 
ing list. 

There  was  some  lively  opposition  in  the  river  traffic  in  the  early 
days,  it  proving  so  profitable  to  the  owners  of  vessels  and  steamers. 
The  steam  propeller  McKim,  of  326  tons,  came  to  Sacramento  in  Sep- 
tember, 1849.  On  her  arrival  the  citizens  turned  out  as  for  a  holiday, 
and  joined  in  an  ovation  to  the  first  "big"  steamer  that  had  arrived 
here.  One  of  her  trips,  under  Captain  Maey,  brought  the  owners 
$16,000.  The  Senator,  of  755  tons,  arrived  in  this  city  on  November 
6  of  the  same  year.  The  fare  at  that  time  was  only  $30;  berths  $5, 
and  meals  for  cabin  passengers,  $1.50.  When  trade  opened  in  the 
winter,  lively  opposition  began,  one  set  of  agents  on  the  wharf  ex- 
tolling the  merits  of  the  McKim  above  all  the  other  boats,  and 
another  saying  that  the  McKim  was  a  "scow"  and  a  "junk,"  and 
that  the  Senator  and  New  World  were  the  only  boats  for  speed  and 
safety.  The  competition  benefited  travelers  by  reducing  the  fare,  and 
many  other  steamers  coming  on  the  river,  in  1851  the  fare  had  been 
reduced  to  one  dollar. 

On  September  18,  1851,  the  steamer  Comanche  was  launched 
on  the  l^olo  side  of  the  river.  In  1855  the  Defender  came  up  and  found 
no  place  for  her  to  land;  she  finally  moored  to  the  hulk  Dimon.  A 
few  minutes  afterwards  the  steamer  Pike,  also  tied  to  the  Damon, 
swung  out  into  the  river,  and  the  Defender  took  her  place.  It  was 
found  that  the  gangway  had  been  boarded  up,  but  the  deckhands  soon 
o])ened  a  way  with  their  axes,  and  the  passengers  and  freight  were 
discliarged.  When  the  time  for  the  departure  of  the  Defender  ap- 
])roaelied,  a  band  began  to  discourse  music,  to  entice  passengers  on 
board.  A  few  minutes  afterward  a  small  steamer  in  the  stream 
began  to  sound  her  shrill  whistle,  drowning  the  music  of  the  band, 
stoii]3ing  when  it  stojiped  and  beginning  again  when  it  began  to  play. 
The  ])eo)ile  on  shore  cursed  the  steamer,  but  soon  a  man  and  two  boys 
armed  with  Chinese  gongs  essayed  to  rival  the  band  and  the  steamer. 
The  noise  became  so  strenuous  that  Judge  Morrison  was  obliged  to 
adjourn  his  court.  Such  scenes  were  not  uncommon  in  the  early  days 
of  competition. 


Although  a  bridge  over  the  Sacramento  river  is  spoken  of  prior 
to  1857,  there  is  no  record  extant  that  we  have  found  indicating  when 
or  by  whom  it  was  built,  or  whether  or  not  there  was  more  than  one. 

By  an  act  approved  by  the  California  legislature,  however,  April 
3,  1857,  the  Sacramento  and  Yolo  Bridge  Company  was  incorporated, 
consisting-  of  Johnson  Price,  V.  E.  Geiger  and  George  Years,  to  erect 


a  toll  bridge  across  the  Sacramento  river  from  Broad  street,  in  Sac- 
ramento county,  to  Ann  street,  in  Washington,  Yolo  county.  The 
drawbridge  was  not  to  be  less  than  sixty  feet  wide  for  the  passage 
of  vessels,  and  the  bridge  must  be  completed  within  two  years.  At 
12  M.,  September  18,  1857,  the  first  pile  for  the  bridge  was  driven. 
The  bridge  was  eight  hundred  feet  long,  was  built  on  five  piers,  sup- 
ported by  six  hundred  piles,  at  least  twelve  inches  in  diameter  and 
driven  thirty  feet  to  the  solid  river  bed.  It  was  of  Leonard's  patent, 
four  spans  of  one  hundred  thirty-five  feet  each,  the  draw  when  opened 
having  two  spaces  of  seventy-five  feet  each.  It  was  completed  and 
opened  for  traffic  June  27,  1858,  and  cost  $60,000. 

The  California  Pacific  Company  began  the  construction  of  a  new 
bridge  on  the  Howe  truss  i^attern,  October  2,  1869,  in  order  to  allow 
its  cars  to  cross  the  river  and  enter  Sacramento.  While  the  bridge 
was  being  built  the  steamer  Belle  ran  as  a  ferry  boat.  The  draw  to 
this  bridge  was  two  hundred  feet  long,  leaving  an  opening  on  each 
side  seventy  feet  clear.  The  bridge  was  completed  January  15,  1870, 
and  on  that  day  William  Rowan,  chief  engineer,  ran  across  on  the 
engine  Sacramento.  This  bridge  was  rebuilt  by  the  Central  Pacific 
railway  in  1878,  the  draw  being  swung  into  place  on  December  5th 
of  that  year,  and  the  bridge  opened  for  traffic  the  next  day.  These 
bridges  were  of  one  story,  the  trains  and  wagon  tracks  occupying  the 
same  level,  and  flagmen  gaiarding  each  end  in  order  to  promote  the 
safety  of  those  traveling  in  wagons.  The  railroad  company  had  pur- 
chased the  bridge  of  the  Sacramento  and  Yolo  Bridge  Company  in 
June,  1878. 

In  1893  the  Southern  Pacific  Company  and  the  counties  of  Yolo 
and  Sacramento  built  a  bridge  jointly  at  the  foot  of  H  street.  This 
bridge  differed  from  the  others  in  having  two  stories,  the  lower  one 
on  the  street  level,  for  the  railroad  trains,  and  the  upper  one  for 
foot  passengers  and  wagon  traffic,  elevated  above  the  railroad  tracks 
and  with  an  inclined  plane  as  an  approach  on  the  Sacramento  side, 
running  from  Second  street  to  the  top  of  the  bridge,  and  a  similar 
approach  on  the  Yolo  side.  A  third  approach  ran  from  the  top  of 
the  bridge,  joining  the  Sacramento  approach  at  that  point  and  run- 
ning down  to  the  Pioneer  mill,  thus  enabling  teams  to  get  to  the  mill 
without  crossing  the  network  of  tracks  in  the  railroad  company's 
yard.  When  the  Pioneer  mill  went  out  of  business  this  approach  was 
taken  down.  This  bridge  stood  until  1912,  but  as  it  had  outlived  its 
usefulness,  a  new  bridge  of  steel  was  constructed  by  the  Southern 
Pacific  Company.  The  bridge  until  lately  in  use  was  to  have  been 
of  steel,  and  the  counties  contributed  to  its  cost  with  that  understand- 
ing. The  fact  of  its  being  constructed  of  wood  was  the  cause  of  a 
Ions'  controversy  and  litigation  between  the  counties  and  the  companv. 
One-hnlf  of  the  $30,000  which  the  county  had  agreed  to  pay  was  paid 
at  first,  but  the  second  half  was  refused,  on  the  ground  stated.     The 


supreme  court,  however,  held  that  as  the  county  had  used  the  bridge, 
it  must  pay  for  it,  and  the  case  was  finally  settled  by  payment  in  full. 

This  bridge  was  completed  in  December,  1895,  the  total  cost  being 
$261,000,  to  which  Sacramento  covmty  contributed,  as  stated,  $30,000, 
and  Yolo  county  $10,000. 

The  new  steel  bridge  constructed  near  the  site  of  the  one  built 
in  18G9  is  said  to  be  one  of  the  finest  pieces  of  construction  of  its  kind. 
Its  cost  is  $786,000,  which  includes  $161,671  for  overhead  construction 
of  a  highway  for  communication  between  Sacramento  and  Yolo  coun- 
ties, and  the  structure  and  approach  thereto.  The  width  of  the  draw, 
when  opened,  is  one  hundred  seventy  feet,  and  the  total  weight  of 
the  bridge  is  3389  tons. 

During  the  year  1910  the  Northern  Electric  and  Vallejo  Northern 
electric  roads  combined  to  build  a  bridge  across  the' river.  There  was 
much  discussion  in  relation  to  the  site,  as  the  river  transportation 
companies  claimed  that  if  it  were  placed  too  close  to  the  existing 
bridge  there  would  be  great  danger  of  wreck  to  the  boats  plying  on 
the  river  when  it  was  at  flood  height.  The  board  of  supervisors  de- 
bated the  question  at  considerable  length,  but  the  war  department, 
which  controls  the  river,  finally  granted  permission  to  the  companies 
to  build  the  bridge  at  the  foot  of  M  street,  instead  of  P  street,  as 
desired  by  the  transportation  companies.  The  estimated  cost  of  the 
bridge,  which  is  of  steel  construction,  is  $380,000,  but  will  probably 
amount  to  $400,000.  The  draw  is  one  hundred  seventy  feet  in  width. 
Of  the  cost,  it  was  agreed  that  Sacramento  county  should  pay  $118,- 
668,  and  Yolo  county  $33,333.33.  Under  a  later  agreement  the  Sac- 
ramento and  Woodland  road  pays  a  proportion  and  the  Antioch  road 
will  also  probably  do  so,  lessening  the  expense  to  the  county. 


By  Judge  W.  A.  Anderson 


There  could  be  nothing  more  instructive  and  interesting  than  the 
origin  and  development  of  the  judicial  system  and  the  aids  thereto 
by  the  bar  of  Sacramento  City.  In  fact  the  history  of  the  bench  and 
bar  of  this' great  state  had  its  inception  in  Sacramento,  where  the 
great  legal  minds  were  located  in  the  early  history  of  the  state. 

The  southern  part  of  the  state  was  governed  chiefly  by  the  old 
system  of  Mexico ;  but  in  Sacramento  the  common  law  was  at  once 
established,  and  common  sense  was  at  all  times  interwoven  into  the 
decrees  and  .iudgments,  in  the  start  somewhat  crude  in  their  con- 
struction, but  very  soon  developed  into  a  splendid  system  with  the 


aid  of  the  bright  genius  of  the  early  members  of  the  bar.  In  this 
sketch  it  will  be  our  endeavor  to  give  a  brief  reference  to  many  of 
those  brilliant  men  who  have  long  since  crossed  the  Dark  Eiver,  and 
who  in  their  time  labored  in  the  local  field  for  the  betterment  of  the 
law  and  the  administration  of  justice. 

Under  Mexican  rule  the  government  of  California  was  conducted 
under  the  laws  of  March  20th  and  May  23rd,  1837,  and  those  laws 
were  observed  on  the  acquisition  of  the  country  by  the  United  States, 
until  the  organization  of  the  sta'te  government.  They  provided  for 
the  selection  of  alcaldes,  whose  duties  were  to  care  for  good  order 
and  public  tranquility,  to  see  that  police  regulations,  laws  and  decrees 
were  enforced,  to  provide  for  the  apprehension  of  criminals,  and  in 
some  cases  to  impose  fines  and  imprisonment  upon  malefactors.  There 
were  also  justices  of  the  peace,  who  served  as  municipal  and  judicial 
officers.  There  was  in  the  territory  a  superior  tribunal,  consisting 
of  four  judges  and  an  attorney-general,  which  had  the  general  review 
of  cases  tried  before  inferior  courts.  There  were  also  courts  of 
"First  Instance,"  in  which  cases  both  criminal  and  civil  were  orig- 
inally brought. 

The  first  legislature,  by  an  act  passed  March  16,  1850,  divided 
the  state  into  nine  judicial  districts  and  constituted  the  counties  of 
Sacramento  and  Eldorado  the  sixth  judicial  district.  Afterwards  the 
counties  of  Sacramento  and  Y^olo  composed  that  district,  and  it  so 
existed  until  the  taking  elTeet  of  the  constitution  of  1879,  which  abol- 
ished that  court. 

The  same  legislature,  by  an  act  ]iassed  April  13,  1850,  created 
a  county  court  in  each  county,  and  by  an  act  ap]iroved  on  the  11th  day 
of  that  month,  the  court  of  sessions  was  created,  to  be  composed  of 
the  county  judge  and  two  justices  of  the  peace,  who  were  to  serve  as 
associate  justices.  The  latter  were  chosen  by  the  justices  of  the 
peace  of  the  county.  That  court  had  jurisdiction  in  cases  of  misde- 
meanor, and  also  exercised  functions  now  performed  by  the  board  of 
supervisors,  such  as  the  supervision  of  claims  against  the  county, 
and  management  of  roads,  etc.  Subsequently  the  court  of  sessions 
was  abolished  and  its  jurisdiction  vested  in  the  county  court.  Its 
legislative  and  supervisorial  powers  were  transferred  to  the  board  of 
supervisors.  The  present  state  constitution  abolished  all  of  these 
courts  and  provided  for  the  organization  of  a  superior  court  in  the 
county,  with  two  departments  and  two  judges,  with  civil  and  criminal 

In  the  latter  part  of  August,  1849,  General  B.  Eiley,  acting  mili- 
tary governor  of  California,  appointed  James  S.  Thomas  judge  of 
the  court  of  first  instance,  with  criminal  jurisdiction.  On  the  2nd  of 
September,  1849,  Thomas  entered  upon  the  duties  of  his  office.  A 
suit  was  instituted  for  the  recovery  of  inoney.  A  summons  was  made 
returnable  the  same  day  at  four  o'clock,  at  which  time  judgment  was 


entered  and  execution  ordered.  This  gives  some  idea  of  the  rapidity 
with  which  business,  even  of  a  judicial  character,  was  transacted  at 
that  early  period  of  Sacramento's  history.  On  the  3rd  of  September, 
Judge  Thomas  appointed  J.  P.  Rogers  clerk  of  his  court.  The  latter 
gentleman  served  in  that  capacity  until  tlie  19th  of  November  follow- 
ing, and  resigned,  whereupon  James  R.  Lawrence  was  appointed.  He 
(jontinued  until  the  27th  of  December,  at  which  time  Presley  Dunlap 
was  appointed  to  the  position. 

Judge  Shannon  opened  his  court  for  criminal  Inisiness  in  Sep- 
tember, 1849.  R.  A.  Wilson  was  appointed  clerk,  and  S.  C.  Hastings, 
afterwards  chief  justice  of  the  supreme  court  of  the  state  and  subse- 
quently attorney-general,  also  the  founder  of  Hastings  Law  College, 
acted  as  prosecuting  attorney.  D.  B.  Hanner,  who  had  been  elected 
slieriff  b.v  the  people  in  their  primary  capacity,  attended  both  civil 
and  criminal  courts.  The  first  case  before  Judge  Shannon  was  a 
prosecution  against  a  party  for  stealing  a  cow  from  Samuel  Norris. 
During  the  trial  defendant's  counsel  objected  to  the  proceedings 
because  they  were  not  in  conformity  with  the  constitutional  pro\'ision 
guaranteeing  to  every  party  accused  of  high  crime,  that  before  he 
could  be  put  upon  trial  he  must  have  been  indicted  by  a  grand  jury. 
The  court  held  that  inasmuch  as  the  defendant  had  not  raised  the 
question  in  the  beginning  of  the  case,  he  was  deemed  as  waiving  his 
right,  and  that  the  trial  must  proceed.  The  defendant  was  found 
guilty  and  fined  two  Irandred  dollars  and  costs,  which  amounted  to 
five  hundred  fifteen  dollars;  rather  costly  beef! 

About  December  1,  1849,  R.  A.  Wilson  succeeded  to  the  bench, 
vice  Shannon,  deceased.  On  January  11,  1850,  he  appointed  A.  J. 
MeCall  clerk  of  his  court  for  Sacramento,  and  on  January  26th  he 
appointed  Stephen  J.  Field  clerk  of  his  court,  to  reside  at  Marysville. 
Mr.  Field  was  afterwards  supreme  justice  of  the  state  of  California, 
and  associate  justice  of  the  supreme  court  of  the  United  States. 
During  the  time  Sacramento  was  flooded  that  winter,  Wilson  held  his 
court  at  Marysville.  The  two  courts  alluded  to  did  the  judicial  busi- 
ness of  tlie  district,  both  civil  and  criminal,  until  the  organization  of 
the  judiciary  under  the  state  constitution.  May  30,  1850. 

The  first  district  judges  were  elected  by  the  legislature  March 
30,  1850,  and  James  S.  Thomas  was  elected  judge  of  the  sixth  judicial 
district.  He  resigned  November  9th  following.  Tod  Robinson  was 
api^ointed  by  the  governor  to  succeed  Judge  Thomas  January  2,  1851, 
and  assumed  office  upon  the  eighth  day  of  the  same  month.  Ferris 
Forman  succeeded  Robinson  by  appointment  on  Aug:ust  13,  1851;  and 
in  September  of  the  same  year,  Lewis  Aldrich  assumed  the  office. 
He  resigned  November  19,  1852,  and  A.  C.  Monson  was  appointed 
by  Governor  Bigler  on  November  26,  1852.  Judge  Monson  took  office 
on  the  first  of  December  of  that  year.  Monson  had  been  elected  at 
the  general  election  on  November  2,  1852.     He  resigned  August  17, 


1857,  and  Governor  Johnson,  on  the  3rd  of  September,  1857,  appointed 
Charles  T.  Botts  to  succeed  him.  At  the  general  election  held  Sep- 
tember 1,  1858,  John  H.  McKune  was  elected,  and  was  re-elected 
October  21,  1863.  On  October  20,  1869,  Lewis  Ramage  was  elected, 
and  on  October  20,  1875,  Samuel  C.  Denson  was  elected.  Judge  Den- 
son  served  until  the  new  constitution,  abolishing  the  office,  took  effect. 

Judge  Thomas,  after  his  resignation,  returned  to  the  east,  and 
died  at  St.  Louis,  in  1857  or  '58.  Robinson,  who  was  a  prominent 
member  of  the  bar  and  belonged  to  a  family  of  distinguished  lawj-ers, 
died  in  San  Mateo  county,  October  27,  1870.  Forman  was  afterwards 
secretary  of  state.  Judge  Aldrich  died  at  San  Francisco,  May  18, 
1885.  Judge  Monson  moved  east,  and  died  there.  Judge  Botts  was 
a  brother  of  John  Minor  Botts.  He  had  been  a  member  of  the  first 
constitutional  convention  of  the  state  and  was  afterwards  state  printer. 
He  died  in  San  Francisco,  October  4,  1884.  .  Judge  Ramage  removed 
to  Kansas  City,  and  died  there,  February  14,  1879.  Judge  Denson 
was  afterwards  elected  superior  judge  of  Sacramento  county,  resigned 
that  office,  and  is  now  engaged  in  the  active  practice  of  the  law  in 
San  Francisco. 

As  has  been  stated,  the  court  of  sessions  was  composed  of  the 
county  judge  and  two  associates.  The  latter  were  elected  by  a  con- 
vention of  the  justices  of  the  peace,  held  on  the  first  Monday  of 
October  of  each  year,  except  the  first  convention,  which  was  held 
May  20,  1850.  C.C.  Sackett  and  Charles  H.  Swift  were  then  elected 
associates.  The  associates  held  office  for  two  years.  On  November 
27,  1850,  the  county  treasurer  resigned,  and  Swift  was  appointed  to 
fill  the  vacancy.  James  Brown  was  elected  associate  in  his  stead,  and 
assumed  the  duties  of  his  office  February  7,  1851.  On  August  14th 
following,  D.  D.  Bullock  succeeded  Brown.  The  last  meeting  of  the 
court  of  sessions  was  held  July  6,  1862.  The  following  is  a  list  of 
the  subsequent  judges  of  the  court  from  Octoliei',  1851,  to  October, 
1862 : 

1851— E.  J.  Willis,  judge;  George  Wilson  and  James  R.  Gates, 

1852-53 — E.  J.  Willis,  judge;  he  resigned  Novembei-  18th,  and 
John  Heard  was  appointed.  James  R.  Gates  and  J.  T.  Day  were 

1853-54 — John  Heard,  judge;  H.  Lockwood  and  B.  D.  Fry,  asso- 

1855-56— John  Heard,  judge;  S.  N.  Baker  and  C.  C.  Jenks,  asso- 

1856-57 — Same. 

1858-59 — Robert  Robinson,  judge;  James  (*oggins  and  W.  B. 
Whitesides,  associates. 

1859-60— Robert  Robinson,  judge;  James  Coggins  and  Hodgkins, 


1860-61— Robert  C.  Clark,  judge. 

1861-62 — Robert  C.  Clark,  judge;  James  Coggins  and  George 
Cone,  associates. 

After  the  abolishment  of  the  court  of  sessions  Judge  ('lark 
continued  county  judge,  was  suecessiveh'  elected  to  that  ofifice  and 
occupied  it  until  the  abolishment  of  the  county  court  by  the  operation 
of  the  new  constitution.  The  county  court  also  exercised  the  func- 
tions of  a  probate  court. 

Judge  Willis  left  Sacramento  and  returned  to  the  east  in  earl\' 
days.  Wilson  died  in  one  of  the  northern  counties  of  this  state  a 
number  of  years  ago.  Judges  Day  and  Heard  are  dead.  Judge  Jenks 
removed  to  Oakland  and  held  public  office  there.  Judge  Coggins  died 
a  number  of  years  ago.  Judge  Cone  was  afterwards  a  member  of  the 
state  legislature  from  this  county,  and  is  now  dead.  Judge  Clark  has 
been  a  senator  and  an  assembljanan,  and  after  the  abolishment  of  the 
county  court  was  elected,  with  Judge  Denson,  a  judge  of  the  superior 
court  and  held  office  until  the  time  of  his  death. 

At  the  first  election  held  under  the  new  constitution,  September 
3,  1879,  Samuel  C.  Denson  and  Robert  W.  Clark  were  elected  judges 
of  the  superior  court  of  the  county  of  Sacramento.  Judge  Denson 
resigned  December  16,  1882,  and  on  the  18th  day  of  the  same  mouth. 
Governor  Perkins  appointed  Thomas  B.  McFarland  to  fill  the  vacancy. 
The  latter  was  elected  by  the  people  to  succeed  himself  at  the  general 
election  held  November  4,  1884;  and  at  the  general  election  held 
November  2,  1886,  Judge  McFarland  was  elected  one  of  the  justices 
of  the  state  supreme  court.  He  resigned  the  office  of  superior  judge, 
and  Governor  Stoneman,  on  December  31,  1886,  appointed  John  W. 
Armstrong  to  the  office.  At  the  general  election  held  November  6, 
1888,  Armstrong  was  elected  to  succeed  himself,  and  has  been  dead 
for  some  years. 

Judge  Clark  died  January  27,  1883,  and  Governor  Stoneman  aj)- 
pointed  John  W.  Armstrong  to  succeed  him.  At  the  general  election 
held  November  4,  1884,  W.  C.  Van  Fleet  was  elected  for  the  full  term. 
In  1890  A.  P.  Catlin  and  W.  C.  Van  Fleet  became  judges  of  the 
superior  court.  Then  came  Catlin  and  Matt  F.  Johnson,  Judge  Van 
Fleet  having  become  a  member  of  the  supreme  court.  In  1895  a  third 
court  was  created  by  the  legislature,  and  Governor  James  H.  Rudd 
appointed  Add  C.  Hinkson  as  the  judge  thereof.  Judge  Hinkson  died 
in  this  city  in  July,  1911.  At  the  next  election,  J.  W.  Hughes  and 
E.  C.  Hart,  with  Judge  Matt  F.  Johnson,  were  elected.  Judge  John- 
son died  during  his  term,  and  Governor  Budd  appointed  Peter  J. 
Shields  in  his  place.  The  bench  then  consisted  of  Hughes,  Hart  and 
Shields.  Judge  Hart  became  a  member  of  the  appellate  court,  third 
district,  and  Governor  Pardee  appointed  C.  N.  Post  to  the  vacancy 
thus  created.  At  the  succeeding  election  Judges  Post,  Shields  and 
Hughes  were  elected,  and  are  now  on  the  bench. 


Courts  in  the  early  days  were  very  crude  affairs  in  their  manner 
of  adjudicating  the  rights  of  litigants.  Justice's  courts  are  proverbial 
at  times  for  their  quaint  way  of  administering  justice.  It  is  before 
one  of  these  august  tribunals  that  we  recall  a  case  that  occurred  at 
Mormon  Island  in  this  county  in  1851,  in  which  A.  P.  Catlin  perpe- 
ti-ated  a  great  trick  upon  S.  W.  Sanderson,  a  young  attorney  of 
Coloma,  Eldorado  county.  It  seemed  that  Sanderson's  clients  were 
working  an  old  river  bed,  and  constructing  a  dam  for  that  purpose. 
Catlin  desired  to  stop  this  work,  and  conceived  the  idea  of  hoodwink- 
ing the  old  justice  of  the  peace  to  grant  an  injunction  to  stop  the  work. 
Acting  upon  the  thought,  he  gravely  proceeded  to  secure  an  injunction 
and  had  it  served  and  enforced.  Sanderson  was  sent  for,  and  came 
before  the  justice  armed  with  books  and  authorities  and  tried  to  con- 
vince him  that  he  had  no  jurisdiction  of  such  eases,  and  appealed  to 
Catlin  not  to  impose  on  the  court.  Catlin  looked  wise  and  approvingly 
of  the  court's  procedure,  which  made  the  old  justice  obdurate,  and  he 
stuck  to  his  injunction.  Sanderson  left  for  the  county  seat  in  a  tow- 
ering rage  to  secure  proper  relief,  but  before  he  could  secure  the  same 
the  object  Catlin  had  in  view  had  been  accomplished  by  the  justice's 

It  may  not  be  generally  known,  that  in  the  early  history  of  Cali- 
fornia other  crimes  than  murder  were,  by  statute,  made  punishable 
by  death,  but  such  is  the  fact.  On  the  14th  day  of  April,  1852,  George 
Tanner  was  tried  in  the  court  of  sessions  of  Yuba  county  for  the 
crime  of  grand  larceny,  in  having  stolen  flour,  potatoes,  etc.,  of  the 
value  of  $400.  The  verdict  of  the  jury  was  "guilty  of  grand  larceny, 
punishable  with  death."  The  defendant  appealed  to  the  supreme 
court,  which  affirmed  the  judgment,  and  the  prisoner  was  executed 
July  13,  1852.  Chief  Justice  Murray  delivered  the  opinion  of  the 
court  and  evidently  did  not  concur  with  the  principles  of  law,  for 
after  setting  forth  the  statute,  he  used  the  following  language:  "It 
is  not  our  purpose  to  discuss  the  policy  of  this  law,  although  we  regret 
that  our  legislature  has  considered  it  necessary  to  thus  retrograde, 
and  in  the  face  of  the  wisdom  and  experience  of  the  present  day, 
resort  to  a  punishment  for  a  less  crime  than  murder,  which  is  alike 
disgusting  and  abhorrent  to  the  common  sense  of  every  enlightened 
people. ' ' 

In  connection  with  the  reference  to  Paschal  H.  Coggins,  the  fol- 
lowing novel  case  is  quoted :  A  remarkable  case  of  mistaken  identity 
was  recently  related  by  attorney  Paschal  H.  Coggins  before  the 
Medical  Juris]irudence  Society  in  Philadelphia,  as  having  come  under 
his  personal  observation.  Two  men — John  A.  Mason,  of  Boston,  and 
John  A.  Mason,  of  Illinois — left  their  respective  homes  and  went  to 
California  in  search  of  health  and  wealth.  They  were  both  wagon- 
makers.  One  left  a  wife  and  two  sons  in  Boston,  and  the  other  a  wife 
and  two  daughters  in  Illinois.    The  Boston  wife  heard  nothing  of  her 


husband  after  three  years'  absence,  and  twenty  years  hiter  lieard  of 
the  death  of  John  A.  Mason,  a  wagon-maker.  She  brought  suit  for 
his  property,  his  photograph  was  identified  by  twenty  witnesses,  but 
at  the  last  moment  the  Illinois  wife  turned  up  and  proved  tliat  the 
man  was  her  husband,  and  the  later  developments  showed  tliat  the 
Boston  pioneer  died  alone  and  friendless. — N.  Y.  Graphic. 

Upon  this  the  Themis  comments  as  follows:  "The  Coggins  re- 
ferred to  was  a  resident  of  this  city,  and  at  one  time  a  law  partner 
of  Creed  Haymond.  He  was  also  a  justice  of  the  peace  here,  married 
a  daughter  of  one  of  our  pioneer  citizens,  and  afterward  removed  to 
Philadel])hia,  where  he  has  since  resided.  He  is  a  son  of  Paschal 
Coggins,  at  one  time  one  of  the  editors  of  the  Sacramento  Union, 
and  who  represented  this  county  two  terras  in  the  assembly.  Coggins 
Sr.,  ran  for  congress  against  H.  P.  Page  in  1872,  on  the  Independent 
ticket.  The  case  referred  to  was  that  of  Supervisor  John  A.  Mason, 
of  this  city.  It  was  certainly  one  of  the  most  remarkable  cases  that 
ever  came  up  in  court,  but  the  statement  in  the  Graphic  is  not 
strictly  correct.  The  case  was  tried  before  the  late  Judge  Clark.  In 
the  contest  Haymond  and  Coggins  appeared  for  the  lady  contestant, 
and  the  late  George  Cadwalader  and  W.  A.  Anderson  for  the  will.  It 
was  developed  that  there  were  two  John  A.  Masons;  that  they  fol- 
lowed the  same  trade — carriage  making;  and  that  they  came  to  Cali- 
fornia about  the  same  time;  one,  however,  by  steamer,  and  the  other 
overland.  By  a  strange  coincidence  the  Mr.  Coggins  referred  to  was 
a  passenger  on  the  same  steamer  with  the  Mason  who  came  by  sea, 
and  he  was  referred  to  in  the  printed  passenger  list  as  an  "infant." 
It  further  developed  that  the  two  Masons  worked  at  their  trades  in 
the  same  block  in  Sacramento  cit.v — Third  street  between  I  and  J. 
After  the  death  of  Supervisor  Mason,  his  sons,  grown  men,  applied 
for  letters  on  his  estate;  their  issuance  was  contested  by  a  lady  and  two 
grown  daughters,  who  claimed  to  be  the  wife  and  offspring  of  Mason. 
There  is  no  doubt  that  the  contest  was  in  good  faith  and  that  the  lady 
believed  that  the  deceased  was  her  husband.  The  testimony,  however, 
developed  that  there  must  have  been  two  John  A.  Masons,  and  that 
the  husband  of  the  lady  contestant  had,  like  many  other  of  the  Cali- 
fornia argonauts,  disappeared  long  years  ago.  It  was  strange  that 
the  photographs  of  Supervisor  Mason  were  identified  by  his  mother 
and  other  relatives  in  Massachusetts,  and  that  the  same  jjictures 
were  identified  by  prominent  citizens  of  Illinois  as  being  the  other 
Mason.  Judge  Clark  held  against  the  contestants,  but  said  that  there 
was  no  doubt  of  the  good  faith  of  their  contest." 


Gen.  H.  W.  Halleck;  A.  C.  Peachy;  Billings;  Hum- 
phrey Griffith;  E.  B.  Crocker;  William  S.  Long;  John  Hereford; 
Al.  Hereford;  E.  J.  C.  Kewen;  John  H.  Hardy;  Hal  Clayton;  B.  F. 


Ankeny;  James  H.  Ralston;  F.  S.  Mumforcl;  Col.  E.  D.  Baker;  Henry 
Meredith;  Judge  Silas  W.  Sanderson;  Col.  J.  C.  Zabriskie;  P.  W.  S. 
Rayle;  John  R.  McConnell;  Daniel  J.  Thomas;  Judge  A.  C.  Monson; 
Gregory  Yale;  John  C.  Burch;  Judge  Charles  T.  Botts;  D.  R. 
Sample;  Theron  Reed;  Judge  Lewis  Aldrich;  George  H.  Cartter; 
Tod  Robinson;  Robert  Robinson;  J.  B.  Harmon;  R.  H.  Stanley; 
William  H.  Weeks;  Thomas  Sunderland;  Milton  S.  Latham;  Frank 
McConnell;  Edward  Sanders ;  Judge  W.  C.  Wallace;  Judge  W.  T.  Wal- 
lace; Morris  M.  Estee;  Judge  Robert  F.  Morrison;  Murray  Morrison; 
Col.  L.  Sanders;  George  W.  Bowie;  William  I.  Ferguson  (killed  in  a 
duel  by  George  Pen  Johnston)  ;  J.  Neely  Johnson  (once  Governor) ; 
William  Neely  Johnson;  John  G.  Hyer;  Ferris  Forman;  Horace 
Smith;  Philip  C.  Edwards  (a  pioueer  of  1836)  ;  Thomas  C.  Edwards; 
Henry  Hare  Hartley;  George  E.  Moore;  D.  W.  Welty;  Harris  C. 
Harrison;  James  E.  Smith;  Judge  Lewis  Ramage;  Joseph  S.  Wallis; 
F.  H.  Moore;  Henry  K.  Snow;  Henry  C.  McCreery;  Judge  Robert 
C.  Clark;  Judge  John  Heard;  M.  C.  Tilden;  Henry  Edgerton'j  W.  B.  C. 
Brown ;  James  C.  Goods ;  Presley  Dunlap ;  James  W.  Coffroth ;  George 
Cadwalader;  J.  G.  Severance;  George  A.  Blanchard;  J.  C.  Tubbs; 
Ed.  F.  Taylor;  Joseph  AV.  Winans;  Samuel  Cross;  Judge  H.  0. 
Beatty;  G.'w.  Spaulding;  S.  L.  Rogers;  N.  Greene  Curtis;  W.  T. 
Hinkson;  W.  P.  Harlow;  W.  B.  G.  Keller;  Judge  Matt  F.  Johnson; 
Judge  A.  P.  Catlin;  Judge  John  H.  McKune;  James  L.  English; 
Charles  A.  Waring;  Peter  J.  Hopper;  Judge  C.  G.  W.  French; 
Thomas  Conger;  Thomas  W.  Gilmer;  Peter  Hanmm:  I.  S.  Brown; 
W.  R.  Cantwell;  Thomas  J.  Clunie;  Henry  Stan-;  Judge  Add  C. 
Hinkson;  George  G.  Davis;  A.  C.  Freeman;  Henry  C.  Ross;  Jay  R. 
Brown;  Judge  Thomas  B.  McFarland;  Albert  M.  Johnson;  Edward 
Dwyer;  Alvin  J.  Bruner;  Creed  Ha>anond;  A.  L.  Hart;  L.  S.  Taylor; 
F.  D.  Ryan;  Jud  C.  Brusie;  J.  P.  Counts;  James  B.  Devine;  Tsaao 
Joseph;  W.  S.  Mesick;  Ed.  M.  Martin;  Henry  L.  Buckley. 


W.  A.  Anderson  (ex-police  judge)  ;  Eugene  Aram;  J.  W.  Adams; 
Frank  F.  Atkinson;  C.  W.  Baker;  Charles  M.  Beckwith;  J.  J.  Bauer; 
C.  H.  S.  Bidwell;  Charles  0.  Busick;  Charles  A.  Bliss;  Hugh  B. 
Bradford;  J.  W.  S.  Butler  (Butler  &  Swisler) ;  J.  Frank  Brown;  Jolin 
Q.  Brown;  W.  J.  Carragher;  Thomas  B.  Christianson ;  J.  D.  Cornell; 
R.  M.  Clarken;  Charles  H.  Crocker;  H.  C.  Cline;  S.  W.  Cross;  J.  S. 
Daly;  A.  A.  DeLigne  (DeLigne  &  Jones)  ;  H.  S.  Derby;  W.  H.  Devlin; 
R.  t.  Devlin;  Alfred  Dalton,  Jr.;  S.  W.  Downey  (Downey  &  Pullen) ; 
P.  S.  Driver;  B.  F.  Driver;  C.  H.  Dunn;  C.  A.  Elliott;  W.  F.  George, 
L.  J.  Hinsdale  (George  &  Hinsdale);  W.  A.  Gett;  Green  &  Smith; 
Charles  B.  Harris,  John  C.  March  (Harris  &  March) ;  A.  L.  Hart,  Jr.; 
S.  H.  Hart;  Joseph  E.  Pipher,  J.  V.  Hart  (Hart  &  Pipher) ;  L.  T.  Hat- 
field; Victor  L.  Hatfield;  C.  C.  Holl,  S.  S.  Holl  (Holl  &  Holl)  ;  O.  G. 


Hopkins;  S.  Luke  Howe;  W.  S.  Howe;  W.  B.  Howard;  Hume  &  Art; 
J.  R.  Hughes,  Hugh  B.  Bradford  (Hughes  &  Bradford)  ;  J.  M.  Innum; 
John  B.  Insh;  H.  E.  Johnstone;  J.  ('harles  Jones;  P.  H.  Jolmson 
(Johnson  &  Lemmon)  ;  John  W.  Johnston;  Grove  L.  Johnson;  C.  T. 
Jones;  S.  H.  Jones;  R.  T.  McKisick,  W.  E.  Kleinsorge  (Kleinsorge  & 
McKisick)  ;  W.  A.  Latta;  T.  B.  Leeper;  A.  H.  McCurdy;  Meredith  & 
Landis;  C.  F.  Metteer;  W.  T.  Phipps;  W.  B.  Pittman;  R.  Platnauer; 
J.  F.  Pullen;  J.  0.  Prewett ;  W.  F.  Renf ro ;  A.  B.  Re^Tiolds ;  A.  M. 
Seymour;  Shelly,  Hoag  &  Leeper;  A.  L.  Shinn;  C.  Q.  Shinn;  C. 
Simon;  E.  A.  Sloss;  Albert  D.  Smith;  E.  G.  Soule;  H.  G.  Soule;  H.  H. 
Sydenham;  C.  E.  Swezy;  A.  R.  Tabor;  C.  W.  Thomas,  Jr.;  J.  C. 
Thomas;  M.  S.  Wahrhaftig;  B.  G.  White;  Clinton  L.  White,  Artlinr  E. 
Miller,  C.  E.  McLaughlin  (White,  Miller  &  McLaughlin)  ;  Arcliihald 
Yell  (Seymour  &  Yell);  Martin  I.  Welch;  Z.  F.  Wharton. 



By  Judge  TV.  A.  Anderson 

If  we  should  eliminate  from  our  history  tlie  lawyer  and  what  he 
lias  done,  we  would  rob  it  of  the  greater  part  of  its  glory.  Remove 
from  our  society  today  the  lawyer,  with  the  work  tliat  he  does,  and 
you  will  leave  that  society  as  dry  and  shiftless  as  the  sands  that 
sweep  over  Sahara.  The  lawyer  is  needed  in  the  legislature,  in  con- 
gress ;  every  business  man  needs  him ;  in  fact  he  is  a  necessary  adjunct 
to  every  department  of  Iranian  life.  Sacramento  City  had  its  great 
men  in  the  past;  great  law>-ers,  great  public  men,  great  politicians. 
It  makes  very  little  difference  whether  a  man's  fame  runs  around  the 
earth,  or  only  goes  to  the  limits  of  his  residence.  The  world  soon 
forgets  even  the  most  conspicuous  fame.  How  many  "immortals" 
have  been  totally  lost  to  the  memory  of  man.  Think  of  the  great  men 
of  the  past  of  ancient  Assyria,  Babylon,  Persia,  Egypt,  Judea,  Greece, 
Carthage,  Rome,  who  were  great  in  their  day,  and  whose  names  have 
not  been  written  or  spoken  for  two  thousand  years.  It  is  the  rare 
and  lucky  man  who  arises  from  the  flood  of  oblivion.  The  man  who 
seeks  immortality  strives  against  awful  odds,  but  that  is  an  instinct 
in  human  nature  which  prom]its  one  to  rebel  against  oblivion.  In 
the  few  references  made  in  this  review,  it  has  been  my  endeavor  to 
rescue  from  oblivion  some  of  the  great  geniuses  who  founded  this 

While  Newton  Booth  never  engaged  in  the  active  practice  of  the 
law,  he  was  a  member  of  the  bar.  He  became  governor  of  the  state, 
and  United  States  senator.  Milton  S.  Latham  was  governor  and 
United  States  senator.  J.  Neely  Johnson  was  governor;  T.  B.  Mc- 
Farland  was  judge  of  the  supreme  court.     Robert  F.  Morrison  was 


chief  justice  of  the  supreme  court;  H.  0.  Beatty  was  judge  of  the 
supreme  court  of  Nevada.  E.  B.  Crocker  was  supreme  court  justice, 
and  the  founder  of  the  Crocker  Art  Gallery,  which  was  donated  by 
his  widow  to  the  city  and  is  now  one  of  the  chief  public  attractions. 
C.  G.  W.  French  was  chief  justice  of  the  supreme  court  of  Arizona. 
Hiram  W.  Johnson  removed  his  practice  to  San  Francisco,  and  is  now 
governor  of  this  state.  Creed  Haymond  was  code  commissioner  and 
framed  our  present  codes;  also  was  state  senator  and  afterward  chief 
counsel  for  the  Southern  Pacific  Company,  and  died  in  San  Francisco 
many  j^ears  ago.  He  was  one  of  the  brilliant  minds  of  the  state. 
W.  H.  Beatty  is  now  chief  justice  of  the  supreme  court  of  California. 
W.  C.  Van  Fleet  is  United  States  district  judge  at  San  Francisco. 
Robert  T.  Devlin  until  recently  was  United  States  district  attorney 
and  was  at  one  time  state  senator  from  Sacramento.  Cornelius  Cole 
was  congressman  and  United  States  senator.  C*ol.  E.  D.  Baker  was 
United  States  senator  from  Oregon  and  was  killed  at  Ball's  Bluff 
as  brigadier-general  during  the  Rebellion. 

H.  W.  Halleck  was  during  the  Civil  war  the  commander-in-chief 
of  the  Union  armies  under  President  Lincoln. 

Col.  George  W.  Bowie,  the  law  partner  of  A.  P.  Catlin,  was, 
during  the  Civil  war,  a  brigadier-general  of  volunteers  and  served  on 
the  border  of  Texas,  Mexico  and  Arizona. 

E.  J.  C.  Kewen  was  one  of  the  pioneer  attorneys  and  an  orator 
of  distinction.  He  was  a  southern  man  by  birth,  and  had  all  the  fire 
and  vim  of  that  clime.  Colonel  Kewen  was  an  intimate  friend  of 
William  Walker,  who  attempted  to  form  a  republic  at  Nicaragua  and 
was  Walker's  financial  agent.  He  finally  located  at  Los  Angeles, 
and  died  there,  November  25,  1879. 

J.  C.  Zabriskie  was  the  first  city  attorney  of  this  city.  He  arrived 
in  Sacramento  in  1849  and  later  on  was  alcalde.  In  1861  he  removed 
to  San  Francisco,  where  he  died,  July  10,  1883. 

John  T.  Carey  was  district  attorney  of  Sacramento  county,  and 
was  appointed  United  States  district  attorney  by  President  Cleveland. 
He  is  now  practicing  law  in  San  Francisco. 

E.  H.  Heacock  is  now  a  resident  of  San  Francisco,  and  has  been 
for  many  years  master  in  chancery  of  the  United  States  courts. 

S.  W.  Sanderson  was  judge  of  the  supreme  court  and  resigned 
to  accejit  the  position  of  cliief  counsel  for  the  Central  Pacific  Railway 

Thomas  J.  Clunie  was  state  senator  and  member  of  congress.  He 
removed  to  San  Francisco  and  continued  the  practice  of  law  until 
the  time  of  his  death. 

John  K.  Alexander  was  district  attorney,  and  removed  to  Mon- 
terey and  was  for  many  years  superior  judge  of  that  county. 

James  C.  Goods  was  district  attorney  for  two  terms,  and  was 
considered  one  of  the  best  criminal  lawyers  in  the  state. 


Judge  Henry  Hare  Hartley  was  oue  of  the  leading  lawyers  of 
the  .state,  and  a  man  of  tlie  most  polished  manners. 

George  A.  Blanchard,  district  attorney,  afterwards  superior  judge 
of  Colusa  county,  died  on  the  threshold  of  a  useful  life;  he  was  one 
of  the  bright  minds  of  the  profession,  and  a  scholar  and  a  courteous 

Frank  D.  Ryan,  a  native  son  and  twice  district  attorney,  also 
one  of  the  lioard  of  commissioners  of  jniblic  works,  also  assemblyman, 
was  one  of  Sacramento's  finest  products.  No  man  held  a  higher  ])lace 
in  the  estimation  of  the  public.  H  seemed  like  the  cruelty  of  Fate 
to  take  him  from  earth  at  such  an  early  time  in  his  life,  as  he  had 
but  reached  his  prime  when  he  died,  in  1908. 

S.  Solon  Holl,  who  died  in  July,  1913,  was  considered  the  dean 
of  the  Sacramento  bar.     His  life  was  full  of  great  incidents. 

Grove  L.  Johnson,  assembhnnan,  senator  and  member  of  congress, 
is  among  the  active  practitioners  at  the  bar  of  the  state,  and  has  lost 
nothing  of  his  vigor  and  persistence,  and  is  as  ready  for  a  forensic 
encounter  as  he  was  wont  to  be  in  his  younger  days.  No  man  has  a 
higher  standing  at  the  bar  than  Hon.  Grove  L.  Johnson.  Mr.  Johnson 
can  be  considered  the  Nestor  of  the  bar. 

Clinton  L.  White  can  also  be  recorded  as  one  of  the  old  leaders 
at  the  bar.  Once  our  mayor,  and  a  good  one  at  that,  he  prides  him- 
self upon  his  devotion  to  the  practice  of  the  honorable  profession. 
His  firm.  White,  Miller  &  McLanghlin,  stands  foremost  among  the 
liractitioners  in  this  state. 

Gen.  A.  L.  Hart,  at  one  time  attorney-general  of  the  state,  was 
considered  one  of  the  best  nisi  pritis  lawyers  on  the  coast.  His  un- 
timely death  was  a  shock  to  the  profession.  No  man  held  a  higher 
place  in  the  hearts  of  the  members  of  the  bar  and  the  public. 

Judge  Add  C.  Hinkson,  who  for  many  years  was  city  superin- 
tendent of  schools,  and  superior  judge,  in  1912  answered  the  final  roll 
call  and  crossed  over  the  Dark  River. 

Tod  Robinson,  H.  0.  Beatty  and  J.  B.  Haggin  were  law  i)artner8 
in  1853,  in  this  city.  This  partnership  lasted  about  three  years. 
Judge  Beatty  went  to  Nevada  and  was  elected  chief  justice  of  the 
state.  J.  B.  Haggin,  one  of  the  owners  of  the  Haggin  grant,  resided 
in  New  York.    Tod  Robinson  located  at  San  Francisco. 

George  Cadwalader.  a  ]Honeer  and  in  early  days  a  mercliant, 
in  1855  entered  the  law  office  of  Col.  Philip  L.  Edwards  as  a  student  of 
law.  Mr.  Cadwalader  had  a  splendid  practice  and  never  sought  any 
political  office,  although  he  took  active  part  in  party  politics  on  some 
occasions.  He  also  wrote  some  elegant  verses.  He  removed  to  San 
Francisco  in  1884,  and  lived  but  about  one  year  thereafter.  The 
supreme  court  reports  contain  the  name  of  George  Cadwalader  in  a 
multitude  of  actions.  Robert  T.  Devlin  and  Clinton  L.  White  were 
students  under  Mr.  Cadwalader.     During  his  student  career,  Clinton 


L.  White  wrote  one  of  the  ablest  briefs  in  the  matter  of  the  estate 
of  Tliurston,  involving  some  of  the  most  intricate  questions  of  law. 
The  line  of  argument  in  the  brief  was  adopted  by  the  supreme  court. 
The  writer,  W.  A.  Anderson,  was  an  associate  of  George  Cadwalader 
in  the  practice  of  the  law  for  over  thirteen  years. 

A.  C.  Freeman  long  enjoyed  a  national  reputation  as  an  author 
of  law  books.  His  advent  into  the  practice  of  law  was  as  deputy 
district  attorney  under  James  C.  Goods.  His  first  book  was  "A 
Treatise  on  Judgments;"  later,  a  work  on  "Executions."  He  was 
the  editor  of  the  Bancroft- Whitney  publications  and  editor  of  "Amer- 
ican Decisions."  The  career  of  A.  C.  Freeman  was  a  great  success. 
He  located  in  San  Francisco,  and  a  few  years  ago  crossed  the  "Great 
Divide,"  full  of  honors. 

J.  N.  Young  practiced  law  in  this  city  for  many  years  and  then 
located  in  San  Francisco,  where  he  is  now  engaged  in  active  jjractice. 

Paschal  H.  Coggins  commenced  his  career  as  an  attorney  at  law 
in  this  city,  served  one  term  as  township  justice,  and  then  located  in 
Philadelphia,  where  he  is  now  engaged  in  the  practice  of  his  profes- 

D.  A.  Hamburger  practiced  in  Sacramento  for  a  few  years  after 
his  admission  to  the  bar  and  then  located  in  Los  Angeles,  where  he 
has  abandoned  the  practice  of  the  law  and  engaged  in  mercantile 

Frank  Powers  was  admitted  to  the  bar  from  the  city  of  Sacra- 
mento, but  established  his  law  practice  later  at  San  Francisco.  He 
was  a  member  of  the  assembly  from  that  city. 

Charles  T.  Jones  is  still  an  active  practitioner  in  this  city.  Twice 
district  attorney  and  once  assemblyman,  he  has  held  an  honored 
position  in  this  community.  He  has  been  on  one  side  or  the  other 
in  most  of  the  important  criminal  cases  for  many  years  and  is  looked 
upon  as  one  of  the  ablest  criminal  lawyers  in  the  state. 

Dan  E.  Alexander  removed  to  San  Francisco,  where  he  is  now 
engaged  in  the  practice  of  his  profession.  Charles  H.  Oatman  is  also 
a  practitioner  in  San  Francisco.  Elwood  Bruner,  ex-assemblyman  and 
ex-district  attorney,  is  now  located  at  Nome,  Alaska,  as  is  also  his 
brother,  J.  Allison  Bruner. 

W.  B.  Harlow  practiced  only  a  short  time  after  his  admission  to 
the  bar,  then  went  to  Arizona  and  later  to  New  York,  where  he  died 
a  few  years  ago. 

Judson  C.  Brusie  was  assembl>niian  and  secretary  to  the  Califor- 
nia railroad  conmiission.  He  died  a  few  years  ago  at  Los  Angeles. 
He  devoted  his  time  chiefly  to  politics  and  dramatic  writing. 

Peter  H.  Burnett  was  a  lawj^er,  but  never  practiced  in  this  city; 
only  acted  as  land  agent  for  John  A.  Sutter.  He  was  the  first  gov- 
ernor of  California.    In  1857  he  was  appointed  by  Governor  J.  Neely 


Jolinson  a  judge  of  the  supreme  court.  He  died  in  San  Francisco, 
May  17,  1895,  at  the  age  of  eighty-seven  years. 

Judge  S.  C.  Denson  is  now  a  resident  of  San  Francisco.  For 
many  years,  in  addition  to  his  judicial  career,  he  enjoyed  a  splendid 
practice  in  this  city.  At  various  times  a  member  of  the  firm  of  Beatty 
&  Denson,  then  Beatty,  Denson  &  Beatty,  and  Beatty,  Denson  &  Oat- 
man,  he  always  enjoyed  a  very  lucrative  business.  It  was  during  his 
term  as  judge  that  the  famous  cases  of  Troy  Dye  and  Edward  Ander- 
son for  the  murder  of  Aaron  Tullis  were  tried  and  the  two  men  con- 
victed and  hanged.  Hon.  Creed  Ha^miond  defended  these  men.  When 
Judge  Denson  removed  to  San  Francisco,  he  formed  a  co-partnership 
with  Judge  J.  J.  De  Haven,  which  continvied  until  Judge  De  Haven 
was  appointed  United  States  district  judge. 

Albert  M.  Johnson. — Nature  is  not  lavisli  with  her  choice  gifts 
of  genius  and  talent,  and  rarely  do  we  find  these  great  attributes 
combined.  In  Alliert  M.  Johnson  both  genius  and  talent  were  united 
in  one  body,  in  one  mind.  His  was  an  irrepressible  genius,  brighter 
than  the  sword  of  the  conqueror.  His  thoughts  and  ideas  bore  the 
rays  of  immortality,  which  cast  a  living,  lasting  halo  around  his  very 
being.  With  him,  genius  was  not  a  shadow — it  was  a  substance,  it 
was  light;  it  was  matter  that  never  dies.  In  all  his  legal  existence 
he  seemed  like  a  Theseus  led  by  the  golden  thread  of  Ariadne.  His 
logic  was  like  the  touch  of  Ithuriel's  spear,  his  reason  like  the  swell 
of  the  ocean.  A  master  of  language,  which  fiowed  from  his  lips  like 
a  splendid  stream,  again  in  torrents  as  moved  by  inspiration,  at  the 
har  and  on  the  rostrum  his  flow  of  language  was  the  most  fluent  and 
logical.  Its  effect  was  magical,  and  carried  inspiration  with  every 
word  and  thought  expressed.  There  is  no  armor  against  Fate.  Albert 
M.  Johnson  was  never  obsequious  to  wealth  or  power.  The  later  years 
of  his  life  were  devoted,  in  addition  to  his  profession,  to  the  solution 
of  social  problems  and  to  the  betterment  of  the  condition  of  the  masses. 
A  truly  great  attorney,  in  his  comparatively  brief  career  he  tasted 
fortune  more  than  did  any  other  law^^er.  He  died  in  Oakland,  in  1907, 
at  the  age  of  forty-six  years. 

Judge  A.  P.  Catlin  was  a  pioneer  lawyer,  and  had  many  parts 
in  the  formation  of  the  government  for  this  state.  In  1850  he  and 
John  Currey  (afterwards  superior  judge),  formed  a  co-partnership  in 
the  practice  of  the  law.  At  that  time  the  leaders  of  the  bar  were 
Murray  Johnson,  E.  J.  C.  Kewen,  Col.  J.  C.  Zabriskie,  Joseph  W. 
Winans,  L.  Neely  Johnson,  John  B.  Weller,  M.  S.  Latham,  John  H. 
McKune,  and  Col.  Philip  L.  Edwards.  This  partnership  lasted  only 
a  short  time,  and  Mr.  Catlin  then  returned  to  his  former  home  at 
Mormon  island  in  this  county,  and  engaged  in  mining.  It  was  he  who 
was  the  author  of  the  name  "Natoma"  for  Natoma  township  in  this 
county.  In  185.3-54  he  was  a  member  of  the  senate  which  met  at 
Benicia,  and  it  was  due  to  his  efforts  that  Sacramento  secured  the 


location  of  the  State  Capitol  and  was  made  the  permanent  seat  of 
state  government.  Judge  Catlin  was  an  eye  witness  to  the  great 
tragedy  of  the  Squatter  riots  on  August  14,  1850,  at  which  City 
Assessor  Woodland  was  killed,  Mayor  Biglow  fatally  wounded  and 
many  others  killed.  Judge  Catlin  took  part  in  every  great  political 
battle  of  this  state.  In  1857  he  was  a  member  of  the  assembly  and 
a  participant  in  the  great  Broderick-Gwin  senatorial  contest.  In 
March,  1872,  he  was  appointed  one  of  the  state  board  of  equalization. 
During  all  the  years  he  was  engaged  in  active  practice.  In  1890  he 
was  elected  judge  of  the  superior  court  of  the  cotinty  of  Sacramento, 
and  served  a  full  six-year  term.  He  was  a  man  of  sound  judgment 
and  untiring  industry,  one  of  the  safest  counsellors  and  faithful  to 
his  clients;  very  slow  to  anger,  but  a  lion  when  aroused.  While  he 
seemed  morose  in  his  disposition,  there  was  at  times  a  vein  of  gen- 
uine humor  in  his  composition.  No  man  had  a  greater  knowledge  of 
the  incidents  of  history  of  this  state,  and  his  "scrap  books,"  if  they 
are  still  in  existence,  would  be  a  revelation  to  the  future  historian. 

John  C.  Catlin  and  Harry  Catlin,  the  sons  of  Judge  Catlin,  were 
admitted  to  tlie  bar  and  are  now  residents  of  San  Francisco,  engaged 
in  the  practice  of  the  law. 

J.  W.  Winans  (firm  Winans  &  Hyer)  was  for  many  years  a 
prominent  attorney  in  this  city.  He  was  a  member  of  the  consti- 
tutional convention.  Mr.  Winans  devoted  much  time  to  literature,  and 
was  an  elegant  writer.  For  many  years  he  was  a  regent  of  the  state 
university.  In  1861  he  took  up  his  practice  in  San  Francisco  and 
continued  until  his  death,  March  3,  1887. 

W.  B.  C.  Brown,  after  having  served  as  county  clerk  and  state 
controller,  became  a  member  of  the  bar  and  continued  in  the  practice 
of  the  law  until  his  death,  April  12,  1882. 

W.  S.  Church  was  city  attorney  for  one  term,  then  went  to  San 
Francisco.  He  is  the  author  of  "Church  on  Habeas  Corpus,"  and 
some  other  law  works. 

James  B.  Devine,  a  bright  young  lawyer,  was  called  to  his  final 
rest,  just  at  the  time  the  people  began  to  recognize  his  abilities. 

Judge  J.  W.  Armstrong  came  to  Sacramento  from  Amador 
county  in  1868.  He  was  formerly  the  law  partner  of  the  late  United 
States  Senator  James  T.  Farley,  of  Amador  county.  He  established 
the  law  firm  of  Armstrong  &  Hinkson.  Judge  Armstrong  was  ap- 
pointed judge  of  the  superior  coui-t  of  Sacramento  county  by  Governor 
Stoneman.  At  the  succeeding  election  he  was  chosen  for  a  full  term 
on  the  bench.  Judge  Armstrong  was  a  man  of  great  force  of  char- 
acter, and  soniewliat  aggressive  in  his  disposition,  yet  broad-minded, 
tender-hearted  aiid  generous.    He  died  March  21,  1896. 

Judge  Lewis  Ramage  was  district  jiidge  of  the  old  sixth  judicial 
district.  It  was  during  his  term  that  the  famous  Tip  McLaughlin  case 
was  tried,   McLaughlin  being  charged   with   the   murder   of   Charles 


Limdholm.  At  the  first  trial  the  jury  disagreed,  and  "Tip"  was 
tried  a  second  time,  at  which  trial  he  was  convicted  of  murder.  By 
some  unaccountal)le  oversight  no  order  was  made  by  the  court  to  take 
the  defendant  into  custody,  he  being-  at  liberty  under  bonds.  "Tip" 
walked  out  of  the  court  and  never  was  captured.  Judge  Ramage 
was  a  very  kind-hearted  man,  and  had  a  great  reverence  for  the 
decisions  of  the  court  of  his  native  state,  Missouri.  It  was  often 
remarked  by  attorneys,  that  if  counsel  could  produce  a  decision  from 
Missouri,  or  something  from  "Smith's  Leading  Cases,"  his  case  would 
be  safe.  Judge  Ramage,  after  his  term  as  district  judge  was  com- 
]ileted,  returned  to  St.  Louis,  where  he  died  a  number  of  years  ago. 

John  B.  Weller,  a  pioneer  lawyer,  was  governor  and  United  States 
senator.  Governor  Weller  was  a  very  eloquent  orator  and  a  man  of 
pleasing  and  polished  manner. 

Judge  Robert  C.  Clark  was  state  senator  and  afterwards  county 
and  superior  judge  for  twenty-four  years,  up  to  the  time  of  his  death, 
January  27,  1883.  Judge  Clark  was  a  model  judge,  and  everybody 
was  his  friend.  No  man  held  a  higher  place  in  the  hearts  of  the 
peo])le  than  Judge  Clark.  The  pleasing  incidents  and  anecdotes  dur- 
ing his  career  on  the  bench  would  fill  a  large  volume. 

D.  Lee  Donelly  was  corporation  counsel  under  Mayor  Hassett, 
and  at  one  time  law  partner  of  A.  M.  Se^^nour.  He  died  about  1911 
after  a  lingering  sickness. 

John  Currey  was  one  of  the  earliest  pioneer  lawyers  of  this  cit}^ 
At  one  time  the  law  partner  of  A.  P.  Catlin,  Judge  Currey  performed 
a  prominent  part  in  the  history  of  this  state.  He  was  for  many  years 
judge  of  the  supreme  court,  and  chief  justice  of  that  court.  Judge 
Currey  was  born  in  1814,  and  died  in  1912,  at  ninety-eight  years  of 
age.  He  always  was  a  man  of  great  intellectual  powers,  and  even  in 
his  last  years  retained  his  remarkable  memory  and  wrote  some  able 
articles  for  the  law  journals  upon  great  legal  topics. 

Judge  E.  W.  McKinstry  was  in  the  law  practice  in  this  city  in 
1850.  He  was  one  of  the  first  representatives  in  the  legislature  from 
Sacramento  county.  In  1858  he  went  to  Napa  and  was  elected  district 
judge  for  Napa  and  adjoining  counties.  He  then  removed  to  San 
Francisco  and  was  elected  county  judge.  Later  he  was  chosen  district 
judge  for  the  twelfth  judicial  district  of  San  Francisco.  Afterwards 
he  was  elected  justice  of  the  supreme  court  of  California.  He  resigned 
from  the  supreme  bench  to  become  professor  of  municipal  law  in 
the  Hastings  Law  College.  Judge  McKinstry  died  at  San  Jose. 
November  1,  1901. 

Cornelius  Cole  was  district  attorney  for  Sacramento  county,  after- 
wards congressman,  and  in  1865-66  was  elected  by  the  legislature 
to  the  United  States  senate.  At  the  close  of  his  senatorial  term  he 
located  at  Los  Angeles,  where  he  now  resides,  hale  and  hearty,  though 
advanced  in  vears. 


Morris  M.  Estee  was  a  member  of  the  legislature  from  Sacra- 
mento in  the  session  of  1863-64,  and  in  1864  was  elected  district  attor- 
ney of  Sacramento  county.  At  the  expiration  of  his  term  of  office 
he  located  in  San  Francisco  in  the  pursuit  of  his  profession  and  was 
retained  in  many  very  important  cases.  Mr.  Estee  was  a  leading 
member  of  the  last  constitutional  convention  which  framed  the  present 
state  constitution.  Mr.  Estee  was  at  all  times  a  dignified  and  sincere 
man.  Under  the  annexation  of  tlie  Hawaiian  Islands,  creating  a 
United  States  district  judge  for  that  jurisdiction,  in  1900  he  was 
appointed  to  the  office,  which  he  held  until  his  death,  October  27,  1903. 

Judge  T.  B.  McFarland,  prioi  to  locating  at  Sacramento,  was  dis- 
trict judge  of  the  fourteenth  judicial  district,  comprising  Nevada  and 
Placer  counties.  At  the  expiration  of  his  term  as  judge  he  came  to 
Sacramento  and  formed  a  copartnership  with  Judge  A.  P.  Catlin, 
under  the  firm  name  of  Catlin  and  McFarland.  He  was  registrar  of 
the  United  States  land  office,  and  in  1882  was  appointed  by  Governor 
Perkins  superior  judge  of  this  county.  Prior  to  that  he  was  also  a 
member  of  the  last  cou.stitutional  convention.  In  1884  Judge  Mc- 
Farland was  elected  superior  judge  for  Sacramento  county;  in  1886 
was  elected  justice  of  the  supreme  court,  re-elected  in  1898,  and  re- 
mained on  the  supreme  bench  until  the  time  of  his  death,  a  few  years 
ago.  Judge  McFarland  was  a  man  of  fine  literary  attainments  and 
of  most  fascinating  social  qualities.  To  know  him  was  ever  after  to 
be  his  friend. 


Look  in  upon  the  state  burial  plot  in  the  City  Cemetery  and 
amid  the  lofty  marble  and  granite  shafts  that  mark  the  last  resting 
places  of  distinguished  men,  there  will  be  found  a  poor  little  slab  with 
the  inscription: 

Henry  E]dgerton 

November  4,  1887 

The  name  of  that  brilliant  orator,  profound  lawyer,  classic  scholar, 
is  now  only  a  memory  for  the  few.  During  life  he  thrilled  audiences, 
electrified  senators,  judges  and  conventions  by  the  splendor  of  his 
rhetoric,  philosophy  and  the  vividness  of  his  imagery.  As  an  eagle, 
then  he  swooped, — then  he  soared, — the  sculptor  and  painter  in  words, 
— the  ideal  of  logical  realism. 


"The  two-edged  tongue  of  mighty  Zeno,  who. 
Say  what  we  would,  could  argue  it  untrue," 
he  liad  the  prose  of  Xenophon  and  the  poetry  and  philosophy  of  Plato. 
His  font  of  oratorical  genius  never  ran  low.    He  fused  reason,  music, 
passion,  imagination,  into  electric  and  magnetic  power  which  held  his 
auditors  as  if  chained  bv  enchantment. 


When  Edgertou  became  aroused  in  debate  and  the  occasion  called 
for  it,  he  was  a  perfect  master  of  invective,  sarcasm  and  irony. 
"Fierce  as  the  midnight,  moonlit 
Nubian  desert  with  all  its  lions  up." 

Yet  he  was  possessed  of  the  gentle  impulses  of  a  woman,  court- 
eous, chivalrous  and  with  wit  as  sparkling  as  ice  and  as  brilliant  as 
the  sunshine.  Henry  Edgerton  had  the  egotism  of  most  men  of 
genius,  and  believed  it  was  a  great  folly  to  be  wise  all  alone.  His 
utter  contempt  for  wealth  was  proverbial.  Yet  with  all  his  great 
genius  and  ability,  with  all  his  generous  impulses  and  good  will  for 
his  fellow  men,  he  learned,  with  Prentice,  "that  men  are  deserters 
in  adversity,  when  all  is  dark  and  even  our  very  shadows  refuse  to 
follow  us."  While  his  eloquence  charmed  the  soul,  he  felt  that  Ambi- 
tion was  a  gilded  cheat, — that  Fate  was  capricious. 
"Ah,  pensive  Scholar,  what  is  fame! 
A  fitful  tongue  of  leaping  flame, 

A  giddy  whirlwind's  fickle  giist 
That  lifts  a  pinch  of  mortal  dust." 

With  all  his  great  genius  and  wonderful  powers  of  oratory,  Edger- 
ton, like  that  other  almost  forgotten  orator  and  statesman,  James  W. 
Cotfroth,  could  never  attain  the  goal  of  his  ambition, — a  seat  in  the 
halls  of  congress. 

The  great  Napoleon's  star  of  destiny  began  to  decline  from  the 
day  he  divorced  the  Empress  Josephine,  and  finally  set  with  the  sun 
at  Waterloo.  Thus  with  Henry  Edgerton,  when  the  marital  relations 
ceased  between  himself  and  the  brilliant  Frances  Edgerton,  his  star 
of  destiny  waned  and  finally  cast  its  pale  light  upon  his  almost  for- 
gotten grave. 

Withal  the  public  career  of  Henry  Edgerton  forms  a  potent  part 
of  the  history  of  this  state.  He  came  to  California  from  Vermont  in 
1853,  a  young  man,  and  located  at  Napa,  where  he  was  for  a  number 
of  years,  up  to  1860,  the  district  attorney  of  that  county.  The  famous 
case  of  Ned  McGowan,  implicated  in  the  murder  of  James  King  of 
William,  editor  of  the  San  Francisco  Bulletw,  during  the  time  of  the 
vigilance  committee,  was  transferred  to  Napa  coimty,  and  prosecuted 
liy  Henry  Edgerton.  In  1860  he  was  elected  state  senator  for  Napa, 
Solano  and  Yolo  counties,  and  during  the  sessions  occurred  the  mem- 
orable deliate  with  Harry  I.  Thornton,  which  placed  Edgerton  as  the 
leader  in  oratory  in  this  state.  It  was  by  such  prompt,  eloquent  and 
patriotic  actions  of  Edgerton  and  several  other  prominent  men  that 
a  terrible  chapter  in  California's  history  was  averted,  and  this  state 
retained  in  the  array  of  Union  states  during  the  Rebellion. 

From  this  time  Henry  Edgertou  held  his  place  as  the  greatest 
orator  on  this  coast.  He  was  a  man  of  sjilendid  ]ihysique,  with  a 
bright,  classic  countenance,  and  one  who  at  all  times  inspired  admira- 
tion.    In  the  earlier  davs  of  his  career  he  was  noted  for  the  old 


school  style  of  bis  costume.  For  many  years  be  wore  a  blue  broad- 
clotb  dress  coat,  with  doulile  row  of  brass  buttons,  and  a  buff  vest, 
making  a  marked  contrast  with  other  men's  dress.  But  he  prided 
himself  on  these  and  would  wear  none  other  until  the  later  years  of 
his  life.  In  1861  Edgerton  and  McKibben  ran  for  congress  on  the 
Union  Democratic  ticket,  but  were  defeated  by  Timothy  Guy  Phelps 
and  A.  A.  Sargent.  For  a  number  of  years  Edgerton  was  one  of  the 
trustees  of  the  state  library.  In  1878-79  he  was  elected  a  member 
at  large  of  the  constitutional  convention,  and  the  debates  disclose 
many  gems  of  his  power  of  oratory.  One  of  Edgerton 's  most  beauti- 
ful oratorical  efforts  occurred  in  1879,  upon  the  grand  reception  given 
to  Gen.  U.  S.  Grant,  who  ^dsited  this  city  upon  his  journey  around  the 
world.  In  1880  he  was  the  only  Republican  presidential  elector  elected, 
and  he  was  selected  as  messenger  to  proceed  to  Washington  to  cast 
the  vote  for  president.  At  the  presidential  election  in  1884  he  was 
again  elected  a  presidential  elector. 

In  1882  Henry  Edgerton  and  W.  W.  Morrow  were  Republican 
candidates  for  congressman-at-large,  but  they  were  defeated  by  Charles 
Sumner  and  J.  R.  Glasscock.  During  the  congressional  convention 
of  the  second  district  at  Benicia  in  1884,  Edgerton  was  evidently 
deeply  wounded  at  not  receiving  the  nomination  for  congress.  His 
speech  on  that  occasion  was  one  of  the  most  powerful  efforts  of  his 
life,  and  his  picture  of  the  ingratitude  of  his  party  was  realized  by 
all  the  delegates  present.  It  was  at  this  convention  that  Hon.  Joseph 
McKenna  received,  on  the  thirtieth  ballot,  the  nomination  which  gave 
him  his  start  upon  the  car  of  political  fortune.  Edgerton  never  recov- 
ered from  this  defeat,  and  he  felt  that  the  party  was  ungrateful  in 
not  recognizing  him. 

The  oration  delivered  by  Edgerton  July  4,  1882,  is  a  masterpiece 
of  patriotic  oratory  and  is  a  model  for  young  Americans.  Such 
oratory  is  not  like  that  which  is  called  oratory  today,  and  which  is 
a  mere  empty  flow  of  words.  It  is  like  the  violet  wreath  compared 
with  the  bunch  of  straw. 

On  the  occasion  of  the  nomination  of  Newton  Booth  for  governor 
in  1871,  Henry  Edgerton  made  one  of  his  brilliant,  characteristic  ad- 
dresses in  placing  Newton  Booth  in  nomination.  In  1873,  during  an 
exciting  anti-railroad  contest,  he  was  elected  state  senator  for  Sacra- 
mento county.  During  the  camijaign  he  made  some  of  the  most  elo- 
quent as  well  as  invective  speeches.  On  one  occasion,  while  referring 
to  one  of  his  detractors,  he  used  this  unique  and  most  forcible  lan- 
guage: "He  lies  by  day,  he  lies  by  night;  he  lies  for  the  very  lust 
of  lying." 

In  nearly  every  Republican  campaig-n  from  1868  until  date  of  his 
death  Edgerton  took  part,  and  his  eloquence  was  heard  in  every 
important  city  on  the  coast.  In  no  place  in  public  or  private  did  he 
know  how  to  be  dull. 


It  is  known  that  Henry  Edgerton  was  methodical  in  his  nature, 
and  kept  a  complete  set  of  scrap  books  and  records,  but  after  his  death 
no  one  was  able  to  discover  where  they  were  placed.  It  would  be  a 
,<>reat  addition  to  the  oratorical  history  of  the  world  if  these  records 
could  be  found,  and  placed  in  the  hands  of  some  competent  compiler 
for  ]ireservatiou  to  the  literature  of  the  world.  Throughout  life  he 
kept  up  his  classical  studies,  and  was  a  devotee  of  the  drama  and  of 
all  kinds  of  art.  As  a  conversationalist  he  was  without  a  suiDerior. 
A  volume  might  be  written  of  anecdotes  of  Edgerton.  On  one  oc- 
casion, during  the  session  of  1861,  while  he  was  the  lion  of  the  day, 
the  legislature  was  compelled  to  move  to  San  Francisco  on  account 
of  the  flood.  At  that  time  the  sensational  drama,  "The  Octoroon," 
was  being  played  and  drew  large  houses.  Edgerton,  with  a  number 
of  the  other  senators,  attended  the  play  and  showed  his  warm,  im- 
l)ulsive  and  chivalrous  character,  during  the  famous  scene  where  Zoe, 
the  Octoroon,  is  put  upon  the  slave  block  for  sale.  Dora  Sunnysides 
had  such  a  warm  affection  that  she  desired  to  purchase  Zoe  to  set 
her  free.  The  bidding  began,  when  McCloskey,  the  villain  of  the  play, 
and  Dora  were  bidding  against  each  other.  She  reached  her  limit 
when  she  bid  $20,000.  McCloskey,  in  his  sneering  manner,  bid  $25,000, 
and  looked  upon  Dora  with  a  victorious  smile.  At  this  point  the  au- 
dience was  in  a  state  of  terrible  excitement,  when  all  at  once  some 
one  in  the  audience  arose,  threw  his  hat  high  in  the  air,  and  said : 
"Damn  the  law!  I  bid  $30,000."  That  was  Henry  Edgerton,  and  it 
is  needless  to  say  that  the  entire  audience  was  in  uproarious  ap- 
plause for  the  last  bidder. 

When  we  think  of  the  eventful  life  of  Henry  Edgerton,  we  are 
constrained  to  the  truth  that  it  is  best  that  Heaven  from  all  creatures 
hides  the  Book  of  Fate. 

Edgerton  was  a  devotee  of  poetry  and  art  as  well  as  a  student 
of  the  classics.  In  fact  his  very  utterances  were  poetry.  The  follow- 
ing lines,  quaint  in  their  character  and  an  echo  of  his  sentimental 
moods,  are  attributed  to  him : 

"The  old  days.     Do  you  ever  think  of  them 
When  sitting  silent  as  the  shadows  meet? 
When  lying  1)road  awake  at  dead  of  night. 
To  hear  the  rain  that  drops  into  the  eaves ; 
Do  you  remember  how  sweet  was  yoTir  sleep. 
In  the  old  days? 

"The  old  days,  when  you  wanted  to  grow  big, 
Before   you  knew  the  sorrows   it  would   bring; 
When  looking  at  the  blue  hills  far  away 
And  thinkino-  of  the  world  that  lav  bevond? 


Do  yoii  lemember  liow  you  yearned  for  it, 
In  the  days  of  old? 

"The  old  days,  they  are  furrowed  o'er  with  graves, 
The  sweet-faced  mother,  tirst  and  dearest  friend. 
The  old  home  faces  you  used  to  know, 
Your  playmates  and  your  sweethearts,  where  are  they? 
Do  you  remember  how  you  loved  and  lost, 
In  the  days  of  old! 

"The  old  days!    How  they  brim  the  eyes  with  tears 
And  fill  the  heart  with  longing  and  regret! 
Oh,  there  are  tragedies  in  every  life; 
And  there  are  songs  as  sweet  as  ever  sung; 
And  there  are  memories  that  never  die. 
In  the  old  days." 


Tribute  by  Major  W.  J.  Anderson,  at  the  time  of  his  death,  July  12, 

When  Cato,  the  younger,  sat  with  his  drawn  sword  meditating 
upon  Plato's  "Immortality  of  the  Soul,"  he  exclaimed:  "Plato,  thou 
reasonest  well.     Why  this  longing  for  immortality?" 

Each  day,  every  hour,  each  minute,  we  are  admonished  of  the  un- 
certainty of  all  earthly  things. 

"Eternity — thou  pleasing,  dreadful  thought — 
Through  what  vagaries  of  untried  being,  through  wiiat  new  scenes  and 
changes  must  we  pass?" 

"The  glories  of  birth  and  state  are  sliadows,  not  substantial 
things.     There  is  no  armor  against  fate." 

Death  lays  his  icy  hand  on. the  high  and  low  alike.  The  highest 
and  lowest,  richest  and  poorest,  must  yield  to  the  inexorable  laws  of 
Nature  and  of  Fate.  We  are  today  but  reminded  of  the  end  of  all 
that  is  mortal  of  man,  and  in  paying  this  tribute  to  tlie  memory  of 
our  dei)arted  brother,  bring  ourselves  within  the  reflections  of  Cato 
upon  the  immortality  of  the  soul,  and  the  ]jroofs  of  nature  and  na- 
ture's laws  that  the  soul  of  N.  Greene  Curtis  has  its  enduring  im- 
mortality amid  the  Elysian  fields,  where  he  has  gone  to  meet  former 
colleagues  and  adversaries  of  mant"  forensic  battles :  George  R. 
Moore,  H.  H.  Hartley,  Phil  Edwards,  James  ^Y.  Coffroth,  J.  C. 
Goods,  Creed  Havmond,  Henrv  Edgerton.  George  Cadwalader.  R. 
C.  Clark.  H.  0.  Beatty,  J.  W.  Winans,  John  G.  Hyer,  Milton  S. 
Latham,  Col.  L.  Sanders,  Tod  Robinson,  E.  B.  Crocker,  Himiphrey 
GriCiiths,  J.  W.  Armstrong,  W.  I.  Ferguson,  Presley  Dunlap,  George 
A.  Blnnchard,  and  others. 


N.  Greene  Curtis  was  born  in  Raleig-b,  N.  C,  February  5,  1826. 
In  May,  1850,  he  came  with  the  tide  of  gold-seekers  to  California  from 
Tennessee,  to  which  state  he  moved  in  his  early  youth.  By  birth 
and  education  he  was  fitted  even  in  those  youthful  days  to  take  his 
place  among  the  moving  spirits  of  the  country.  Soon  after  his  ar- 
rival in  Sacramento  he  was  appointed  deputy  postmaster  under  Jona- 
than Tittle,  the  presidential  appointee.  A  short  time  after  he  as- 
sumed his  office  his  principal  went  east,  leaving  Curtis  in  full  charge. 
AVhile  Tittle  was  absent,  Richard  Eads  came  out  with  a  notification 
from  Washington  that  he  had  been  appointed  to  the  office.  Curtis 
declined  to  recog-nize  Eads  until  he  presented  a  commission  and  filed 
a  bond.  He  thus  retained  possession  of  the  office  for  some  months,  it 
taking  about  that  time  to  procure  the  necessary  credentials. 

As  a  recognition  of  Curtis'  ability,  Eads  retained  him  as  the  chief 
officer  until  he  was  elected  recorder  in  1853.  This  office  Judge  Curtis 
administered  for  three  years  with  marked  ability,  establishing  a  record 
which  has  become  a  precedent.  In  1861,  when  the  spirit  of  secession 
was  rife  and  at  a  time  when  Cahfornia  was  in  the  balance,  being 
largely  populated  by  southern  men,  Judge  Curtis,  though  of  southern 
blood,  was  firmest  in  counseling  for  the  Union.  At  a  great  mass 
meeting  held  in  the  old  pavilion  at  Sixth  and  M  streets,  he  made 
one  of  the  grandest,  most  patriotic  speeches  against  secession  and 
for  the  Union,  one  and  indivisible.  He  became  a  member  of  the  Union 
Party  and  that  year,  with  Charles  Crocker,  Amos  Adams  and  Dr. 
Joseph  Powell,  was  elected  as  a  member  of  the  assembly.  Charles 
Crocker,  one  of  the  great  Central  Pacific  railroad  quartet,  crossed 
the  Dark  River  several  years  ago.  Amos  Adams  recently  died  in 
San  Jose.  Dr.  Powell  survived  the  term  only  a  few  years.  During 
the  same  session  Judge  R.  C.  Clark  and  E.  II.  Heacock  served  as 
senators  from  this  county.  In  1861  Judge  Curtis  became  a  member 
of  the  state  senate  with  E.  H.  Heacock  as  his  colleague.  In  1869 
Curtis  and  A.  Comte  served  as  our  senators.  In  1877  Judge  Curtis 
was  again  returned  to  the  senate,  having  defeated  Felix  Tracy.  His 
colleague  was  Creed  Haymond.  He  was  a  leader  in  his  party  and 
counselled  upon  all  matters  pertaining  to  the  welfare  of  the  Demo- 
cratic party  of  this  state  as  well  as  the  nation.  He  was  at  all  times 
modest,  unassuming,  unostentatious,  yet  possessing  the  rarest  quali- 
ties of  conversational  powers.  As  an  orator  he  was  magnetic,  and 
by  his  earnestness  and  force  of  character  never  failed  to  impress  his 
hearers  with  his  own  ideas  and  convictions.  Herein  laid  his  great 
power  and  influence  over  jurors.  The  devoted  friendship  of  Curtis 
was  jiroverbial.  I  have  often  heard  my  father  say  that  it  was  a  com- 
mon, every-day  sight  to  see  Judge  McKime  and  Greene  Curtis  frying 
their  bacon  and  boiling  their  coffee  in  front  of  their  cabin,  which  was 
situated  at  what  is  now  the  corner  of  Fifth  and  K  streets.  The  cabin 
was  Iniilt  among  scrub  oaks  and  bushes,  and  ser^■ed  as  the  law  o^'fice 


of  Judge   McKune,    Curtis   uot    being   a    praL-titioner    at    that    time. 
Curtis  was  endowed  with  the  qualities  of  true  friendship, 
"Which  is  a  Gordiau  knot  that  angel  hands  had  tied. 
By  heavenly  skill  its  texture  wrought,  who  shall  its  folds  divide? 
Death's  all-triumphant  sword  may  strive  its  links  to   sever, 
But  the  union  of  its  twisted  cord  in  Heaven  shall  last  forever." 
Curtis    belonged    to    the   "old    school"    of    chivalrous    attorneys. 
While  there  has  been  advancement  in  all  matters  of  science  and  art, 
there  remains  a  charm  around  the  courteous  chivalry  of  the  lawyer 
of  two  generations   ago.     It   seems  that   a   grasping  selfishness   has 
im]ilanted  itself  among  modern  members  of  the  bar.     That  old-time 
honor  of  the  profession,  when  the  greed  for  gold  formed  no  part  in 
the  lawyer's  strife  for  honor  and  fame,  has  in  a  measure  departed. 
The  lawyers  of  twenty-five  years  ago  held  honor  above  gold  or  price. 
Today  gold  seems  to  be  the  moving  power  and  glory,  and  honor  but 
an  incident.    Those  were  the  days  that  the  lawyer's  part  was  to  work 
hard,  live  well  and  die  poor.     But  honor  was  always  the  objective 

Judge  Curtis  was  counsel  in  the  famous  Laura  D.  Fair  case  for 
the  murder  of  A.  P.  Crittenden,  and  finally  acquitted  her.  He  was 
counsel  for  many  defendants  in  murder  cases  in  this  state.  Many 
years  ago  the  writer  was  present  at  Santa  Cruz  during  an  important 
murder  trial,  where  the  defendant  was  represented  by  N.  Greene 
Curtis.  We  think  that  the  management  of  this  case  was  the  mas- 
terpiece of  his  life,  and  far  surpasses  his  efforts  in  the  famous  Laura 
D.  Fair  trial.  The  defendant  was  a  young  man  with  a  beautiful  ^\'ife 
and  child.  The  evidence  against  the  defendant  was  of  the  most  dam- 
aging character,  and  it  seemed  that  a  conviction  was  inevitable.  The 
sentiment  of  the  community  was  set  against  the  defendant.  But 
Curtis  had  a  way  of  snatching  victory  from  defeat,  and  the  result  of 
the  trial  disclosed  the  fact  that  he  did  so  in  this  case.  For  weeks 
before  the  trial  he  made  research  into  the  pedigree  of  each  juror 
summoned,  until  he  had  each  man's  history  at  his  memory's  com 
mand.  Then  came  the  day  of  the  trial  and  the  defense  marked  out 
was  an  alibi.  The  courtroom  was  each  day  crowded  with  ladies  and 
gentlemen.  Curtis  seemed  to  be  inspired.  He  opened  the  case  with 
a  degree  of  magnetism  seldom  witnessed.  He  ])aid  a  grand  tribute 
to  the  people,  to  the  beautiful  sea  crest  and  beach,  and  to  every- 
thing pertaining  to  the  community.  He  painted  the  crime  as  black 
as  Erebus,  and  was  unsparing  of  anyone  who  would  perpetrate  such 
an  outrage  and  cowardly  assassination.  Then  came  his  inspired  ar- 
gument to  the  jury.  He  touched  the  weak  place  in  the  composition 
of  every  juror,  and  art)und  and  around  he  went,  addressing  each 
jui'or  separately.  But  he  foimd  that  every  time  he  came  to  a  cer- 
tain old  puritanical  fellow  there  was  a  break  in  his  magnetic  chain. 
He  tried   again  and  again  to  cast  the   electric  charm   over  the  old 


liard-sliell,  for  lie  felt  certain  of  the  other  jurors.  Just  at  this 
juncture  a  little  tot  got  dowu  from  his  mother's  lap,  and,  being  at- 
tracted by  Curtis'  actions  in  speaking  to  the  jury,  ran  up  to  him, 
clasped  one  little  arm  al)out  his  knee,  and  with  the  other  held  up  a 
piece  of  candy  some  person  had  given  him,  for  him  to  take.  Curtis 
stopped  short,  looked  for  an  instant  at  tlie  child,  then  at  the  audi- 
ence, then  at  the  jury,  but  never  spoke  a  word.  The  effect  was  elec- 
tric. There  was  not  a  dry  eye  in  the  courtroom ;  the  women  gave  out 
uncontrollable  sobs.  That  silent  eloquence  was  grand — indescribablv 
grand.  Then  he  drew  his  own  picture,  and  asked  the  jurors  if  they 
were  fathers,  and  could  find  it  in  their  hearts  to  make  that  child  an 
orphan.  With  all  this  the  old  hard-shell  remained  obdurate,  and 
as  unmoved  as  the  hills.  At  length  Curtis  roused  himself  for  one 
more  effort  and  with  tears  and  emotion  actually  knelt  down  and 
prayed  long  and  fervently  at  the  feet  of  the  obdurate  juror,  when  all 
at  once  tears  came  trickling  down  his  cheeks,  and  he,  too,  was  en- 
tangled in  the  electric  chain.  After  the  case  was  over,  and  the 
young  man  acquitted,  Curtis  said  to  the  writer:  "Do  you  know  that 
it  was  a  hard  struggle  to  capture  that  puritanical  old  ass?  Why, 
I  was  actually  comi)elled  to  pray,  and  ordinarily  it  would  have  been 
ridiculous."  And,  said  the  Judge:  "When  I  got  him  I  thought  of 
an  event  in  the  life  of  the  elder  Booth,  who  had  no  equal  in  his  per- 
sonation of  Richard  III.  Well,  Mr.  Booth  was  to  play  his  favorite 
character  at  Manchester,  England,  which  was  a  great  place  for  manu- 
facturing buttons.  On  the  opening  night  the  house  was  crowded, 
and  Booth  just  let  himself  loose,  but  not  a  sig-n  of  applause  fol- 
lowed his  efforts.  The  audience  was  as  silent  as  a  tomb.  He  tried 
again  and  again,  still  no  emotion  or  recognition.  Driven  to  despair, 
he  made  a  most  superhuman  effort,  and  at  this  time  caught  the 
entire  audience  at  once.  The  applause  was  loud  and  continued.  After 
the  tumult.  Booth,  in  his  eccentric  way,  stepped  to  the  footlights 
and  said:  'What  do  you  think  of  that,  you  damned  button-makers?' 
Then  he  left  the  stage  and  would  not  finish  the  play.  Now,"  contin- 
ued Curtis,  "I  felt  like  Booth  in  that  act,  and  wanted  to  say,  out 
loud,  after  my  fervent  ]irayer:  'What  do  you  think  of  that,  you  d — d 
old  hard-shell.'  " 


Only  a  few  now  remain  who  can  recall  the  memories  of  that 
eminent  man  whose  magnetic  powers  stirred  the  hearts  of  the  people, 
whose  magic  eloquence  so  often  resounded  at  the  bar,  in  the  forum, 
and  from  the  public  platform.  While  the  lips  of  James  W.  Coffroth 
have  been  silenced  and  his  body  in  the  silent  chambers  of  the  dead  for 
thirty-six  years,  there  are  many  "oldtimers"  whose  memories  re- 
vert to  the  past,  and  recall  that  he  was  one  of  the  leading  spirits  of 
this  state  and  one  who  aided  in  making  its  early  history.     No  lawyer 


ever  exercised  greater  influence  over  a  jury.  His  splendid  stature, 
clear  and  musical  voice,  and  magnetic  expression  never  failed  to 
enter  the  heart  of  those  whom  he  addressed.  His  was  a  most  lov- 
able nature,  generous  and  courteous  to  all,  yet  a  lion  when  aroused. 
His  style  of  eloquence  was  different  from  that  of  the  contemporane- 
ous lawyers,  and  he  easily  stood  the  peer  of  any,  although  there 
were  orators  and  statesmen:  Col.  E.  D.  Baker,  Henry  Edgerton, 
W.  Li.  L.  Barnes,  N.  Greene  Curtis,  Jo  Hamilton,  Creed  Haymond, 
W.  W.  Pendergast,  James  Groods,  and  a  number  of  other  eloquent 
orators  and  attorneys  with  whom  he  was  confronted  in  litigation. 
(And,  by  the  way,  how  rarely  do  we  hear  any  of  those  illustrious 
names  mentioned  in  this  generation.) 

"Jim"  Coffroth,  as  he  was  called,  was  extremely  popular  when 
lie  came  to  Sacramento,  as  the  senator  from  "Old  Tuolumne,"  then 
one  of  the  leading  counties  in  the  state.  He  was  paraded  around 
the  city  in  a  carriage  drawn  by  six  white  horses,  and  with  ban- 
ners, "Hail  Tuolumne's  Favorite  Son."  The  American  party  was 
then  in  power  in  California.  He  could  have  been  the  candidate  for 
governor,  which  was  equivalent  to  an  election  that  year,  but  gener- 
ously gave  way  to  J.  Neely  Johnson,  who  was  elected.  For  many 
years  thereafter  "Jim"  Coffroth  was  known  as  "Tuolumne's  Favor- 
ite Son." 

Every  young  attorney,  including  myself,  reverenced  "Jim" 
Coffroth  for  his  generous  treatment  and  assistance.  Coffroth  was 
very  fond  of  humorous  episodes,  and  was  a  natural  wit,  as  well  as 
a  jiractical  joker,  usually  shying  his  wit  and  satire  against  other 
members  of  the  profession.  On  one  occasion  he  perpetrated  a  cruel 
joke  on  Hon.  James  T.  Farley,  who  had  been  chosen  speaker  of  the 
assembly.  At  the  close  of  the  session  it  was  the  ciistom  for  the 
speaker  to  deliver  a  farewell  address.  Farley  asked  Coffroth  to 
give  him  some  pointers  for  the  address.  Coffroth  assented,  and  the 
next  day  handed  a  copy  of  an  address  delivered  by  a  former  speaker. 
Farley  took  it  in  good  faith,  never  dreaming  of  any  dece]5tion,  and 
delivered  it  verbatim.  Next  day  the  Sacramento  Union  contained  a 
very  sarcastic  reference  to  the  similarity  of  the  closing  address  with 
that  of  the  former  speaker  of  the  house.  For  a  long  time,  Farley, 
who  was  later  elected  United  States  senator,  had  an  ax  in  store  for 
Coffroth  for  the  imposition. 

As  I  have  already  said,  Mr.  Coffroth  was  a  very  kind  friend 
of  mine,  and  he  had  occasion  to  disclose  that  friendship  in  tlie  trial 
of  the  first  important  criminal  case  that  I  was  retained  to  defend. 
Just  about  this  time  a  SATidicate  of  cattle  dealers  resolved  to  make 
vigorous  prosecutions  in  all  cases  of  cattle  stealing.  It  seems  that 
the  dealers  had  lost  quite  a  number  of  cattle  from  their  droves, 
which  were  slaughtered  and  sold  by  small  Imtchers  in  the  several 
counties    adjoining    Sacramento,    and    including    Sacramento    cmmty. 


For  this  purpose  Hou.  N.  Greene  Courtis  was  retained  as  special 
counsel  for  the  prosecutions.  The  first  person  to  be  apprehended 
and  charged  with  this  offense  was  Henr)^  Lapley,  a  well-to-do  butcher 
of  Folsom.  Lapley  was  well  known  and  bore  a  good  reputation, 
and  the  accusation  was  a  surprise  to  his  friends.  Anyway  the  offi- 
cers discovered  the  hide  of  a  bovine  in  his  slaughter-house  which 
bore  the  brand  of  an  old  Irish  woman  by  the  name  of  Mary  Benin, 
whom  I  had  known  from  my  early  infancy,  she  being  our  nearest 
neighbor  when  I  was  a  very  small  boy.  The  circumstances  were 
very  strong  against  the  defendant.  Upon  his  arrest  Lapley  sent 
for  me  to  defend  him.  I  told  him  it  was  a  dangerous  case  and  that 
I  was  only  a  young  practitioner,  and  older  and  more  experienced 
counsel  should  be  retained.  Having  been  his  counsel  in  other  mat- 
ters, Lapley  insisted  that  he  could  trust  and  depend  upon  me.  Well, 
the  case  was  called  for  trial,  and  when  Hon.  Robert  Clark,  then 
judge,  saw  that  I  was  alone  in  the  case,  and  he  being  personally 
friendly  to  Henry  Lapley,  called  me  to  the  bench  and  whispered  to 
me  that  it  was  somewhat  risky  for  me  to  undertake  such  a  case. 
Just  then,  "Jim"  Coffroth  came  into  the  courtroom,  and,  noting 
the  situation,  called  me  aside  and  told  me  to  go  right  along  and  he 
would  find  means  to  prompt  me  in  the  details.  This  he  also  com- 
municated to  Judge  Clark.  Coffrotli  had  a  double  motive  in  this 
support,  one  to  aid  me,  as  a  young  attorney,  the  other  to  get  the  best 
of  N.  Greene  Curtis,  who  was  a  rival  in  the  criminal  practice. 
"Now,"  says  Coffroth  to  me,  "you  make  all  manner  of  objections 
to  Curtis'  questions  to  witnesses,  no  matter  whether  there  is  any 
merit  or  not,  and  at  each  objection  arise  and  argue  some  points  of 
your  defense — do  this  until  you  get  all  your  salient  points  before 
the  jury."  I  followed  instructions,  and  although  Judge  Curtis  in- 
sisted upon  his  olijections,  Judge  Clark  permitted  my  line  of  action. 
Then  Mr.  Coffroth  again  prompted  me  to  manage  by  some  in- 
direct question  to  arouse  the  ire  of  the  prosecuting  witness,  whom 
I  have  said  was  a  quaint  old  Irish  woman.  This,  in  order  to  get  her 
to  say  something  to  divert  the  attention  of  the  jury  from  the  main 
facts  and  create  some  humor.  In  this  I  succeeded  admirably  and 
she  answered  the  very  first  question  I  asked  her,  "It's  the  loikes 
of  a  spal]ieen  like  yez,  to  ask  me  name,  when  I  nursed  ye  as  a  baby, 
gwan  wid  ye."  Her  cross-examination  was  a  repetition  of  sharp 
retorts,  which  edified  the  jury  and  served  our  purpose  to  the  letter. 
The  trial  was  finally  closed,  and  still  Mr.  Coffroth  sat  beside  me. 
The  district  attorney  made  the  opening  argument,  leaving  Judge 
Curtis  to  flay  me  alive  in  the  closing  argument.  xVfter  the  district 
attorney  concluded,  Mr.  Coffroth  whispered  to  me,  "Now  submit 
your  case;  rememl)er,  you  made  your  argument  on  objections  during 
the  trial."  At  this  I  announced  that  I  had  no  ar-;unient  to  make 
and  submitted  the  case. 


Judge  Curtis  arose  to  address  tlie  jury,  but  was  stopped  by 
Judge  Clark,  who  remarked,  "There  is  nothing  to  reply  to.  Judge 
Curtis;  Mr.  Anderson  has  submitted  the  case  without  formal  argu 
ment."  Judge  Curtis  was  furious,  and  turned  to  Coffroth,  sajdng, 
"Jim  CoflProth,  this  is  one  of  your  sharp  tricks."  The  jury,  in 
about  five  minutes,  returned  a  verdict  of  not  guilty,  and  I,  through 
the  kindly  offices  of  James  AV.  Coffroth,  secured  my  first  grent  vic- 
tory in  the  criminal  practice. 

The  life  of  James  W.  Coffroth  was  full  of  such  noble  and  gen- 
erous acts  towards  young  attorneys.  He  was  a  most  accomplished 
and  skilled  criminal  lawyer,  and  defended  more  murder  cases  on 
the  coast  to  a  successful  termination,  than  any  other  attorney  in 
the  state.  He  was  also  of  a  poetic  nature  and  often  in  his  leisure 
liours  would  let  his  poetic  fancy  take  shape. 

About  a  year  prior  to  the  death  of  James  AV.  Coifroth,  he  was 
retained  by  the  wealthy  relatives  of  a  man  accused  of  stage  rob- 
bery at  Ukiah,  Mendocino  county.  The  retainer  was  $1000,  and  an 
additional  five  hundred  on  acquittal.  After  a  protracted  trial  he 
succeeded  in  obtaining  a  verdict  of  not  guilty.  Upon  the  discharge 
of  the  defendant,  CoiTroth  was  paid  the  remainder  of  his  fee  and  that 
same  evening  started  for  home  in  a  buggy,  accompanied  by  a  driver. 
AVhen  they  had  proceeded  a  few  miles,  and  at  a  lonely  point,  they 
were  halted  by  a  highwayman,  who  demanded  their  money.  "Jim" 
did  not  like  the  idea  of  giving  up  his  fee,  and  said  t9  the  rol)ber, 
"AVhy,  my  man,  all  the  inoney  I  have  is  what  I  received  from  clear- 
ing one  of  your  kind."  AVith  that  the  robber  took  down  his  mask 
and  said,  "Hello,  Jim.  is  that  you?  It  is  dark  and  I  did  not  know 
you.  H — 1,  I  don't  want  your  money,  I  was  waiting  for  another 
party."  It  was  the  same  man  he  had  just  acquitted,  and  he  told 
"Jim"  to  drive  on  quick  as  he  expected  the  other  party  soon. 

The  life  of  James  AV.  Coffroth  was  one  of  eventful  incidents, 
which,  recounted,  would  make  a  volume.  He  had  an  ambition  to  sit 
in  the  halls  of  congress ;  but,  like  another  great  man  and  orator, 
Henry  Edgerton,  Pate  was  against  him,  and  with  all  his  ability  and 
popularity  he  could  never  reach  the  goal. 

JOHN    H.    MC  KUNE 

"Kings  have  their  dynasties,  but  not  the  mind; 
Cffisars  leave  other  Caesars  to   succeed; 
But  wisdom  dying,  leaves  no  heir  behind." 
Men,  nations,  emj^ires,  pass  like   shadows   of  night   that   vanish 
with  the  dawn,  scarce  missed  as  through  all  ages  the  world  goes  rolling 
on.     It  was,  indeed  a  wise  man  who  admonished  us  to  work  as  if 
we  were  to  live  forever,  and  to  live  as  if  we  were  to  die  tomorrow. 
Seneca  said:    "The  sliortness  of  life  is  the  coiiii)laint  of  botli  fools 
and  philosophers." 


Judge  John  H.  McKuue  was  one  of  the  potent  factors  in  con- 
structing the  hiws  and  ethics  of  the  Golden  State — a  part  of  the 
history  of  this  state,  and  without  whom  the  chronicles  of  California 
would  be  incomplete.  Yes,  we  can  pay  respect  in  memory  to  him  to 
whom  we  can  show  no  other  gratitude.  Judge  McKune  was  a  phil- 
osopher, and  a  firm  believer  in  the  immortality  of  the  soul.  He 
believed  that  no  man  was  ever  truly  great  unless  he  had  rendered 
some  service  to  his  fellowman — something  more  than  individual 
selfishness.  AVhile  life  may  be  little  less  than  an  inconstant  dream, 
it  devolves  on  the  true  man  to  do  some  good  on  earth.  His  life 
was-  one  of  constant  labor  and  activity — ever  doing  something  for 
his  fellowmen.  The  world  soon  forgets  the  honor  and  fame  of  her 
truly  great  men.  There  are  no  Plutarchs,  Homers  or  Virgils  in 
these  days,  to  record  their  deeds  and  sing  their  praise.  Thus  the 
memory  of  myriads  of  great  men  has  been  lost.  A  lawyer  may 
liave  a  brilliant  career,  may  be  heralded  for  his  eloquence  and  his 
learning;  may  have  acquired  great  wealth  (although  the  attributes 
of  a  great  lawyer  is  one  who  works  hard,  lives  well,  and  dies  poor), 
hut  when  he  passes  to  the  dark  unknown,  there  is  an  end  of  him — 
he  lias  done  nothing  to  make  his  fame  remembered  beyond  a  few  days. 

"What  is  Fame?    A  fancied  life  in  others'  breath, 
A  thing  beyond  us,  e'en  before  our  death." 
Judge  McKune  belonged  to  the  old   school  of  chivalrous  attor- 
neys ;  a  race  rapidly  becoming  extinct.     The  days  of  chivalrous  law- 
yers, those  who  placed  honor  above  all  price,  who  bent  their  ener- 
gies for  the  honor  and  glory  of  the  profession,  instead  of  the  o'er- 
leaping  struggle  for  the  demon  gold,  are  but  a  memory. 
'Twas  Anacreon  who  said: 

"The  light  of  gold  can  ne'er  illume 
The  gloomy  midnight  of  the  tomb." 

(A  little  digression  from  my  thesis  will  not  be  out  of  place  to 
rap  the  modern  lawyers.) 

The  honored  profession  of  the  law  is  so  rapidly  merging  into 
a  plain,  selfish  commercialism,  a  matter  of  business,  and  the  great 
majority  of  the  profession  seek  only  the  glittering  sheen  of  gold. 
Thus  the  dignity  and  independence  of  the  learned  and  honorable 
lawyer  is  sunk  in  the  business  and  commercialism  of  the  wealthy 
litigants,  and  it  is  only  on  rare  occasions  that  the  truly  great  lawyer 
leaps  o'er  the  golden  chasm  and  stands  for  the  nobility  of  the  pro- 
fession. The  wealthy  seek  only  such  lawyers  as  will  serve  them — 
the  question  of  honor  or  honesty  is  not  considered.  "My  attorney 
irmst  serve  me — it  is  a  matter  of  business;  no  sentiment  of  right 
enters  this  contract,"  says  the  powerful  corporation.  The  honor- 
able code  of  legal  ethics  is  abjured,  and  the  able  lawyers  are  drawn 


into  the  vortex  of  the  vast  coninierical  and  corporation  interests  of 
the  nation,  whether  right  or  wrong — there  is  no  sentiment  allowed. 

May  the  time  be  again  at  hand  when  the  old-time  chivalry  of 
the  bar  shall  be  restored,  and  the  examples  of  such  men  as  John  H. 
McKune  emulated.  Then  we  would  have  more  independent  lawyers 
— more  independent  and  learned  judges.  Let  all  attorneys  bear  in 
mind  that  the  rich  can  only  decay  on  the  shrine  of  gold.  Judge 
McKune  was  not  an  orator,  but  was  endowed  with  a  clear,  logical 
mind,  and  could  impress  his  auditors  by  his  force  and  earnestness. 
No  detail  of  the  facts  or  the  law  was  too  minute  for  his  study  and 
analysis.  In  addition  to  his  mental  superiority,  he  was  possessed 
of  a  great  physical  courage — always  cool,  deliberate,  and  calculating 
amid  the  greatest  danger.  Personal  fear  was  not  an  ingTedient  of 
Judge  McKune 's  com]iosition.  Though  of  slight  stature,  he  feared 
no  man. 

In  1852,  on  account  of  his  positive  and  independent  nature,  he 
incurred  the  enmity  and  hatred  of  certain  elements  of  this  com- 
munity, and  one  man,  George  Wilson  by  name,  stabbed  Judge  Mc- 
Kune through  the  lungs  with  the  blade  of  a  sword  cane.  At  the  time 
the  wound  was  deemed  fatal  and  while  the  judge  could  have  slain 
his  assailant  he  spared  him  on  account  of  his  wife  and  family.  Many 
instances  of  his  personal  courage  could  be  recounted,  and  of  events 
of  the  early  and  troublous  times  in  the  early  '50s,  and  even  later. 

When  Judge  McKune  first  came  to  Sacramento  in  1850  he 
erected  a  little  cabin  on  the  southwest  corner  of  Fifth  and  K  streets, 
which  constituted  his  office  and  residence,  and  where  he  boiled  his 
coffee  and  fried  his  bacon  in  a  primitive  manner  outside,  there  being 
no  room  in  the  interior  for  his  culinary  offices.  For  a  number  of 
mouths  he  and  N.  Greene  Curtis,  another  noted  man,  occupied  this 
one-room  castle  jointly  for  an  office  and  residence. 

At  the  permanent  organization  of  the  city  of  Sacramento  in 
1850,  Judge  McKune  was  elected  the  first  city  and  county  attorney. 
It  was  during  some  of  his  vigorous  prosecutions  that  he  incurred 
the  bitter  enmities  and  animosities  that  often  engendered  personal 
encounters,  the  great  majorities,  however,  were  always  mth  him.  He 
was  always  the  friend  of  the  early  settler  and  opposed  the  whole- 
sale encroachments  of  fraudulent  Mexican  land  grants,  which  cursed 
the  country.  His  firm  attitude  in  this  matter  prompted  the  presi- 
dent of  the  United  States,  Franklin  Pierce,  in  1854,  to  appoint  him 
United  States  land  commissioner,  to  investigate  all  the  Mexican 
land  claims.  During  his  incumbency  as  land  commissioner  he  made 
some  valuable  suggestions  to  the  Washington  authorities  which  were 
never  heeded  and  which  resulted  in  some  fraudulent  land  grants 
being  imposed   upon   the   early   settlers    and   pre-emption    claimants. 

About  1855  Judge  McKune  formed  a  copartnership  in  the  prac- 
tice of  law  witli  F.  B.  Crocker,  later  of  Central  Pacific  railroad  fame. 


in  connection  with  Cliarles  Crocker,  Leland  Stanford,  Mark  Hop- 
kins and  C.  P.  Ilnntington.  In  1857  Judge  McKune  was  a  member 
of  the  state  legiskiture,  with  Hon.  A.  P.  Catlin  and  Hon.  R.  C. 
Clark  in  the  senate. 

He  was,  in  1858,  elected  district  judge  for  the  sixth  judicial 
district,  comprising  Sacramento  and  Yolo  counties,  which  office  he  held 
until  December,  1869.  During  the  latter  part  of  his  judicial  term  he 
incurred  the  enmity  of  the  management  of  the  Central  Pacific  Rail- 
road Company,  who  defeated  him  for  renomination.  Grovernor  New- 
ton Booth  in  1871  appointed  Judge  McKune  one  of  the  code  com- 
missioners, to  revise  and  codify  the  laws  of  this  state.  The  other 
members  of  the  commission  were  Hon.  Creed  Haymond  and  Hon. 
John  C.  Burch.  The  work  of  the  commissioners  bears  the  mark  of 
Judge  McKune 's  legal  ability  and  genius,  and  will  remain  a  monu- 
ment to  his  superior  legal  attainments. 

Judge  McKune  was  not  only  learned  in  what  lawyers  call  "black- 
letter  law,"  but  his  literary  tastes  were  of  the  highest  order.  He 
admired  Rabelais  for  his  splendid  philosophy,  and  Rousseau  for 
the  reason  that  the  critics  were  always  against  him  and  the  masses 
with  him.  Macaulay's  grand  style  and  masterly  force  and  eloquence 
held  a  high  place  in  his  mind.  Goethe,  the  great  Grerman  poet,  was 
one  of  his  favorites,  as  was  also  Dante,  the  famous  Florentine  poet. 
He  was  an  extensive  reader  and  student,  even  x;p  to  his  last  days  on 
earth.  Several  years  before  his  death  he  commenced  a  history  of 
Sacramento  from  the  earliest  days.  After  writing  about  twenty  chap- 
ters they  were  iniblished  in  "Themis,"  a  literary  journal  edited  by 
the  late  Win  J.  Davis  and  myself.  The  suspension  of  "Themis,"  in 
1895,  ended  the  continuation  of  the  history  of  Sacramento.  In  fact, 
the  impress  of  his  mind  and  genius  can  be  found  in  all  the  early  his- 
tory- of  the  county  and  state — judicially,  as  a  lawyer,  and  as  a  citizen. 

Judge  McKune  belonged  to  that  class  of  men  who  believed  that 
a  kind  heart,  charitable  brain,  honesty,  simplicity  and  truth  are  the 
essentials  of  genuine  culture.  Among  his  intimate  friends  he  did  not 
hesitate  to  discuss  the  approach  of  Nature's  final  call,  and  was  firm 
in  his  belief  that  the  present  life  is  not  the  end — that  all  nature, 
all  the  traditions  and  history  of  the  human  race  disclosed  that  there 
is  something  beyond  this  life  whicli  only  the  dissolution  of  the  earthly 
frame  would  solve. 

Only  a  few  men  of  the  type  of  Jolm  II.  McKune  now  remain. 


It  is  an  attribute  of  refined  nature  to  talk  about  those  persons 
and  events  that  have  given  us  pleasure,  and  the  personal  recollections 
of  Newton  Booth  are  a  source  of  such  pleasure.  There  is  an  instinct 
which  prompts  human  nature  to  rebel  against  oblivion.  Unless  mem- 
ory is  invoked  through  the  press  the  world  soon  forgets  the  most 


spacious  and  conspicuous  fame.  In  the  person  of  Newton  Booth 
were  combined  most  remarkable  qualities.  There  was  dignity  in  ev- 
erything he  said  and  wrote.  He  was  a  scholar,  writer,  orator,  phil- 
osopher, statesman  and  withal  a  most  successful  merchant.  His 
orations,  lectures  and  addresses  will  at  all  times  have  a  place  with 
the  best  and  most  polished  of  the  nation.  He  was  possessed  of  the 
attribute  that  endeared  him  to  his  fellow  men.  When  such  men  pass 
away  we  are  prone  to  hear  and  learn  all  we  can  about  them. 

In  addition  to  Newton  Booth's  brilliant  public  career,  I  now 
recall  many  incidents  of  his  social  life  and  the  distinguished  per- 
sons entertained  by  him  at  his  commodious  rooms  over  the  store  of 
"Booth  &  Co.,"  on  Front  street,  in  this  city.  That  classic  pre- 
cinct has  been  the  scene  of  many  great  social  events  wherein  states- 
men, orators,  actors,  artists  and  authors  have  been  his  guests. 

For  more  than  a  tliird  of  a  century  no  great  statesman,  orator 
or  actor  visited  this  city  who  did  not  become  the  welcome  guest  and 
was  entertained  by  that  knightly  and  courteous  gentleman.  The  most 
brilliant  epoch  was,  however,  during  his  administration  as  governor 
of  this  state.  Brilliant  receptions  were  the  order,  and  all  who  en- 
tered his  sjilendid  home,  poor  and  rich  alike,  stood  upon  a  level, 
brains  and  numly  worth  being  the  only  tickets  of  admission. 

Long  before  the  completion  of  the  Central  Pacific  railroad,  when 
that  greatest  of  .iournalists,  Horace  Greely,  made  his  stagecoach  trip 
across  the  continent  and  was  landed  by  Hank  Monk  at  the  depot  of 
the  Sacramento  Valley  railroad  at  Folsom,  upon  his  arrival  at  this 
city  he  became  the  guest  of  Newton  Booth. 

That  great  orator  and  divine,  Thomas  Starr  King,  famous  for 
his  clarion  notes  at  the  outset  of  the  Civil  War,  in  behalf  of  the 
Union,  was  often  the  guest  of  Newton  Booth. 

Newton  Booth  was  a  native  of  Indiana,  and  when  the  great  war 
governor  of  that  state,  Oliver  P.  Morton,  ^'isited  California,  he  made 
his  home  his  residence,  where  he  met  some  of  the  most  distinguished 
men  of  the  state. 

Gen.  W.  T.  Sherman,  ujion  his  tour  over  the  country  was  the  guest 
of  Newton  Booth,  and  was  accompanied  by  him  to  witness  a  noted 
play  at  the  Metropolitan  theater,  where  upon  their  entrance  a  grand 
ovation  was  given  them  l)y  the  large  audience. 

General  Grant,  upon  his  tour  around  the  world,  when  he  arrived 
at  Sacramento,  spent  a  few  hours  with  our  distinguished  fellow- 

President  Hayes  and  President  Harrison,  upon  their  visits,  re- 
si)ectively  partook  of  his  hosjiitality.  When  Lord  Russell,  chief  jus- 
tice of  the  Queen's  Bench  of  England,  came  to  this  state,  he  did  not 
depart  without  paying  his  respects  to  this  prince  of  entertainers. 

Newton  Booth  was  an  enthusiastic  devotee  of  the  drama.  Every 
distinguished  actor  or  actress  received  his  cordial  hospitality.     Edwin 


Booth,  before  he  became  famous,  as  well  as  afterward,  was  a  personal 
friend  of  Newton  Booth.  About  the  last  time  Edwin  Booth  appeared 
in  this  city,  a  ])riyate  dinner  was  tendered  him  by  Newton  Booth, 
and  at  the  board  there  were  seated  the  host.  Creed  Raymond,  Henry 
Edgerton,  Samuel  Seabough,  Paul  Morrill,  Edwin  Booth,  the  guest 
of  honor,  and  nivself.  Some  one  of  the  party  suggested  that  Edwin 
Booth  read  the  Lord's  Prayer.  I  shall  remember  the  emotion  as  long 
as  life  lasts.  Never  did  I  hear  the  Lord's  Prayer  read  before,  and 
never  after,  as  it  was  then  read.     It  was  almost  a  divine  inspiration. 

John  McCuUough  was  his  frequent  giiest.  During  the  engage- 
ment of  John  McCullough  and  Alice  Kingsbury  at  the  old  Metro- 
politan theater,  they  were  entertained  at  his  home. 

When  Katherine  Rogers,  a  noted  actress,  held  the  boards  in  this 
eit}',  she  received  a  royal  welcome  at  the  governor's  home. 

Old  Joe  Proctor,  Walter  Leman  and  Mrs.  Judali  were  also  the 
recipients  of  his  hospitality. 

Governor  Booth's  administration  was  noted  for  its  many  elab- 
orate and  brilliant  receptions.  The  Old  Bohemian  Cluli,  which  also 
included  the  Sacramento  Dramatic  Association,  of  which  the  governor 
was  a  member,  was  specially  favored  with  a  number  of  splendid  re- 
ceptions and  entertainments.  At  these  fetes  the  members  of  the 
club,  which  was  composed  of  many  brilliant  and  scholarly  men  and 
women,  would  reciprocate,  giving  original  productions  of  the  brain 
in  literature,  art,  nnisic  and  the  drama.  On  one  occasion  the  club 
resolved  to  procure  the  famous  Russian  drama,  "The  Serf,"  and 
Governor  Booth  was  assigned  the  title  role.  Albert  Hart,  the  noble- 
hearted,  generous,  witty  Albert  Hart,  was  the  manager.  A  rehearsal 
was  called,  and  while  the  "star"  had  his  lines  dead  letter  perfect, 
he  did  not  have  the  slightest  conception  of  the  art  of  acting,  and 
after  a  few  attempts  led  Albert  Hart  to  exclaim:  "Ye  gods,  could 
anything  be  worse!"  "Well,"  said  Hart,  "you  are  a  great  orator. 
bi;t  I'm  d — d  if  ever  I  saw  such  poor  acting."  This  was  his  first 
and  last  attempt  at  the  histrionic  art.  While  Newton  Booth  was 
sedate  and  dignified  in  his  manner,  he  was  a  superb  conversationalist, 
and  social  and  democratic  to  his  fellowmen.  There  was  a  vein 
of  unctuous  humor  in  him,  also  sparkling  and  incisive  wit — a  wit 
that  did  not  leave  any  scars. 

xVs  an  illustration  of  his  dry  humor,  while  he  was  United  States 
Senator  he  visited  his  native  state,  Indiana,  and  was  entertained  by 
the  distinguished  men  of  that  state.  During  one  of  these  e^•ents  some 
of  his  hosts,  in  a  humorous  way.  alluded  to  the  great  productions 
of  California,  particularly  the  large  strawberries,  and  remarked  that 
as  Senator  Booth  was  a  truthful  man,  any  information  coming 
from  him  could  be  relied  upon.  "Now,"  said  one  of  his  hosts,  "Sen- 
ator, how  about  your  big  strawberries?"  "Well,"  said  the  Senator, 
"since  you  have  paid  me  such  a  pretty  compliment  for  veracity,  I 


will  say  that  we  do  raise  some  verj-  large  strawberries,  and  tbey 
come  at  about  ten  cents  a  pound,  but  they  are  somewbat  less  if  you 
bu5'  a  wbole  one." 

It  was  my  good  fortune  to  be  a  close  and  intimate  friend  of  Gov- 
ernor Bootb  and  often  was  bis  guest  for  a  social  as  well  as  literary 
converse.  His  library  was  his  borne  within  which  was  an  atmosphere 
of  the  classics,  a  treasure-bouse  of  literature.  Many  evenings  I  spent 
listening  to  him  converse  on  deep  sul),iects,  as  well  as  spurts  of  wit  and 
humor — interspersed  with  an  occasional  mint  julep,  compounded  as  a 
"nectar  fit  for  the  gods."  It  was  a  custom  of  the  tirm  of  "Bootb  & 
Co."  each  Christmas  to  load  up  wagons  with  groceries  and  distribute 
the  same  to  poor  families.  His  partner,  "Cy"  Wheeler — grand,  large- 
souled  old  "Cy" — attended  to  the  proper  distribution,  and  never  al- 
lowed any  publicity  regarding  who  were  the  donors. 

Newton  Bootb  was  always  the  foe  of  tyranny  of  great  corpora- 
tions and  the  unjust  interference  of  aggregated  wealth  in  public  af- 
fairs. On  one  occasion  his  former  friend,  also  a  brilliant  orator,  John 
A.  Felton,  charged  him  with  being  an  "alarmist."  This  accusation 
brought  forth  a  caustic  reply  filled  with  powerful  invective  and  irony, 
which  remains  a  masterpiece  in  its  line.  To  show  that  Booth  was 
more  of  a  projibet  than  an  alarmist,  I  quote  from  one  of  his  speeches : 

"Would  you  behold  the  saddest  spectacle  of  the  age?  See  it  in 
the  strong  man  seeking  in  vain  for  a  place  to  earn  bis  daily  bread 
by  daily  toil. 

' '  Would  you  disco\-er  the  danger  that  threatens  social  order  ?  Find 
it  in  the  boys  of  our  cities  growing  up  in  voluntary  or  enforced  idle- 
ness, to  graduate  into  prisoners  or  outlaws. 

"Whoever  will  look  open-eyed  into  the  future  will  see  that  the 
'labor  question';  the  question  of  directing  the  rising  generation  into 
the  channels  of  useful  emplo^Tiient;  the  question  of  the  equitable  dis- 
tribution of  the  burdens  and  reward  of  labor,  so  that  the  drones  shall 
not  live  ujion  the  workers,  and  honest  industry  may  be  certain  of  its 
reward;  the  question  of  making  labor  able — not  only  honorable  but 
honored,  is  the  social  problem  more  important  than  political  questions 
to  which  our  age  shall  address  itself.  It  must  be  intelligently  solved, 
or,  like  the  blind  Samson,  it  will  bring  the  temple  down  upon  our 
heads. ' ' 

Newton  Booth  was  at  all  times  patriotic,  and  took  an  active  part 
in  politics.  He  was  one  of  the  first  to  raise  his  voice  and  devote  his 
abilities  for  the  Union  against  rebellion.  In  later  years  he  often  took 
an  active  part  in  the  local  primaries.  I  remember  on  one  occasion 
many  years  ago,  he  beaded  a  primary  ticket  in  the  first  ward,  com- 
posed of  such  men  as  T.  B.  McFarland,  John  H.  McKuue.  E.  B.  Moll, 
George  W.  Cbesley,  W.  A.  Anderson,  Jacob  Bauer,  C.  K.  Dougherty. 

The  first  ward  was  then  the  leading  ward  in  the  city,  and  Frank 
Rlioads  bad  only  developed  into  a  ward  leader.     Frank  did  not  like 


the  personnel  of  the  above  ticket,  and  made  up  one  of  his  own,  com- 
posed mostly  of  Confidence  Engine  Company  No.  1  firemen.  During 
the  progress  of  the  election  it  became  evident  that  the  "boys'  "  ticket 
was  defeated,  and  Rhoads,  just  before  the  closing  of  the  polls,  ordered 
a  sham  fight  for  the  purpose  of  getting  me  out  of  the  way,  I  having 
been  detailed  to  guard  the  ballot-box.  Anyway,  the  fight  began,  and 
before  I  could  realize  the  purport,  I  was  seized  and  thrown  bodily  out 
of  the  window,  sash  and  all.  While  this  was  going  on,  of  course  the 
work  of  adding  a  few  handfuls  of  tickets  to  the  hoys  changed  the 
result.  When  I  got  back  into  the  room,  full  of  fight  and  vengeance,  no 
one  seemed  to  be  in  any  fighting  mood  and  merely  laughed  at  me,  say- 
ing that  there  was  no  fight,  and  that  I  only  fell  out  of  the  window. 
Of  course  there  was  nothing  further  to  do  but  grin  and  bear  it.  Booth 
and  Ehoads  used  often  to  laugh  over  the  episode  and  the  result.  Per- 
haps the  saddest  part  is  the  fact  that  I  am  the  only  one  left  of  that 
historic  crowd  to  tell  the  story. 


By  the  late  Winfield  J.  Davis 

There  are  few  men  whose  lives  are  crowned  with  the  honor  and 
respect  which  is  universally  accorded  to  William  Alexander  Anderson, 
but  through  more  than  half  a  century's  connection  with  central  Cali- 
fornia's history  his  has  been  an  unblemished  character.  With  him 
success  in  life  has  been  reached  by  sterling  qualities  of  mind  and  a 
heart  true  to  every  manly  principle.  He  has  never  deviated  from  what 
his  judgment  indicated  to  be  right  and  honorable  between  his  fellow- 
men  and  himself.  He  has  never  swerved  from  the  path  of  duty,  and 
he  has  every  reason  to  enjoy  the  consciousness  of  having  gained  for 
himself  by  his  honorable,  straightforward  career  the  conlidence  and 
respect  of  the  entire  communit)^  in  which  he  lives.  He  has  attained 
a  foremost  position  at  the  bar,  and  as  a  writer  and  dramatic  critic  is 
also  well  known.  The  public  career  of  but  few  other  men  of  Sacra- 
mento has  extended  over  a  longer  period,  and  none  have  been  more 
faultless  in  honor,  fearless  in  conduct  and  stainless  in  reputation. 

Judge  Anderson  is  a  native  of  Wisconsin,  his  birth  having  oc- 
curred at  Mineral  Point,  in  that  state,  February  25,  1846.  He  was  a 
son  of  Hartford  and  Susan  Anderson,  who  became  pioneer  residents 
of  California,  settling  in  this  state  at  the  period  of  its  early  mining 
development.  His  paternal  grandfather  was  a  resident  of  Edinburgh, 
Scotland,  in  early  life,  and  his  wife  was  born  in  the  north  of  Ireland. 
Having  emigrated  to  America,  he  established  his  home  in  Pennsyl- 
vania, where  occurred  the  birth  of  his  son  Hartford.  The  mothei-  of 
our  subject,  Mrs.  Susan  (Atkins)  Anderson,  was  a  native  of  Kentucky. 
For  some  time  the  parents  of  the  Judge  resided  in  Wisconsin,  where 
the  father  worked  at  the  trade  of  carriage  and  wagon  making.  The 
business  opportunities  of  the  west,  however,  attracted  him,  and  hoping 


that  he  might  readily  obtain  a  fortune  in  the  mining  districts  of  Cali- 
fornia, he  made  his  way  across  the  plains,  accompanied  by  his  family. 
They  traveled  over  the  stretches  of  hot  sand,  through  the  mountain 
passes,  till  the  days  had  lengihened  into  weeks,  and  the  weeks  into 
months.  At  length  they  safely  reached  their  destination.  Mrs.  Ander- 
son, however,  did  not  long  survive  her  arrival  on  the  Pacific  coast,  her 
death  occurring  during  the  cholera  epidemic  of  1852.  Hartford  Ander- 
son, well  known  as  one  of  the  pioneer  residents  of  Sacramento,  con- 
tinued to  make  his  home  in  the  capital  city  until  his  demise,  which 
occurred  in  October,  1896.  He  took  an  active  and  interested  part  in 
the  early  development  of  this  portion  of  the  state,  and  his  sympathy 
and  support  were  always  given  to  the  measures  and  monuments  which 
contributed  to  the  latter-day  progress  and  improvement. 

Judge  Anderson  was  only  three  years  old  at  the  time  of  his 
parents'  removal  to  the  west.  He  began  his  education  in  the  public 
schools,  and  supplemented  his  early  mental  training  by  study  in  Santa 
Clara  college,  thus  completing  his  literary  course.  His  i^rofessional 
training  was  received  in  the  Benicia  Law  College.  His  earlier  studies, 
however,  were  directed  in  such  a  manner  as  to  prepare  him  for  the 
profession  of  civil  engineering,  but  at  a  later  date  he  determined  to 
pursue  the  study  of  the  law,  and  entered  the  institution  mentioned, 
completing  there  a  thorough  law  course,  after  which  he  was  graduated 
with  the  class  of  1865. 

Throughout  his  entire  business  career  Judge  Anderson  has  de 
voted  his  attention  to  the  law,  having  been  admitted  to  the  bar  of  Cali- 
fornia by  the  supreme  court  of  the  state  in  1866,  and  to  the  United 
States  circuit  court  in  1880.  Admitted  to  the  bar,  he  at  once  entered 
upon  practice,  and  from  the  beginning  has  been  unusualh"  prosperous 
in  every  respect.  The  success  he  has  attained  has  been  due  to  his  own 
efforts  and  merits.  The  possession  of  advantages  is  no  guarantee 
whatever  of  professional  advancement,  which  comes  not  of  itself,  nor 
can  it  be  secured  without  integrity,  ability  and  industry.  These  qual- 
ities he  possesses  to  an  eminent  degree,  and  he  is  faithful  to  every  in- 
terest committed  to  his  charge.  Throughout  his  whole  life,  whatever 
his  hand  has  found  to  do,  whether  in  his  profession  or  in  his  official 
duties,  or  in  any  other  sphere,  he  does  with  all  his  might  and  with  a 
deep  sense  of  conscientious  obligation.  As  a  law>'er,  he  is  sound, 
clear-minded  and  well  trained.  He  is  at  home  in  all  departments  of 
the  law,  from  the  minutiae  in  practice  to  the  greater  topics  involving 
the  consideration  of  the  ethics  and  the  ]ihilosophy  of  jurisprudence  and 
the  higher  concerns  of  ])ublic  policy.  His  success,  however,  affords 
the  best  evidence  of  his  capabilities  in  this  line.  He  is  a  strong  advo- 
cate with  the  jury,  and  concise  in  his  appeals  before  the  court.  Much 
of  the  success  which  has  attended  him  in  his  professional  career  is 
undoubtedly  due  to  the  fact  that  in  no  instance  will  he  permit  himself 
to  go  into  court  with  a  case  unless  he  has  absolute  confidence  in  the 


justice  of  his  client's  cause.  Basing  his  efforts  ou  this  principle,  from 
which  there  are  far  too  many  lapses  in  professional  ranks,  it  naturally 
follows  that  he  seldom  loses  a  case  in  whose  support  he  is  enlisted. 

Judge  Anderson  was  first  chosen  to  public  office  before  he  had 
attained  his  majority,  being  elected  county  auditor  in  1866.  His  next 
public  service  was  that  of  assistant  adjutant-general  in  the  Fourth 
Brigade  of  the  California  National  Guard,  from  1868  to  1879.  In  the 
meantime  he  was  elected  city  attorney  in  1875,  and  was  continued  in 
that  ol'iice  until  1886.  In  1893  legislative  honors  were  conferred  upon 
him,  he  being  chosen  to  represent  the  eighteenth  district  of  California 
in  the  assembly,  where  he  gave  careful  consideration  to  every  question 
that  came  up  for  settlement,  and  espoused  with  ardor  or  opposed  with 
equal  earnestness  the  course  which  he  believed  would  prove  of  benefit 
to  the  commonwealth  or  check  its  best  interests.  His  service  in  the 
house  won  him  the  commendation  of  his  constituents  and  the  respect 
of  his  political  opponents.  In  1898  he  was  chosen  police  judge  of 
Sacramento,  and  his  decisions  were  characterized  by  the  strictest  im- 
partiality and  equity.  He  was  serving  an  unexpired  term  as  city 
justice  when  the  new  charter  went  into  effect. 

Judge  Anderson  has  always  given  his  political  allegiance  to  the 
Republican  party,  and  having  made  a  close  and  earnest  study  of  the 
issues  and  questions  of  the  day,  he  has  become  more  strongly  con- 
firmed in  his  opinion  that  the  party  platform  contains  the  best  ele- 
ments of  good  government.  His  campaign  work  has  been  effective 
and  far-reaching,  for  he  has  visited  various  portions  of  California, 
advocating  the  doctrines  of  Republicanism,  and  expounding  the  basic 
elements  on  which  the  political  organization  rests.  He  was  one  of 
the  first  champions  of  Major  McKinley  in  California,  and  became  a 
member  of  the  executive  committee  during  that  campaign.  He  has 
been  a  delegate  to  nearly  every  Republican  county  and  state  conven- 
tion for  nearly  thirty  years,  and  his  opinions  carry  weight  in  the 
counsels  of  his  party.  In  1898  he  was  a  delegate  to  the  National 
Republican  League  convention,  held  in  Omaha. 

Judge  Anderson  has  been  twice  married,  and  by  the  first  union 
had  one  son,  Osmer  "W.  Anderson,  who  was  born  August  22,  1871,  and 
who  was  for  two  years  a  volunteer  soldier  in  the  Philippines.  On  the 
8th  of  September.  1880,  Judge  Anderson  married  Miss  Mary  Cadwell. 
Their 's  is  an  attractive  home,  the  center  of  many  an  entertaining 
social  fimction,  and  hospitality  which  is  both  gracious  and  generous 
is  the  pervading  atmosphere  of  the  household.  In  his  fraternal  rela- 
tions Judge  Anderson  is  an  Odd  Fellow.  He  was  reared  in  the 
Episcopal  faith,  but  is  a  man  of  broad  and  liberal  ^dews  in  religious 
matters,  and  is  a  communicant  of  no  church  organization  at  the 
present  time. 

A  man  of  scholarly  attainments  and  literary  tastes,  possessing 
broad  general,  as  well  as  classical,  information,  he  finds  considerable 


enjoyment  in  giving  his  time  to  literary  pursuits,  and  has  been  a  fre- 
quent contributor  to  the  daily  papers.  He  was  one  of  the  founders 
of  a  literary  journal  called  "Themis,"  which  was  noted  for  historical 
merit  and  for  its  clear-cut  and  literary  editorials.  He  is  the  author 
of  some  dramatic  works,  and  is  well  known  as  a  dramatic  critic  and 
lover  of  the  drama.  He  has  studied  from  the  art  standpoint  many  of 
the  most  celebrated  dramas  of  the  world,  and  has  had  a  personal 
accjuaiutance  with  most  of  the  great  dramatists  of  a  generation  ago, 
including  Edwin  Booth,  John  McCuUough,  Lawrence  Barrett  and  a 
number  of  the  actors  and  actresses.  His  writings  are  fluent  and  enter- 
taining, eloquent  and  versatile,  and  for  a  third  of  a  century  he  has 
been  known  to  the  public  as  a  lecturer  whose  addresses  have  created 
widespread  interest.  His  influence  upon  literary  and  aesthetic  culture 
of  the  state  has  been  most  potent,  and  at  the  same  time  he  has  given 
a  practical  support  to  the  measures  intended  to  advance  the  material 
interests  of  Sacramento.  As  a  man  and  a  citizen  he  is  honored  and 
respected  in  every  class  of  society.  While  undoubtedly  he  is  not  with- 
out that  honorable  ambition  which  is  so  powerful  and  useful  as  an 
incentive  to  activity  in  public  affairs,  he  regards  the  pursuits  of  pri- 
vate life  as  being  in  themselves  abundantly  worthy  of  his  best  efforts. 
His  is  a  character  that  subordinates  personal  ambition  to  public  good 
and  seeks  rather  the  benefit  of  others  than  the  aggrandizement  of  self. 
His  is  a  conspicuously  successful  career.  Endowed  by  nature  with 
high  intellectual  qualities,  to  which  are  added  the  discipline  and  em- 
bellishments of  culture,  his  is  a  most  attractive  personality.  Well 
versed  in  the  learning  of  his  profession,  with  a  deep  knowledge  of 
human  nature  and  of  the  springs  of  human  conduct,  with  great 
shrewdness  and  sagacity,  and  extraordinary  tact,  he  is  in  the  courts 
an  advocate  of  great  power  and  influence,  and  both  judges  and  juries 
hear  him  with  deep  interest. 



The  history  of  Masonry  in  the  state  of  California  is  so  inextric- 
ably interwoven  with  the  history  of  Masonry  in  Sacramento,  that  we 
may  be  pardoned  if  we  give  a  somewhat  extended  mention  of  its  in- 
ception. The  first  meeting  of  lodges  that  resulted  in  the  formation 
of  the  Most  Worshipful  Grand  Lodge  of  Free  and  Accepted  Masons 
of  the  State  of  California  took  place  in  the  city  of  Sacramento.  For 
the  early  history  of  Masonry  in  the  state  we  are  indebted  to  the  deep 
and  tireless  research  of  old  records  by  Edwin  A.  Sherman,  33°,  Vener- 
able Grand  Secretary  of  the  Masonic  Veteran  Association  of  the 
Pacific  Coast,  as  set  forth  in  his  "Fifty  Years  of  Masonry  in  Cali- 
fornia. ' ' 

Even   with   the   first   explorers   of   the   wilds   west   of  the   Rocky 


mountains,  came  Masons  as  trappers,  hunters  and  traders.  Few,  if 
any,  such  parties  did  not  embrace  within  their  ranks  at  least  one  or 
more  Masons,  fearless,  energetic  men,  who  carried  in  their  bosoms  the 
doctrines  and  secret  ceremonies  of  the  Mystic  Tie,  men  of  moral 
courage  as  well  as  physical,  of  stern  integrity  and  fidelity  to  their 
Masonic  obligations.  Many  a  tale  could  be  told  of  the  devotion  of 
these  daring  spirits  to  their  distressed  or  imperiled  brethren,  and  also 
to  their  comrades  not  bound  to  them  by  the  ties  of  Masonry. 

The  first  Masonic  missionary,  for  he  might  well  be  classed  as  a 
missionary,  who  came  to  California,  and  returned  to  Missouri  to  bring 
from  the  Grand  Lodge  of  that  state  the  first  charter  for  a  Masonic 
lodge,  was  Peter  Lassen.  Long  before  the  discovery  of  gold,  he  came 
here,  brave,  hardy  and  determined,  and  was  untiring  in  his  resolve 
to  foimd  a  Masonic  lodge  here,  while  the  country  was  still  under  the 
Mexican  rule.  Lassen  was  born  in  Copenhagen,  Denmark,  August  7, 
1800,  and  there  learned  his  trade  of  blacksmith.  At  twenty-nine  years 
of  age  he  crossed  the  ocean  to  Boston,  and  a  few  years  after  removed 
to  Missouri.  In  1839,  with  a  party  of  others,  he  came  to  Oregon,  and 
after  spending  the  winter  there,  sailed  in  an  English  ship  to  Fort 
Bodega,  then  occupied  by  the  Russians.  The  Mexican  comandante 
sent  a  party  of  soldiers  to  prevent  their  landing,  but  the  Russian 
governor  ordered  the  Mexican  soldiers  to  leave  or  be  shot  down,  and 
they  retired.  Lassen  and  his  comrades  were  stranded  and  unable  to 
get  away,  and  ajjpealed  to  the  American  consul  at  Monterey,  stating 
that  they  had  been  denied  passports  and  were  without  funds,  that  they 
wanted  to  proceed  to  the  settlements  or  to  obtain  a  pass  to  return  to 
their  own  country.  The  appeal  wound  up  with  the  characteristic  state- 
ment :  ' '  Should  we  receive  no  relief,  we  will  take  up  our  arms  and 
travel,  consider  ourselves  in  an  enemy's  country  and  defend  ourselves 
with  our  guns." 

After  remaining  at  Bodega  fifteen  days,  however,  they  managed 
to  reach  Yerba  Buena  and  later  Lassen  went  to  San  Jose,  bought  some 
land  in  1841  at  Santa  Cruz  and  set  up  a  sawmill.  In  184.3  John  Bid- 
well,  Lassen  and  James  Burheim  pursued  a  party  bound  for  Oregon  as 
far  as  Red  Bluff  and  recovered  some  stolen  animals.  Bidwell  made 
a  map  of  the  valley  and  named  the  streams,  and  on  his  return  Lassen 
applied  to  Governor  Micheltorena  for  a  grant  of  land,  based  on  Bid- 
well's  ma]).  He  received  it  and  selected  Deer  creek,  in  Tehama  county, 
proceeding  there  the  next  spring  and  making  the  first  settlement  noi'th 
of  Cordua  at  Marysville.  He  laid  out  a  town  which  he  named  Benton 
City,  where  he  proposed  to  start  a  Masonic  lodge.  He  laid  out  the 
Lassen  road  for  immigTants  and  named  Lassen  Peak.  This  was  before 
the  discovery  of  gold,  and  in  1847  he  went  back  to  Missouri  to  get  a 
charter  for  a  lodge,  several  other  Masons  having  joined  him  at  Benton 
City.  He  obtained  a  charter  for  Western  Star  Lodge  No.  98,  May  10, 
1848,  naming  Saschel  Woods,  master;  L.  E.  Stewart,  senior  warden, 


and  Lasseu,  junior  warden.  He  returned  with  the  charter  and  an  im- 
migrant train  of  twelve  wagons,  being  joined  at  Pitt  river  by  a  party 
of  Oregoniaus  who  had  heard  of  the  discovery  of  gold,  of  which  he  had 
not  heard  until  they  joined  him.  He  did  not  learn  that  a  Masonic 
lodge  had  been  instituted  at  Oregon  City,  September  11,  1848,  under 
authority  of  the  grand  lodge  of  Missouri,  or  that  Joseph  Hull,  the 
master,  and  several  other  Masons  of  that  lodge  were  with  the  Oregon 
train.  Neither  party  learned  till  long  afterwards  that  any  of  the 
others  were  Masons,  or  that  Lassen  had  a  charter  for  a  lodge.  He 
afterwards  went  to  Plumas  county,  and  in  1853  met  his  death  at  the 
hands  of  the  Piute  Indians.  His  body  was  recovered  by  citizens  and 
buried  at  Honey  lake  on  his  ranch,  and  a  stone  monument  erected  to 
his  memory,  while  the  county  of  Lassen  was  named  after  him. 

November  9,  1848,  Samuel  York  Atlee,  William  Van  Voorhies  and 
Bedney  F.  McDonald  received  a  charter  for  California  Lodge  No.  13, 
from  the  District  of  Columbia,  and  located  it  at  San  Francisco.  Con- 
necticut Lodge  No.  75  was  granted  a  charter  by  the  grand  lodge  of 
Connecticut,  January  31,  1849.  Pacific  Lodge,  U.  D.,  was  granted  a 
traveling  charter  by  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Louisiana,  June  5,  1849,  and 
located  at  Benicia,  subsequently  becoming  Benicia  Lodge.  The  same 
Grand  Lodge  also  granted  a  dispensation  to  Davy  Crockett  Lodge  at 
San  Francisco.  Illinois  granted  a  dispensation  to  a  traveling  lodge 
which  located  at  Marysville,  and  Wisconsin  granted  one  to  Lafayette 
Lodge  at  Nevada  City.  The  records  of  Western  Star  Lodge  were  de- 
stroyed by  fire,  so  that,  although  it  was  the  oldest  lodge  in  the  state, 
the  records  of  California  Lodge  No.  13  are  the  oldest  extant. 

Connecticut  Lodge  No.  75,  the  first  one  in  Sacramento,  is  now 
known  as  Tehama  Lodge  No.  3,  F.  and  A.  M.  Its  inception,  as  re- 
lated by  R.  H.  McDonald  and  Past  Grand  Master  John  A.  Tutt,  the 
only  Mason  living  who  assisted  in  the  organization  of  the  grand  lodge 
of  California,  we  find  some  interesting  data.  In  1849  Dr.  McDonald 
opened  an  office  on  K  street  near  Sixth,  and  a  friend  of  his,  who  was 
going  to  the  mines,  came  to  his  office  and  said:  "Doctor,  when  I  was 
coming  across  the  plains  and  along  the  Humboldt  valley  in  Nevada,  I 
saw  piled  up  on  the  sand  by  the  side  of  the  road,  a  lot  of  books,  and 
on  a  card  fastened  on  a  stick,  this  notice :  '  Help  yourself. '  There  were 
a  good  many  fine  Ijooks  in  the  heap,  and  among  them  this  large  red 
morocco-covered  Bible  with  gilt  edges.  As  I  could  not  pack  more  than 
one  book  along  with  me,  I  took  this  Bible,  and  brought  it  through.  As 
I  am  going  to  the  mines,  and  cannot  take  it  with  me,  and  as  you  are  a 
kind  of  religious  cuss,  I'll  give  it  to  you."    Dr.  McDonald  accepted  it. 

Shortly  after,  in  September,  1849,  several  written  notices  were 
found  posted  up  around  the  horse  market,  on  the  trees,  calling  a 
meeting  of  all  Master  Masons  in  good  standing,  to  meet  in  the  upper 
part  of  a  building  on  the  north  side  of  K  street.  When  the  meeting 
convened,  the  little  garret  was  packed  with  brethren  who  were  nearly 


all  strangers  to  one  another.    The  meeting  was  called  to  order  by  John 

A.  Tutt,  and  someone  made  a  motion  that  Dr.  R.  II.  McDonald  take 
the  chair.  Dr.  McDonald  was  surprised,  as  he  did  not  know  a  single 
person  present,  but  he  approached  the  box  that  was  used  as  a  chair, 
and  was  confronted  by  a  tall  stranger,  who  also  stepped  forward  to 
take  it.  It  was  an  amusing  scene,  as  they  stood  looking  each  other  in 
the  face.  "Are  you  Dr.  R.  H.  McDonald,  and  have  you  a  monopoly  of 
the  name  of  McDonald,"  asked  R.  li.  "I  am  Dr.  R.  H.  McDaniel," 
was  the  reply,  "but  am  known  as  Dr.  McDonald  through  a  mistake  in 
calling  my  name."  Mutual  explanations  followed,  and  as  the  stranger 
proved  to  be  the  one  nominated,  he  took  the  chair  and  opened  the 
meeting.  When  it  became  necessary  to  ascertain  who  were  Masons, 
it  was  discovered  that  there  was  no  Bible  present,  and  it  could  not  be 
dispensed  with.  "Wait  a  minute,  and  I  will  get  one,"  said  Dr.  Mc- 
Donald. He  went  out  and  brought  in  the  pioneer  Bible  which  his 
friend  had  given  him.  An  association  was  then  and  there  formed  for 
the  relief  of  the  sick  and  distressed  brethren  who  were  constantly 

Soon  afterwards  the  discovery  was  made  that  there  was  in  ex- 
istence a  charter  for  a  Masonic  Lodge  in  the  hands  of  one  of  the 
brethren,  issued  to  Connecticut  Lodge  No.  75.  Upon  this  the  associa- 
tion was  dissolved,  and  on  January  8,  1850,  it  organized  under  the 
name  of  Connecticut  Lodge  No.  75,  and  Dr.  R.  H.  McDonald  presented 
liis  Bible  to  the  lodge.  Today  it  belongs  to  Tehama  Lodge  No.  3, 
the  successor  of  Connecticut  Lodge.  The  lodge  secured  the  upper  part 
of  the  Red  House,  on  the  southeast  corner  of  Fifth  and  J  streets,  which 
was  the  building  best  suited  to  its  purposes,  at  that  time,  but  as  the 
owner  shortly  afterwards  rented  the  lower  story  for  immoral  pur- 
poses, the  lodge  removed  with  its  furniture  to  the  attic  over  the  old 
market  house  on  M  street  near  Second.  Previous  to  this,  however, 
the  Grand  Lodge  of  California  was  organized  in  the  building  first 
occupied,  on  April  19,  1850.  Tehama  Lodge  No.  3  was  chartered  by 
the  Grand  Loclge  of  California.  The  Bible  used  in  organizing  the 
Grand  Lodge  of  California  was  the  same  one  Dr.  McDonald  pre- 
sented  to   Connecticut  Lodge. 

The  deputy  grand  master  of  New  Jersey  issued  a  dispensation 
March  1,  1849,  to  open  a  lodge  in  the  territory  of  California,  which 
seems  to  have  been  a  sort  of  roving  commission,  with  power  for  the 
master  and  brethren  to  appoint  his  successors  in  office  until  the  next 
annual  meeting  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  New  Jersey.  It  seemed  to 
exist  continuously  and  to  assume  the  functions  and  pri^aleges  of  an 
independent  chartered  lodge.  The  dispensation  from  the  Grand  Lodge 
of  New  Jersey  authorized  Thomas  Youngs,  Moses  W.  Personett,  John 

B.  Clark  and  others  to  open  the  lodge,  and  named  Youngs  as  master. 
He  conveyed  authority  to  John  E.  Crockett  and  certified  that  fact  on 
the  back  of  the  dispensation.     Crockett,  so  authorized,  opened  New 


Jersey  Lodge  in  this  city  December  4,  1849,  and  it  was  in  active  and 
successful  oi^eration  by  April  17,  1850,  and  chose  its  representatives 
to  the  convention  of  that  date.  The  delegates,  however,  could  take  no 
part  in  the  organization  of  the  Grand  Lodge,  not  being  an  independent 
chartered  lodge,  but  only  a  temporary  creation  of  the  Deputy  Grand 
Master  of  New  Jersey.  Immediately  after  the  organization  of  the 
Grand  Lodg-e  of  California,  this  lodge  applied  and  received  a  charter 
as  Berryman  Lodge  No.  3,  which  was  changed  shortly  afterwards  to 
Jennings  Lodge  No.  4. 

There  are  very  few  who  are  aware  that  there  were  two  Grand 
Lodges  of  California  instituted  for  the  government  of  the  order,  but 
such  was  the  fact.  The  records  of  the  first  Grand  Lodge  were  un- 
doubtedly destroyed.  There  was  no  opportimity  to  examine  the 
records  of  Connecticut  Lodge  and  Western  Star  Lodge,  which  were 
destroyed  by  fire,  nor  of  New  Jersey  Lodge,  U.  D.,  which  is  extinct, 
nor  of  Benicia  Lodge,  U.  D.,  of  Benicia,  which  presented  no  records 
to  the  convention.  California  Lodge  No.  13,  of  San  Francisco,  was  a 
regularly  chartered  lodge,  but  it  was  not  notified  of  the  action  con- 
templated for  the  organization  of  a  Grand  Lodge,  and  as  the  Masonic 
law  and  custom  provides  that  there  must  be  present  representatives 
from  three  regularly  chartered  lodges,  the  organization  of  the  first 
Grand  Lodge  was  irregular  and  illegal. 

California  Lodge  No.  13,  being  notified  of  the  action  organizing 
a  Grand  Lodge  at  Sacramento,  appointed  a  committee  to  investigate, 
and  finding  the  state  of  affairs,  notified  the  Sacramento  brethren  of 
the  irregularity  of  their  action,  suggesting  that  the  matter  be  begun 
over  again.  The  brethren  at  Sacramento,  finding  their  error,  aban- 
doned voluntarily  their  Grand  Lodge,  the  officers  of  which  are  un- 
known, and  joined  with  California  Lodge  for  the  formation  of  a  legally 
constituted  Grand  Lodge.  Notices  were  sent  oiit  to  the  regular  lodges 
of  A.  Y.  Masons  of  the  state,  for  a  convention  to  be  held  at  Sacra- 
mento April  17,  1850,  for  the  formation  of  a  Grand  Lodge. 

The  convention  met  on  the  17th  in  this  city,  and  Most  Worshipful 
Charles  Gilman  of  San  Francisco,  Past  Grand  Master  of  Maryland, 
was  called  to  the  chair,  and  Benjamin  D.  Hyam  of  Benicia,  after- 
wards Grand  Master  of  California,  was  chosen  secretary.  Representa- 
tives of  the  following  lodges  presented  their  credentials  to  W.  N. 
Doughty  and  John  A.  Tutt  of  Sacramento  and  John  H.  Gihon  of  San 
Francisco,  the  Committee  on  Credentials:  California  Lodge  No.  13, 
San  Francisco ;  Connecticut  Lodge  No.  75,  Sacramento ;  Western  Star 
Lodge  No.  98,  Benton  City;  New  Jersey  Lodge,  U.  D.,  Sacramento; 
Benicia  Lodge,  U.  D.,  Benicia.  The  committee  reported  the  first  three 
as  regularly  chartered,  and  New  Jersey  Lodge  as  regularly  under  dis- 
pensation, but  that  Benicia  Lodge  had  presented  neither  a  charter  nor 
a  dispensation.  The  three  chartered  lodges  were  pronounced  by  the 
convention  entitled  to  form  a  Grand  Lodge.     The  constitution  of  the 


Grand  Lodge  was  adopted  on  April  19th,  and  the  following  Grand 
Officers  elected:  Jonathan  D.  Stevenson,  R.  W.  grand  master;  John 
A.  Tutt,  R.  W.  deputy  grand  master;  Caleb  Fenner,  R.  W.  senior 
grand  warden;  Saschel  Woods,  R.  W.  junior  grand  warden;  John  H. 
Gilion,  R.  W.  grand  secretary. 

New  Jersey  Lodge  was  granted  a  charter,  and  at  the  first  annual 
meeting  of  the  Grand  Lodge  in  this  city,  May  7,  1850,  Benicia  Lodge 
received  its  charter.  A  dispensation  had  been  granted  to  Sutter  Lodge 
in  Sacramento,  and  it  was  granted  a  charter.  The  lodges  belonging  to 
the  Grand  Lodge  were  given  numbers  as  follows:  California  Lodge, 
No.  1;  Western  Star  Lodge,  No.  2;  Tehama  Lodge,  No.  3;  Berryman 
Lodge  (Sacramento),  No.  4;  Benicia  Lodge,  No.  5;  Sutter  Lodge 
(Sacramento),  No.  6.  The  name  of  Berryman  Lodge  was  changed  to 
Jennings  Lodge  No.  4.  By  this  formation  of  the  Grand  Lodge,  Sacra- 
mento secured  in  the  election  the  deputy  grand  master,  junior  grand 
warden,  and  eight  of  the  appointive  officers,  to  which  she  was  en 
titled,  being  the  great  distributing  point  for  Masonic  charity. 

The  semi-annual  meeting  of  the  Grand  Lodge  was  held  at  Sacra- 
mento in  November,  1850,  during  the  last  days  of  the  cholera  epidemic, 
and  in  its  proceedings  it  developed  that  those  attending  taxed  them- 
selves voluntarily  for  charity,  $17,010.70,  an  average  of  $205  each ;  and 
assumed  a  debt  of  $14,425.44,  an  average  of  $174,  making  a  contribu- 
tion of  $379  for  every  Master  Mason  in  Sacramento  contributing  to 
the  Masonic  Hospital  inside  of  ten  months,  besides  answering  other 
demands  for  charity  of  all  descriptions.  Those  were  the  days  when 
Masons'  hearts  and  purses  were  opened  wide  at  the  call  of  distress. 
Fortunately  for  Sacramento,  she  has  never  since  been  so  strenuously 
called  on  for  relief,  although  even  now  her  board  of  relief,  composed 
of  the  masters  of  the  lodges,  is  called  upon  to  contribute  large  sums 
yearly.  Never,  j^erhaijs,  in  the  history  of  the  world  has  there  been  an 
exhibition  of  such  great  sacrifice,  such  unselfish  charity,  and  such  de- 
voted service  to  the  cause  of  humanity  as  the  records  of  the  early 
days  of  Sacramento  show  to  have  been  carried  out  by  the  Masonic 
pioneers  of  the  city  and  state,  in  conjunction  with  the  offspring  of 
Masonry — the  Order  of  Odd  Fellows — during  the  terrible  seasons  of 
disease  and  e]iidemic  in  1849-50. 

In  1864  the  initial  steps  were  taken  for  the  erection  of  a  Masonic 
Temple.  The  first  meeting  of  the  Masonic  Hall  Association  was  held 
July  1,  1864.  The  board  of  directors  chosen  from  the  five  lodges  were 
A.  T.  Nelson,  Leonard  Goss,  W.  F.  Knox,  H.  T.  Holmes,  Richai-d 
Dale,  S.  D.  Smith,  Thomas  Ross,  P.  S.  Lawson  and  John  W.  Rock, 
all  of  whom  have  since  passed  away.  The  association  incorpor- 
ated on  September  17,  1864,  with  a  capital  of  $30,000,  divided  into 
twelve  thousand  shares  of  twenty-five  dollars  each.  November  1,  1864, 
they  bought  of  R.  D.  Ferguson  the  old  "Horse  Market"  at  the  south- 
west corner  of  Sixth  and  K  streets,  on  the  trees  of  which,  in  1849, 


the  notices  for  the  first  meeting  of  Masons  in  Sacramento  had  been 
posted.  June  24,  1865,  the  cornerstone  of  the  building  was  laid  by 
Grand  Master  William  Caldwell  Belcher.  An  excursion  to  Clipper 
Gap,  where  an  oration  was  delivered  by  A.  A.  Sargent,  netted  $18,000, 
and  the  hall,  which  was  added  to  and  remodeled  in  1875,  at  a  cost  of 
many  thousands,  is  one  of  the  finest  and  most  valuable  Masonic  prop- 
erties in  the  state.  A  few  years  ago  the  directors  of  the  association 
purchased  a  site  at  Twelfth  and  J  streets,  on  which  it  is  proposed  to 
erect  a  new  Masonic  Temple,  the  plans  of  which  have  been  accepted, 
at  a  cost  of  $450,000.  In  the  present  temple  the  five  lodges  of  Sacra- 
mento meet,  as  well  as  the  Chapter,  E.  A.  M.,  the  Council,  Com- 
mandery  and  the  Scottish  Eite  bodies,  as  well  as  four  Eastern  Star 
chapters.  The  Scottish  Eite  bodies  are  planning  at  present  to  erect  a 
building  for  that  Masonic  branch. 

The  early  history  of  Tehama  Lodge  No.  3,  which  was  first  char- 
tered as  Connecticut  Lodge  No.  75,  and  recharterecl  by  the  Grand 
Lodge  under  its  present  name  January  8,  1850,  has  been  delineated  in 
this  article.  The  charter  was  granted  to  Caleb  Fenner,  W.  M. ;  James 
W.  Goodrich,  S.  W.,  and  Elizur  Hubbell,  J.  W.  John  A.  Tutt,  one 
of  its  charter  members,  was  afterwards  grand  master.  Two  of  Cali- 
fornia's early  governors,  John  Bigler  and  J.  Neely  Johnson,  were 
among  its  members  on  the  first  roll  sent  to  the  Grand  Lodge  in  Novem- 
ber, 1850;  also  Gen.  A.  M.  Winn.  After  the  lodge  removed  from  the 
Eed  House  it  located  in  the  hall  over  the  market  house  at  Second  and 
M  streets,  moving  thence  to  the  upper  story  of  Stanford's  building  on 
K  street,  and  going,  in  1854,  to  the  third  story  of  Bennett's  building 
on  J  street,  between  Front  and  Second.  Since  the  erection  of  the  Tem- 
ple, it  holds  its  meetings  there.  It  is  a  prosperous  lodge,  its  present 
membership  being  two  hundred  and  thirty.  The  officers  for  1912: 
Henry  A.  W.  Lindgreen,  W.  M. ;  Louis  e".  Plate,  S.  W.;  Henry  H. 
MeCann,  J.  W. ;  William  0.  Girardy,  treasurer ;  Theodore  J.  Milliken, 
secretarv;  Charles  E.  Farrar,  chaplain;  Donald  McClain,  S.  D. ;  Tol- 
bert  T.  Bray,  S.  D. ;  Halleck  H.  Look,  marshal ;  Albert  Greilich,  S.  S. ; 
Chester  W.  Foster,  J.  S. ;  E.  0.  Cravens,  tyler. 

Jennings  Lodge  No.  4,  acting  under  dispensation  as  New  Jersey 
Lodge,  and  chartered  by  the  Grand  Lodge  of  California  May  7,  1850, 
as  Berryman  Lodge  No.  4,  of  which  the  name  was  changed  the  same 
day  to  Jennings  Lodge  No.  4,  resolved  February  14,  185.3,  to  surrender 
its  charter  to  the  Grand  Lodge,  and  did  so,  passing  out  of  existence. 
Hon.  H.  C.  Hastings,  afterwards  a  justice  of  the  supreme  court  of 
California,  E.  J.  C.  Kewen,  and  other  prominent  men  were  members 
of  it. 

Sutter  Lodge  No.  6  was  granted  a  dispensation  by  Deputy  Grand 
Master  Tutt  April  19,  1850,  with  Edward  J.  Willis",  W.  M.';  C.  E. 
Thorn,  S.  D.,  and  Addison  Martin,  J.  D.,  as  officers,  and  was  granted 
a  charter  by  the  Grand  Lodge  on  May  7th  following.     The  lodge,  hav- 


iug  lost  its  furuitnre  aud  jewels  b)'  fire,  surrendered  its  charter,  and 
was  declared  extinct  by  the  Grand  Lodge,  May  6,  1853.  E.  J.  Willis 
was  county  judge  of  Sacramento,  and  E.  W.  McKiustry,  another  mem- 
ber, was  afterwards  a  justice  of  the  supreme  coui't  of  California. 

Washington  Lodge  No.  20  was  organized  February  19,  1852, 
granted  a  dispensation  two  days  afterwards,  with  Charles  Dunscombe, 
W.  M.;  Jesse  Morrill,  S.  W. ;  J.  L.  Thompson,  J.  W.,  and  a  charter 
was  granted  to  it  May  5,  1852.  Its  first  master,  N.  Greene  Curtis, 
served  four  terms  as  grand  master,  and  it  has  in  its  membership  our 
present  governor,  Hiram  Warren  Johnson,  besides  two  governors  who 
afterwards  received  foreign  appointments — John  Bigler,  United  States 
Minister  to  Chili,  and  Romualdo  Pacheco,  United  States  Minister  to 
Guatemala,  and  who  was  the  second  native  Spanish  Californian,  as 
far  as  is  known,  to  receive  the  degree  of  Masonry.  There  were  a  num- 
ber of  other  members  who  became  prominent  in  the  state's  historj". 
The  officers  for  1912  were:  John  Gibson  Labadie,  W.  M. ;  Clyde 
Horace  Brown,  S.  W. ;  John  Henry  Lindenmeyer,  J.  W. ;  Benjamin 
Huntington  Gallup,  treasurer;  John  Scott,  secretary;  Frank  Bock,  S. 
D. ;  Mahlou  E.  Waldron,  marshal ;  George  B.  Herr,  tyler. 

Sacramento  Lodge  No.  40  was  granted  a  dispensation  July  20, 
1853,  and  May  3,  1854,  obtained  its  charter,  when  its  officers  were: 
James  Lawrence  English,  W.  M. ;  John  A.  Tutt,  S.  W. ;  John  H.  Gass, 
J.  W. ;  W.  J.  Kohlman,  treasurer;  W.  G.  Borneman,  secretary;  B.  F. 
Crouch,  chaplain;  W.  W.  Stovall,  S.  D.;  H.  Greenbaum,  J.  D.  Edwin 
Sherman,  author  of  "Fifty  Years  of  Masonry  in  California,"  was  a 
member  of  this  lodge.  John  A.  Tutt,  William  Lawrence  English  and 
E.  C.  Atkinson  were  all  grand  masters.  W.  M.  Petrie,  for  more  than 
thirty  years  treasurer  of  the  lodge,  W.  L.  English,  Isaac  Davis  and 
W.  F.  Knox  have  been  grand  high  priests  of  the  Grand  Chapter,  and 
grand  commanders  of  the  Grand  Commandery  of  California.  Davis 
and  English  were  also  grand  masters  of  the  Grand  Council. 

Union  Lodge  No.  58  was  granted  a  dispensation  June  5,  1854, 
with  James  Ealston,  W.  M. ;  Gabriel  Haines,  S.  W. ;  and  Sol  Kohl- 
man, J.  W.,  pro  tern.;  May  4,  1855,  its  charter  was  granted,  with 
the  same  master  and  senior  warden,  W.  A.  Walters  as  junior  war- 
den, taking  Kohlman 's  place.  The  only  charter  member  now  living 
is  Col.  A.  Andrews  of  San  Francisco.  Samuel  C.  Denson,  a  former 
judge  of  the  superior  court,  was  a  grand  master  from  this  lodge, 
and  George  T.  Bromley,  known  all  over  the  coast  for  his  amiable 
and  genial  qualities,  was  a  member.  He  was  conductor  of  the 
first  train  on  the  first  railroad  built  in  California.  Benjamin  Welch, 
another  member,  was  a  thirtv-third  degree  member  of  the  A.  and 
A.  S.  R. 

Concord  Lodge  No.  117  never  received  a  dispensation.  Its  peti- 
tion for  a  charter  was  received  by  the  Grand  Lodge  May  14,  1857,  and 
its  charter  was  granted  the  next  morning,  naming  John  L.  Thompson, 


W.  M. ;  Thomas  Johnson,  S.  W. ;  and  Charles  S.  White,  J.  W.  William 
H.  Hevener,  the  oldest  member  and  a  past  master  of  this  lodge,  was 
given  his  degrees  in  1859.  He  has  been  secretary  of  the  lodge  for 
nearly  thirty  years.  The  late  S.  H.  Gerrish,  who  died  in  Angnst,  1912, 
for  many  years  secretary  of  the  Sacramento  Free  Library,  was  a 
member  of  this  lodge. 


Sacramento  Chapter  No.  3,  R.  A.  M.,  was  instituted  October  5, 

1852,  with  the  following  officers  and  charter  members :  Isaac  Davis, 
H.  P.;  J.  H.  Bullard,  K.;  Joel  Noah,  S.;  T.  A.  Thomas,  C.  of  H. ; 
Charles  Duncombe,  P.  S. ;  J.  Ball,  R.  A.  C. ;  J.  P.  Gouch,  M.  Third  V. ; 
Q.  Haines,  M.  Second  V. ;  J.  Wilcoxson,  M.  First  V.  The  other  charter 
members  were:  A.  B.  Hoy,  T.  W.  Thayer,  John  L.  Thompson,  Jesse 
Morrill,  William  Reynolds,  I.  N.  Briceland,  A.  Hullub,  Cyrus  Rowe. 
The  chapter  at  present  numbers  over  three  hundred  members. 

Sacramento  Council  No.  1,  Royal  and  Select  Masters,  was  insti- 
tuted April  10,  1858,  with  the  following  officers  and  charter  members : 
Isaac  Davis,  T.  I.  M. ;  John  A.  Tutt,  D.  I.  M. ;  Geo.  I.  N.  Monell,  P.  C. 
of  W. ;  G.  E.  Montgomery,  R. ;  N.  Greene  Curtis,  treasurer.  Other 
charter  members  were :  Jesse  Morrill,  T.  A.  Thomas,  G.  Haines,  H.  H. 
Hartley,  O.  H.  Dibble,  A.  G.  Richardson  and  J.  Wilcoxson.  It  has  at 
present  a  very  large  membership. 

Sacramento   Commandery  No.   2,  K.   T.,  was  instituted   July  5, 

1853,  with  the  following  charter  members  and  officers :  Isaac  Davis, 
E.  C;  Jesse  Morrill,  G.;  T.  A.  Thomas,  C.  G.;  C.  I.  Hutchinson,  A.  B. 
Hoy,  John  L.  Thompson,  Charles  Duncombe,  J.  P.  Gouch  and  James 
M.  Stockley.     It  numbers  over  two  hundred  and  fifty  members. 

In  1869  the  Scottish  Rite  branch  of  Masonry  was  introduced  in 
Sacramento,  Jacques  de  Molay  Council  No.  2,  Knights  Kadosh,  being 
instituted  on  May  13th  of  that  year.  Palestine  Lodge  of  Perfection 
No.  3  and  Alpha  Chapter  No.  1,  Rose  Croix,  were  also  instituted  about 
the  same  time,  but  the  interest  in  the  Rite  dying  down,  they  were  dis- 
continued in  1873.  It  was  revived  again  April  3,  1895,  by  the  insti- 
tution of  Isaac  Davis  Lodge  of  Perfection  No.  4  -and  Palestine  Chapter 
Rose  Croix  No.  6,  October  25,  1901,  and  Sacramento  Council  No.  5, 
Knights  Kadosh,  instituted  on  the  same  date,  followed.  Sacramento 
Consistory  No.  7  was  instituted  March  17,  1905.  The  order  is  in  a 
most  prosperous  condition.  It  belongs  to  the  southern  jurisdiction  of 
the  United  States  of  America.  In  the  late  '80s,  or  early  '90s,  a 
spurious  order  of  Scottish  Rite  endeavored  to  obtain  a  foothold  in 
Sacramento,  but  was  short  lived. 

There  are  at  present  two  33°  Masons  in  Sacramento:  William 
M.  Petrie  and  Edward  C.  H.  Hopkins,  Benjamin  Welch  and  M.  J. 
Curtis   having   recently   died. 

Naomi  Chapter  No.  36,  Order  of  the  Eastern  Star,  was  instituted 


May  3,  1879,  witbiu  a  few  weeks  the  meiubership  increasing  to  forty. 
It  is  the  senior  chapter  in  the  city,  and  boasts  of  the  largest  member- 
ship. The  officers  and  charter  members  were:  Mrs.  E.  M.  Frost,  W. 
M. ;  J.  N.  Young,  W.  P. ;  Mrs.  M.  J.  Cravens,  A.  M. ;  E.  C.  Atkinson, 
secretary;  W.  H.  Hevener,  treasurer;  Mrs.  A.  J.  Atkinson,  chaplain; 
Miss  H.  A.  Palmer,  C. ;  Miss  M.  A.  Stanton,  A.  C;  Mrs.  A.  Coghlan, 
Adah ;  Mrs.  G.  Van  Voorheis,  Ruth ;  Mrs.  M.  E.  Parsons,  Esther ;  Mrs. 
E.  M.  Hartley,  Martha;  Mrs.  C.  P.  Huntoon,  Electa;  Mrs.  M.  F.  Mc- 
Laughlin, W. ;  J.  T.  Griffitts,  sentinel. 

Columbus  Chapter  No.  117,  0.  E.  S.,  was  instituted  August  8, 
1892,  with  eighty-three  charter  members.  Sacramento  Chapter  No. 
190,  0.  E.  S.,  was  instituted  March  7,  1901,  with  seventy-one  charter 
members.     Ada  Chapter  No.  .301,  0.   E.   S.,  was  instituted  in   1911. 

Jewel  Court,  U.  D.,  of  the  Royal  and  Exalted  Degree  of  Amar- 
anth, was  instituted  August  27,  1910,  the  grand  officers  of  the  order 
conducting  the  installation.  The  first  ofiScers  were:  Royal  matron, 
Eliza  Higgins ;  royal  patron,  Frank  Kleinsorge;  associate  royal  ma- 
tron, Lulu  E.  Adams;  honored  seci'etary,  Estella  Labadie;  honored 
treasurer,  Frances  Just ;  honored  conductress,  Addie  De  Coe ;  honored 
associate  conductress,  Ellen  Bowden;  honored  herald,  Frankie  Carlaw; 
honored  marshal  in  the  east,  Mary  N.  Martin;  honored  marshal  in  the 
west,  Alice  E.  Teal;  honored  prelate,  James  T.  Martin;  Lady  Truth, 
Bertha  Peart;  Lady  Faith,  Elsie  Lindgreen;  Lady  Wisdom,  Elsie 
Kleinsorge ;  Lady  Charity,  Margaret  Z.  Kelly ;  honored  warder,  Agnes 
Hummell;  honored  sentinel,  Henry  Lindgreen.  The  court  received  its 
charter  April  12,  1911. 

The  colored  people  have  what  they  claim  are  lodges  of  Free- 
masonry, working  under  charters  obtained  from  other  jurisdictions, 
but  not  recognized  by  the  white  Masons  as  being  regular. 

Philomathean  Lodge  No.  2,  F.  and  A.  M.  (Colored),  worked  under 
a  charter  ol)tained  from  England.  It  was  organized  November  6,  1853, 
and  has  qi;ite  a  large  membership.  St.  John  Chapter,  R.  A.  M.  (Col- 
ored), was  organized  in  1873. 

Adah  Chapter  No.  2,  0.  E.  S.  (Colored),  was  instituted  in  1871 
with  twenty-nine  members.  Dr.  R.  J.  Fletcher  was  the  leading  spirit 
in  Colored  Masonry  among  the  colored  people,  and  was  instrumental 
in  establishing  the  Grand  Chapter  0.  E.  S.  (Colored),  which  was  in- 
stituted in  this  city  December  27,  1882.  The  Chinese  have  a  sign 
stating  that  they  have  a  lodge  of  Masons  on  Third  street,  and  are  said 
to  use  some  of  the  s^nnbols  of  the  order,  but  whether  they  have  any 
of  the  esoteric  work  is  not  known.  It  is  known,  however,  that  there 
are  Masonic  lodges  in  China. 

General  A.  M.  Winn  has  the  credit  of  introducing  Odd  Fellowship 
into  Sacramento  as  early  as  August,  1849.     There  were  a  number  of 


Odd  Fellows  in  the  city  at  that  time,  and  General  Winn  effected  an 
informal  organization  among  them  for  the  purpose  of  affording 
relief  to  the  sick  members  of  the  order,  as  well  as  to  others.  Their 
noble  deeds  should  never  be  forgotten,  for  they  spared  neither  time, 
work,  nor  money  in  relieving  the  distress  and  sickness  that  were  so 
prevalent  at  that  time.  The  Masons  joined  with  them  in  the  work 
and  erected  a  joint  hospital.  The  complete  organization  of  the  first 
Odd  Fellows'  lodge,  however,  did  not  take  place  until  January  28,  1851, 
when  Sacramento  Lodge  No.  2,  I.  O.  0.  F.,  was  instituted,  with  Horatio 
E.  Roberts,  N.  G. ;  G.  H.  Peterson,  V.  G. ;  George  G.  Wright,  Secretary, 
and  Lucius  A.  Booth,  Treasurer.  The  other  charter  members  were: 
Samuel  Deal,  M.  Kaliski,  Robert  Robinson,  N.  C.  Cunningham,  M.  C. 
Collins  and  William  Childs.  The  meetings  were  held  at  first  in  the 
rooms  of  the  Freemasons.  The  lodge  numbers  between  two  hundred 
and  fifty  and  three  hundred  members. 

Eureka  Lodge  No.  4,  I.  0.  0.  F.,  was  organized  January  7,  1852, 
with  the  following  officers  and  charter  members :  George  I.  N. 
Monnell,  N.  G. ;  Thomas  Sunderland,  V.  G. ;  A.  P.  Andrews,  Secre- 
tary; William  Watson,  Treasurer;  John  Turner,  R.  S.  N.  G.;  R.  Por- 
ter, L.  S.  N.  G. ;  W.  H.  Tilley,  R.  S.  V.  G. ;  W.  H.  Hall,  L.  S.  V.  G. ; 
Thomas  M.  Davis,  Warden;  A.  J.  Lucas,  Conductor;  also  David  Hall 
and  Jesse  Morrill. 

El  Dorado  Lodge  No.  8,  I.  0.  0.  F.,  was  organized  September  24, 
1852,  with  officers  and  charter  members  as  follows:  J.  F.  Cloutman, 
N.  G. ;  J.  L.  Polhemus.  V.  G. ;  L.  D.  Kelly,  R.  S. ;  George  W.  Chedie, 
Treasurer ;  A.  B.  Armstrong,  L.  Korn,  James  Levi,  Thomas  B.  Moore, 
Joseph  S.  Korn,  James  S.  Scott  and  W.  Prosser. 

Capitol  Lodge  No.  87,  I.  0.  0.  F.,  was  instituted  June  10,  1859, 
by  District  Deputy  Grand  Master,  Samuel  Cross,  with  the  following 
first  officers  and  charter  members;  E.  F.  White,  N.  G. ;  C.  M.  Mason, 
V.  G. ;  John  McClintock,  Secretary,  and  Amos  Woods,  Treasurer;  the 
other  charter  members  were:  E.  M.  Heuston,  G.  A.  Basler,  C.  B. 
Steane,  Lewis  Shuck,  Thomas  B.  Byrne,  James  Bowstead,  M.  M. 
Estee  and  F.  K.  Krauth. 

Schiller  Lodge  No.  105,  I.  0.  0.  F.,  was  organized  on  June  26, 
1862,  with  officers  and  charter  members  as  follows:  S.  J.  Nathan,  N. 
G. ;  Joseph  Schwab,  V.  G. ;  Charles  Schwartz,  secretary,  Charles 
Dohn,  P.  S. ;  L.  C.  Mendelson,  treasurer;  Lewis  Korn,  H.  Theilbahr, 
Anton  Wagner,  A.  Meier,  George  Ochs,  F.  Gotthold,  Jacob  Klippell, 
Louis  Greenbaum,  Peter  Kunz  and  George  Guth. 

Industrial  Lodge  No.  157,  T.  0.  0.  F.,  was  organized  April  24, 
1869.  The  officers  and  charter  members  were  as  follows :  G.  W. 
Carroll,  N.  G. ;  J.  M.  Ripley,  V.  G. ;  J.  A.  Seamon,  R.  S. ;  G.  A.  Stod- 
dard, P.  S. ;  John  Ri]-)pon,  treasurer.  Other  charter  members  were: 
G.  B.  Dean,  T.  P.  Ford,  I.  C.  Shaw,  Charles  Noyes,  C.  C.  Ault,  H.  C. 
Wolf,  J.  M.  Anderson,  M.  Phelan,  B.  F.  Huntlev,  S.  H.  Gerrish,  Roval 


Preston,  W.  F.  Emersou,  R.  McRae,  J.  L.  Gerrisb,  P.  Bolger,  G.  F. 
Pattison,  W.  D.  Hammoud,  J.  S.  Pbilbrick,  George  Landon,  M.  Fa- 
vero,  E.  E.  Masters,  W.  C.  Gent,  Joliu  Thomas,  Add  Crandall,  J.  C. 
Carroll  and  F.  Woodward. 

Pacific  Encampment  No.  2,  I.  O.  0.  F.,  was  organized  July  29, 
1853,  with  eight  charter  members:  Matthew  Parden,  P.  C.  P.;  C.  C. 
Hayden,  P.  C.  P.;  Thomas  W.  Davis,  P.  H.  P.;  W.  H.  Watson, 
P.  ii.  P. ;  John  F.  Morse,  P.  Robinson,  A.  J.  Lucas  and  Walter  Prosser. 

Occidental  Encampment  No.  42,  I.  0.  0.  F.,  was  organized  No- 
vember 14,  1871.  S.  S.  Nixon,  P.  L.  Hickman,  J.  F.  Clark,  F.  H. 
McCormick,  R.  Davis,  Nelson  Wilcox  and  W.  M.  Ruse  were  the 
charter  members ;  nearly  all  have  passed  away. 

Grand  Canton  Sacramento  No.  1,  Patriarchs  Militant,  I.  0.  0.  F. 
June  14,  1875,  fifty  Odd  Fellows  organized  Sacramento  Battalion 
Company  A.  The  first  officers  were:  A.  H.  Powers,  commander 
H.  A.  Burnett,  first  lieutenant;  A.  Menke,  second  lieutenant;  J.  A 
Hutchings,  secretary;  G.  M.  Mott,  treasurer;  F.  Hogeboom,  first  ser 
geant;  James  S.  Scott,  second  sergeant;  J.  H.  Miller,  standard  bearer 
P.  E.  Piatt  and  J.  H.  Stebbins,  color  bearers. 

The  Sovereign  Grand  Lodge,  at  a  regular  session  in  September, 
1882,  made  a  provision  for  the  uniformed  bodies  of  Odd  Fellows  and 
passed  laws  and  regulations  for  them,  to  be  known  as  Degree  Camp 
of  Uniformed  Patriarchs.  January  .30,  1883,  Sacramento  Degree 
Camp  No.  1,  Uniformed  Patriarchs,  was  organized  with  forty-three 
members  and  elected  the  following  officers :  Ed.  M.  Martin,  com- 
mander; Frank  Hogaboom,  vice-commander;  William  A.  Stephenson, 
secretary;  Nelson  Wilcox,  treasurer;  H.  A.  Burnett,  officer  of  the 
guard;  W.  E.  Piatt,  picket;  F.  P.  Lowell,  banner;  Charles  Cooley, 
guard  of  tent.  The  first  two  initiates  in  the  state  were  W.  F.  Nor- 
cross  and  J.  Carlaw. 

Tn  September,  1885,  the  Sovereign  Grand  Lodge,  I.  0.  O.  F.,  reor- 
ganized the  military  branch  and  changed  its  name  to  "Cantons  of 
Patriarchs  Militant,  I.  O.  0.  F."  It  also  adopted  a  complete  set  of 
laws,  with  a  complete  list  of  military  officers,  to  be  under  the  Sovereign 
Grand  Lodge.  In  accordance  with  this  change,  March  8,  1886,  Grand 
Canton  Sacramento,  No.  1.  Patriarchs  Militant.  I.  O.  0.  F.,  was  organ- 
ized by  General  C.  W.  Breyfogle,  with  eighty  members.  It  elected 
officers  as  follows:  W.  N.  Sherburn,  commander;  Elwood  Bruner, 
lieutenant;  S.  A.  Wolfe,  ensign  for  Canton  No.  18,  both  Cantons  to 
compose  Grand  Canton  No.  1,  which  elected  W.  A.  Stephenson  clerk, 
and  Nelson  Wilcox  accountant. 

Rising  Star  Lodge  No.  8,  Rebekah  Degree,  I.  0.  O.  F.,  was  organ- 
ized December  22,  1871,  with  seventv-one  members.  Its  first  officers 
were:  P.  G.  William  S.  Hunt,  N.'G.;  Mrs.  Ellen  Gilman,  V.  G.; 
Martha  A.  Hunt,  R.  S. ;  Mrs.  W.  Roth,  P.  S. ;  Julia  Patterson,  T. 

Germania  Lodge  No.  38,  Rebekah  Degree,  I.  O.  O.  F.,  was  organ- 


ized  April  27,  1876,  with  charter  officers  as  follows:  A.  Heilbron 
(P.  G.),  N.  G.;  Mrs.  Anna  C.  Greisel,  V.  G.;  Mrs.  Julie  Fisher,  R.  S.; 
Mrs.  Fredericke  Newman,  F.  S. ;  Mrs.  Amilie  Meckfessel,  T. ;  also, 
C.  F.  G.  Salle,  P.  G. ;  F.  Fisher,  S.  Morris,  P.  G. ;  Mrs.  Dora  Morris, 
John  Bolze,  P.  G. 

Capital  City  Rebekah  Lodge  No.  160,  I.  0.  0.  F.,  was  instituted 
September  3,  1890,  by  Grand  Master  John  Glasson,  with  eighty  char- 
ter members,  eighteen  of  whom  still  retain  their  membership.  The 
membership  at  present  is  two  hundred  seventy-five.  The  first  officers 
elected  were:  Delia  Pettit,  N.  G. ;  Alice  Seadler,  V.  G. ;  Mary  Mur- 
ray, recording  secretary;  Mary  Moore,  financial  secretary;  Annie 
McCaw,  treasurer.  The  present  officers  are:  Mabel  Gordon,  N.  G. ; 
Emma  Brady,  V.  G. ;  Emma  Gregory,  recording  secretary;  Mary 
Mills,  financial  secretary;  Jennie  Washburn,  treasurer. 

Sacramento  Rebekah  Lodge  No.  232,  I.  0.  0.  F.,  was  instituted 
March  29,  1898,  with  twenty-six  charter  members,  and  the  member- 
ship at  present  is  one  hundred  forty-two.  The  first  officers  elected 
were:  Laura  Label,  P.  N.  G. ;  Rose  E.  Schmitt,  N.  G. ;  Rose  E. 
Futterer,  V.  G. ;  Lavinia  Broughton,  recording  secretary;  Emma  E. 
Reinersman,  financial  secretary;  Katherine  Futterer,  treasurer.  The 
appointed  officers  were :  Annie  M.  Schmidt,  Ward. ;  Carrie  Gruhler, 
Cond. ;  Gustave  Kortstein,  0.  G. ;  Josie  Reinerman,  I.  G. ;  Mary  A. 
Mayhen,  R.  S.  N.  G. ;  Amelia  Meckfessel,  L.  S.  N.  G. ;  Carrie  Popert, 
R.  S.  V.  G. ;  Josephine  Lakin,  L.  S.  V.  G. ;  Ida  A.  Ohnstead,  chaplain. 

Oak  Park  Lodge  No.  5,  I.  0.  0.  F.,  was  instituted  April  29,  1905, 
by  D.  D.  G.  M.  David  F.  Fox,  with  Weeden  G.  Conklin,  P.  G.;  James 
McDougal.  P.  G.;  Frank  L.  McGrew,  William  H.  Dymond,  W.  A. 
Bird,  William  E.  Cole,  P.  G. ;  Alexander  Orr  and  M.  A.  Jenkins, 
charter  members.  The  first  officers  elected  were:  James  McDougal, 
A.  P.  G.;  William  E.  Cole,  N.  G.;  William  H.  Dymond,  V.  G.; 
W.  G.  Conklin,  secretary;  Alexander  Orr,  treasurer.  Twenty-four 
candidates  were  initiated  on  the  night  of  its  institution.  The  mem- 
bership at  present  is  one  hundred. 

Union  Degree  Lodge,  No.  3,  I.  0.  0.  F.,  was  organized  October  7, 
1853,  with  a  number  of  members,  but  was  discontinued  some  time 
during  the  '80s. 

The  Veteran  Odd  Fellows  Association  of  Sacramento  was  organ- 
ized in  1873  by  a  call  of  several  veteran  Odd  Fellows  in  this  city. 
In  order  to  be  eligilile  for  membership  one  must  have  been  an  Odd 
Fellow  for  twenty  years  and  be  a  member  of  some  lodge,  in  good 
standing.  The  Odd  Fellows'  General  Relief  Committee  consists  of 
three  members  from  each  lodge,  to  attend  to  the  wants  of  transient 
members  of  the  order  who  may  be  in  need.  The  Odd  Fellows'  Temple 
Association  was  preceded  by  the  "Hall  Association,"  incorporated 
June  25,  1862,  with  a  capital  stock  of  $60,000,  iafterwards  increased 
to  $80,000,  purchased  the  St.  George  hotel  building  at  the  corner  of 


Fourth  and  J  streets  and  fitted  it  up  and  kept  it  for  several  years 
as  an  Odd  Fellows  lodge  and  business  block.  July  26,  1869,  the 
trustees  of  the  lodges  and  encampment  met  and  organized  the  present 
Temple  Association  and  purchased  a  lot  for  the  erection  of  a  temple. 
The  result  was  the  erection  of  the  fine  four-story  building  at  Ninth 
and  K  streets,  which  was  at  that  time  the  finest  structure  in  the  city, 
with  the  exception  of  the  Capitol.  The  Association  also  owns  a  fine 
plat  in  the  City  Cemetery,  adjoining  the  Masonic  Cemetery  plat. 

Sacramento  Lodge  No.  2189,  G.  U.  0.  of  O.  F.,  (colored)  was 
organized  on  July  14,  1881,  with  thirty-one  members.  The  first 
officers  were:  F.  T.  Bowers,  P.  N.  F. ;  E.  Brown,  N.  F.;  D.  A.  John- 
son, P.  N.  G.;  B.  A.  Johnson,  N.  G.;  R.  J.  Fletcher,  V.  G.;  H.  H. 
Williams,  E.  S. ;  R.  H.  Small,  P.  H. ;  Q.  H.  Guinn,  W.  T. ;  R.  C.  Fer- 
gaison,  W.  C.  The  executive  authority  for  this  order  was  derived 
from  the  national  body,  under  a  sub-committee  of  management  lo- 
cated at  Philadelphia  and  acting  in  harmony  with  the  order  in  Eng- 


The  Knights  of  Pythias  erected  a  fine  hall  at  the  northwest  corner 
of  Ninth  and  I  streets,  which  was  dedicated  July  4,  1889.  It  is  40x90 
feet,  four  stories  high,  and  fitted  up  for  the  lodge,  drill  and  lecture 
rooms,  and  a  banquet  hall. 

Sacramento  Division  No.  7,  Uniform  Rank,  Knights  of  Pythias, 
was  instituted  in  October,  1882,  with  fifty-four  charter  members. 
The  first  officers  were:  James  A.  Davis,  commander;  John  W.  Guth- 
rie, lieutenant  commander;  Theodore  Schumacher,  herald;  Frank  H. 
Kiefer,  recorder;  George  H.  Smith,  treasurer;  George  B.  Katzenstein, 
sentinel;  Joseph  T.  Keepers,  guard;  Charles  E.  Leonard,  standard 

Sacramento  Lodge  No.  11,  K.  of  P.,  was  organized  December  2. 
1869,  with  a  large  membership,  the  following  being  the  officers :  G.  W. 
Wallace,  C.  C. ;  J.  H.  Sullivan  V.  C;  S.  Pearl,  Prelate;  Frank  W. 
Marvin,  K.  of  R.  and  S.;  R.  W.  Jackson,  M.  of  F.;  J.  E.  Goods, 
M.  of  E. 

Columbia  Lodge  No.  42,  K.  of  P.,  was  organized  April  21,  1877, 
with  J.  W.  Guthrie,  P.  C;  A.  J.  Vermilva,  "C.  C;  P.  J.  Spacher, 
V.  C. ;  S.  A.  Wolfe,  P. ;  John  McFetrish,  K.  of  R.  and  S. ;  0.  H.  P. 
Sheets,  Jr.,  M.  of  F.;  Robert  Pettit,  M.  of  E.;  W.  E.  Lugg,  L  G.; 
W.  E.  Oughton,  0.  G. ;  also,  J.  Stubbs,  M.  Odell,  J.  Goddard,  William 
Neidhart  and  W.  Kay. 

Confidence  Lodge  No.  78,  K.  of  P.  was  organized  August  28,  1882. 
with  officers  as  follows:  J.  F.  Lucas,  P.  C;  J.  A.  Baker,  C.  C; 
A.  V.  Bovne,  V.  C;  F.  H.  Kiefer,  Prelate;  A.  J.  Plant,  M.  at  A.; 
W.  B.  Rodgers,  K.  of  R.  and  S. ;  J.  H.  Smith,  M.  of  E. 

Three  of  the  Sisters  having  heard  that  Mrs.  C.  L.  C.  Lawrence, 


S.  M.  of  E.  and  C,  would  pass  through  Sacramento  on  her  way  to 
Los  Angeles,  where  she  was  to  institute  the  first  Temple  of  Pythian 
Sisters,  conceived  the  idea  that  as  long  as  Sacramento  was  the  Capital 
of  the  state,  why  not  also  have  the  first  Temple  of  Pythian  Sisters 
there.  A  committee  met  Mrs.  Lawrence  at  the  train  and  persuaded 
her  to  stop  over  and  institute  this  Temple.  This  was  on  the  morning 
of  December  17,  1889.  On  the  evening  of  the  same  day,  the  first 
Temple  of  Pythian  Sisters  in  the  state  of  California  was  instituted 
in  this  city,  in  Castle  Hall,  corner  of  Ninth  and  I  streets.  California 
Temple  No.  1  had  a  charter  membership  of  fifteen  Sisters  and  eight 
Knights.  Georgia  Guthrie,  who  died  July  22,  1909,  was  the  first 
M.  E.  C.  of  the  Temple  and  was  also  the  first  Grand  Chief  of  the 
order  in  this  state.  Of  those  who  signed  the  charter  at  the  institution 
of  the  Temple  the  following  are  still  members:  Sallie  Wolf,  Delia 
Pettit,  Emma  Schumacher,  Mary  Alvord  Fitzgerald,  J.  J.  C.  Fitz- 
gerald and  J.  W.  Guthrie. 

California  Temple  has  the  honor  of  having  had  five  Sisters  elected 
to  the  highest  office  in  the  state,  that  of  Grand  Chief.  They  were  as 
follows:  Georgia  Guthrie,  Sallie  Wolf,  Wessie  Katzenstein,  Mary 
Alvord  Fitzgerald  and  Maude  Berry  Sheehan. 

I.   o.   R.   M. 

Cosimmes  Tribe  No.  14,  I.  0.  E.  M.,  was  organized  October  19, 

Eed  Jacket  Tribe  No.  28,  I.  0.  R.  M.,  was  organized  October  7, 
1869,  with  officers  as  follows:  S.  Pearl,  Sachem;  M.  T.  Brum,  S.  Sag.; 
P.  Gushing,  J.  Sag.;  W.  T.  Crowell,  C.  of  E.;  George  A.  Putnam, 
K.  of  W. 

Owosso  Tribe  No.  39,  L  0.  E.  M.,  was  organized  March  25,  1871, 
with  sixty-six  charter  members.  The  first  officers  were:  Matthew 
E.  Johnson,  Sachem;  Ed.  M.  Martin,  Sen.  Sag.;  A.  C.  Freeman,  Jun. 
Sag. ;  Will  J.  Beatty,  C.  of  E. ;  Daniel  E.  Alexander,  K.  of  W. ;  George 
Y.  Yount,  financial  secretary;  George  A.  White,  prophet. 

Eed  Cloud  Tribe  No.  41,  I.  0.  E.  M.,  was  instituted  November 
13  and  18,  1871,  with  over  seventy  names  on  the  charter  list.  The 
first  officers  were :  Thomas  Sullivan,  sachem ;  E.  A.  Eenwick,  Sen. 
Sag.;  W.  Harper,  Jun.  Sag.;  J.  J.  Carter,  C.  of  E. ;  William  Huller, 
K.  of  W.;  W.  A.  McNaughton,  F.  C. 

Wenonah  Council  No.  2,  Degree  of  Pocahontas,  I.  0.  E.  M.,  was 
organized  in  October,  1887,  with  forty-one  members. 

Juniata  Council  No.  5,  Daughters  of  Pocahontas,  I.  0.  E.  M.,  was 
organized  July  9,  1888,  with  twenty-nine  members. 

Sacramento  Stamm  No.  124  U.  0.  E.  M.,  was  organized  October 
18,  1888,  with  charter  members  and  officers  as  follows:  K.  F.  Wie- 
meyer,  0.  Ch.;  F.  Engehardt,  U.  Ch.;  C.  Schmidt,  B.  Ch.;  E.  Nobeh 


seci'etary;  J.  Suverkrupp,  treasurer;  George  W.  Derman,  W.  Kubnle, 
Charles  Sold,  George  Schmeiser,  Charles  Boettcher,  and  W.  Braun. 

A.  o.  u.  w. 

Union  Lodge  No.  21,  A.  O.  U.  W.,  was  organized  February  9,  1878, 
with  thirty-eight  charter  members,  and  the  first  officers  were:  M.  T. 
Brewer,  P.  M.  W. ;  C.  B.  Kellogg,  M.  W. ;  T.  W.  Sheehan,  F. ;  George 
T.  Bush,  0. ;  E.  J.  Gregory,  R. ;  Felix  Tracy,  receiver ;  John  F.  Farns- 
worth.  Fin. ;  Robert  Frazer,  guard.  The  lodge  is  a  large  and  pros 
perous  one. 

Sacramento  Lodge,  No.  80,  A.  0.  U.  W.,  was  instituted  February 
8,  1879,  with  a  large  list  of  charter  members.  The  first  officers  were : 
John  F.  Farnsworth,  P.  M.  W. ;  James  M.  Henderson,  M.  W. ;  Edward 
I.  Robinson,  0. ;  George  B.  Katzensteiu,  R. ;  M.  R.  Beard,  Fin. ; 
C.  H.  Stevens,  receiver ;  John  W.  Guthrie,  G. ;  W.  H.  H.  Willev,  I.  W. ; 
W.  I.  Wallace,  0.  W. 

Lily  of  the  Valley  Lodge  No.  11,  Degree  of  Honor,  A.  O.  U.  W., 
was  organized  in  1882,  with  thirty-three  charter  members. 

Walhalla  Grove  No.  6,  U.  A.  0.  D.,  was  organized  August  10, 
1866,  and  incorporated  June  13,  1874.  The  charter  members  and 
officers  were:  Anton  Menke,  N.  A.;  C.  H.  Krebs,  V.  A.;  Theodore 
Even,  secretary;  Jacob  Keeber,  treasurer;  C.  C.  Haydeu,  M.  Kestler 
and  J.  Acker. 

Union  Grove  No.  6,  U.  A.  0.  D.,  was  organized  in  1885.  Capi- 
tal City  Grove  No.  66,  U.  A.  0.  D.,  was  organized  April  14,  1887, 
with  thirty-six  members.  Fidelity  Grove  No.  31,  U.  A.  0.  D.,  organ- 
ized in  1878,  was  consolidated  with  Walhalla  Grove,  May  1,  1888. 
Sacramento  Druidic  Circle  No.  1,  was  a  society  for  women,  instituted 
April  7,  1872,  but  was  soon  permitted  to  dissolve. 

N.  s.  G.  w. 

The  Native  Sons  of  the  Golden  West  is  an  order  originated  by 
Gen.  A.  M.  Winn  in  San  Francisco  in  1875.  He  had  thought,  while 
acting  as  marshal  of  a  procession  July  4,  1869,  that  a  company  of 
young  Californians  would  make  an  interesting  part  of  the  procession. 
The  idea  was  in  harmony  with  the  times,  as  the  rapid  growth  of  the 
order  soon  proved.  It  soon  became  an  influential  fraternal  and  bene- 
ficial society.  The  designation  of  each  local  organization  is  "parlor," 
indicating  its  refined  and  social  character.  The  order  celebrates  an- 
nually the  anniversary  of  California's  admission  into  the  Union.  Its 
founder  was  the  first  mayor  of  Sacramento,  and  his  body  was  buried 
in  the  Pioneers'  plat  in  the  City  Cemetery,  where  a  monument  to  his 
memory  was  unveiled  on  Thanksgiving  Day,  1887. 

Sacramento  Parlor  No.  3,  N.  S.  G.  W.,  is  one  of  the  oldest  Parlors 


in  the  stcate,  having  been  organized  March  22,  1878,  with  the  following 
officers  and  charter  members:  Benjamin  O'Neil,  president;  John  C. 
Luce,  first  vice-president;  Edward  B.  Carson,  second  vice-president; 
James  P.  McGinnis,  third  vice-president;  Edward  R.  Knox,  R.  S. ; 
William  Rider,  F.  S. ;  Clarence  E.  Parker,  treasurer;  Da^dd  M.  Mad- 
dux, marshal;  Henry  Steinmiller,  Thomas  W.  O'Neil,  and  Martin 
Coffey,  executive  committee.  Other  charter  members  were:  H.  C. 
Chipman.  Joseph  Maddux,  George  Steinmiller,  Thomas  O'Brien,  Wil- 
liam O'Brien,  Joseph  J.  Maguire,  Fred  Kidder,  George  Adams  and 
John  Feeney. 

Sunset  Parlor  No.  26,  N.  S.  G.  W.,  was  instituted  January  21, 
1884,  with  forty  members.  Both  Sacramento  and  Sunset  Parlors 
are  now  large  and  prosperous.  Calafia  Parlor  No.  22,  N.  D.  G.  W., 
was  organized  in  November,  1887,  with  one  hundred  nine  members 
and  now  has  a  large  membership.  La  Bandera  Parlor  No.  112  and 
Sutter  Parlor  No.  117  were  instituted  in  1900. 


California  Lodge  No.  1580,  K.  of  H.,  was  organized  April  22, 
1879,  by  Harmon  Gregg,  with  forty  charter  members,  the  following 
being  the  first  officers  elected :  Grove  L.  Johnson,  P.  D. ;  Edward  F. 
Aiken,  D. ;  Norman  S.  Nichols,  V.  D. ;  John  N.  Larkin,  A.  D. ;  Israel 
Luce,  C. 

Unity  Lodge  No.  2088,  K.  of  H.,  was  instituted  March  1,  1880, 
with  thirty-nine  charter  members. 

Harmony  Lodge  No.  .399,  K.  and  L.  of  H. ;  Equity  Lodge,  No. 
1219,  K.  and  L.  of  H.,  and  Olive  Branch  Lodge,  K.  and  L.  of  H., 
were  organized  later. 

Pioneer  Council  No.  54,  American  Legion  of  Honor,  the  first  coun- 
cil in  the  state,  was  instituted  December  18,  1879,  with  thirty-eight 
charter  members.  J.  M.  Henderson  was  the  first  commander  and  Mrs. 
N.  S.  Bntterfield,  vice-commander. 

Court  Capital  No.  6742,  A.  0.  F.,  was  organized  January  17,  1881, 
with  forty-three  charter  members,  Henry  Longton,  C.  V.  Court  Sac- 
ramento No.  6861,  A.  0.  F.,  was  organized  Jime  30,  1882.  Court 
Sutter  No.  7246.  A.  0.  F.,  was  instituted  later.  The  Foresters  of  Sac- 
ramento were  the  first  in  the  state  to  erect  a  building  of  their  own. 
It  is  located  on  I  street  between  Seventh  and  Eighth. 

Friendship  Council  No.  65,  0.  C.  F.,  was  organized  February  21, 
1882,  with  twenty-five  members.  Sacramento  Council  No.  96,  0.  C.  F.. 
was  organized  September  4,  1884,  with  about  fifty  charter  members. 

Division  No.  1,  Ancient  Order  of  Hibernians,  was  organized  Jan- 
nary  31,  1870,  P.  A.  Murphy,  priest.  It  was  re-organized  later.  Di- 
vision No.  2,  Ancient  Order  of  Hibernians,  was  organized  in  the  '80s, 
but  soon  discontinued. 

The  Young  Men's  Institute,  Branch  No.  11,  one  of  the  first  to 


organize  in  the  state,  was  started  August  8,  1885,  at  old  St.  Rose's 
ball,  where  the  present  postoffice  building  stands.  There  were  fifty 
charter  members,  which  soon  increased  to  one  hundred.  D.  J.  Long 
was  president,  R.  E.  Murray  first  vice-president,  Joseph  McGuire 
second  vice-president,  T.  T.  Wiseman  recording  secretary,  Benjamin 
Neary  financial  secretary  and  James  O'Reilly  treasurer.  Branch  No. 
27,  Young  Men's  Institute,  was  organized  in  their  hall  May  7,  1886, 
with  thirty-one  charter  members  and  T.  W.  O'Neil  president.  Young 
Ladies'  Institute  No.  17  has  a  large  membership. 

Etham  Lodge  No.  37,  I.  0.  B.  B.,  was  organized  June  23,  1859, 
by  Grand  Lodge  Deputy  Jacob  VogelsdorfT,  with  Joseph  Davis  presi- 

The  first  organization  of  the  Hebrew  Benevolent  Association  was 
in  December  of  1851  and  the  society  was  incorporated  in  February, 

Governor  Leland  Stanford  Camp  No.  11,  Sons  of  Veterans,  was 
organized  July  11,  1887,  with  eighteen  members.  Among  the  first 
officers  were  P.  H.  Dodge,  captain,  William  Kellogg  first  lieutenant 
and  William  H.  Larkin  second  lieutenant. 

The  Veterans  of  the  Mexican  war  were  organized  at  the  Orleans 
house  June  5,  1876.  The  first  officers  elected  were  as  follows:  John 
Domingos,  president;  Fred  Chamberlain,  vice-president;  Peter  Mc- 
Graw,  treasurer ;  and  Joseph  Sims,  secretary.  Joseph  Sims  is  the  only 
one  of  the  charter  members  now  living,  so  far  as  the  writer  knows. 

The  Sacramento  Turnverein  was  organized  June  2,  1854,  with 
Theodore  Steudeman,  president;  George  Meyer,  vice-president;  J. 
W.  Lehmann,  secretary;  Phil  Kitz,  treasurer;  H.  Lux,  first  turn 
leader ;  J.  Knauth,  second  turn  leader ;  R.  Nobel,  steward,  and  twenty- 
three  other  members.  In  1859  the  society  erected  a  brick  building  on 
K  street  between  Ninth  and  Tenth,  costing  $14,000  and  known  as 
Turner  Hall. 

Benbow  Lodge  No.  229,  Sons  of  St.  George,  organized  in  March, 
1887,  was  designed  to  take  the  place  of  the  British  Mutual  Benefit 
and  Social  Society,  which  had  been  organized  in  1877,  but  had  gone 
out  of  existence.  The  society  admitted  to  membership  Englishmen, 
the  sons  and  grandsons  of  Englishmen.  It  was  discontinued,  as  was 
Victoria  Lodge  No.  1,  Daughters  of  St.  George.  They  have  been  re- 
]ilaced  by  Victoria  Lodge,  which  is  prosperous. 

The  Robert  Burns  Scottish  Benevolent  Association  was  organized 
in  November,  1871,  to  relieve  natives  of  Scotland  who  might  be  in 
need.  It  was  succeeded  by  the  Caledonian  Society  of  Sacramento, 
incorporated  in  November,  1888,  and  which  admits  as  members  Scotch- 
men, sons  and  grandsons  of  Scotchmen. 

The  Independent  Order  of  Good  Templars  found  its  way  to  Cali- 
fornia in  1855,  a  lodge  being  organized  in  Santa  Cruz  on  the  22nd 
of  February  of  that  year.    Sylvan  Lodge  No.  2  was  instituted  in  Sac- 


ramento  September  16,  1856,  and  in  1860  a  convention  was  called  here 
for  the  purpose  of  forming  a  Grand  Lodge.  It  was  instituted  May 
29,  of  that  year.  The  order  grew  rapidly  throughout  the  state  and 
for  many  years  the  headquarters  of  the  Grand  Lodge  was  in  Sacra- 
mento. The  Rescue,  the  official  paper  of  the  order,  was  published 
here.  Sylvan  Lodge  is  now  the  oldest  lodge  on  the  coast.  Capitol 
Lodge  No.  51,  I.  0.  G.  T.,  was  organized  December  12,  1861,  became 
extinct  in  1876,  but  April  2,  1879,  an  entire  new  organization  with 
a  new  charter  was  formed,  which  assumed  the  same  name  and  number. 
The  I.  0.  G.  T.  Bands  of  Hope  (juvenile  organizations)  were  formed 
in  this  city  and  known  as  Sacramento  No.  56,  Capitol  No.  91  and 
California  No.  163.  Several  divisions  of  the  Sons  of  Temperance  and 
a  Father  Mathew  Total  Abstinence  Society  also  were  organized  here 
and  flourished  for  some  years,  but  were  finally  absorbed  by  other 
teniijerance  organizations. 

Sacramento  Grange  No.  12,  Patrons  of  Husbandry,  was  organized 
December  4,  1867,  with  the  following  officers  and  members :  W.  S. 
Manlove,  worthy  master;  I.  N.  Hoag,  w.  overseer;  E.  F.  Aiken, 
w.  lecturer;  J.  Holland,  steward;  G.  F.  Rich,  a.  steward;  R.  William- 
son, chaplain;  A.  S.  Greenlaw,  treasurer;  William  Haynie,  secretary; 
R.  S.  Lockett,  g.  k.;  Mrs.  W.  S.  Manlove,  Ceres;  Mrs.  I.  N.  Hoag, 
Pomona;  Mrs.  E.  F.  Aiken,  Flora;  Mrs.  J.  Holland